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Singular and Plurala
Nominative case,

Possessive case,

Objective case,

Whoin. Who, which and what, when used in asking questions, are called in terrogatives; as, Who was he? Which is the man? What are you doing?

ADJECTIVE PRONOUNS. Adjective pronouns are of a mixed nature, having the properties both of pronouns and adjectives, and are subdivided into four sorts, viz. The possessive, the distributive, the desnonstrative, and the indefinite.

The possessive adjective pronouns are, my, thy, his, her, our, your, their.

They are called possessive, because they signify property or possession.

The distributive adjective pronouns are, each, every, either.

They are called disiributive, because they denote the persons or things that make up a number, taken separately, and singly; as, Each of them is rich; every one is not happy; I have not seen either of them.

The demonstrative adjcctive pronouns, this, that, and their plurals these and those, point out the subjects to which they relate; as, This boy is studious; that man is industrious.

This refers to the nearest person or thing, that refers to the more distant; as, this man knows more than that.

This means the latter, or last mentioned ; that, the former, or first mentioned ; as, Wealth and poverty are both temptations; this tends to excite pride, that, discontent.

The indefinite adjective pronouns are, some, one, any, all, other, such, &c.

They are called indefinite, because they express their subjects in a general and unlimited manner. One and other are thus declined.


Nominative case,

Possessive case,

One's. ones'.
Objective case,

One. Own is added to possessive pronouns, both in the singular and plus ral number; as, singular, My own, his own; plural, our own, your own.

VERBS. 5. A verb is a word that signifies being, doing, or suffering, or the receiving of an action. There are three kinds of verbs, the active, passive, and neuter. Morbs are divided into regular, irregular, and defective.



An active verb expresses an action, and implies an agent, and an object acted upon; as, James loves William ; I esteem good boys.

A passive verb expresses a passion or suffering, or the receiving of an action, and implies an agent, and an object acted upon; as, William is loved by James; good boys are esteemed by me.

A neuter verb expresses neither action nor passion, but simply the being, state, or condition of things; as, I am; he is; we sleep; they sit.

Active verbs are either transitive or intransitive.

Active verbs are called transitive, when the action of the agent passes to the object; as, Cæsar conquered Pompey; Leonidas governed Sparta.

Active verbs are called intransitive, when the action of the agent does not pass to an object, bút is confined to the agent itself; as, John walks"; Edwin runs.

Auxiliary verbs are used to assist in the conjugation of other verbs. They are, do, be, have, shall, will, may, and can, with their varia. aticns; and let* and must, which have no variation.

A regular verb is that which forms its imperfect tense and perfect
participle by the addition of ed, or d, when the verb ends in e; as,

Perf. part.
Correct, corrected,

Rejoice, rejoiced,

rejoiced. An irregular verb is that which does not form its imperfect tenge and perfect participle by adding d or ed; as, Present. Imperfect.

Perf. part.

Forsake, forsook,

forsaken. A defective verb is that which is used only in some of its moods and tenses; as, Present. Imperfect.

Perf. or pas. part.


To verbs belong numbert, person, mood, and tense.

Verbs have two numbers, the singular and the plural; as,
Singular. I command.

He writes.

We command. They write,
In each numbep there are three persons ; as,

I walk.

We walk.
Second person.

Thou walkest. You walk.
Third person.
He walks.

They walk. auxiliary, bas do variation ; but when used as a principal verb, it is varied: As, lesbo lettest, letteth.

See person under the definition of a noun.

First person.

* Let, as an


Mood signifies the various ways in which the signification of a verb may be expressed.

Verbs have five moods : viz. the indicative, imperative, potential, subjunctive, and infinitive.

T'he indicative mood, either declares, affirms, denies positively, or asks a question ; as, I hear; he does not read; does he teach?

The imperative mood commands, exhorts, intreats, or permits; as, Depart thou ; let us stay; go


peace. T'he potential* mood implies possibility, will or obligation, and is known by the auxiliaries may, can, must, might, could, would, should, &c: as, it may rain; we might go; he can write; they should learn.

The subjunctive mood is used to express doubt, or uncertainty, condition, motive, wish, or supposition, and follows a conjunction expressed or understood; as, were we good, we should be happy; though be slay me, yet will I trust in him.

The infinitivet mood expresses a thing in a general sense. It has neither number nor person, and is known by the sign to; as, to write ; to read; to command.

A participle is so named, because it partakes of the nature of a verb and an adjective.

There are three participles : viz. the present or active, the perfect or passive, and the compound perfect; as, present participle, calling : perfect participle, called ; compound perfect participle, having called.

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Tense is the distinction of time.

The natural divisions of time are the present, past, and future; but to mark it more accurately, it is made to consist

of six variations : viz. the present, the imperfect, the perfect, the pluperfect, the first and second future.

The present tense represents an action or event as now passing; as, I speak; I am speaking.

The imperfect tense represents an action or event as indefinitely past or finished; as, I wrote; I was writing.

The perfect tenst not only represents an action or event as past and finished, but also has reference to the present time; as, I have finished my

letter. The pluperfect tense not only represents an action or event as past and finished, but also as prior to some other action or event which is also past; as, I had seen John before the stage arrived.

The first future tense represents an action or event as yet to come,

* The potential mood, like the indicative, is often used in asking questions ; as, can he read! would he go?

| The infinuve is the radical form of the verb, from which all the others are derind; as, from the verb to dwell, comes, I dwell, be dwells, we dwell, &c.

either with or without respect to any particular time; as, I shall see them again; the sun will rise to-morrow.

The second future tense represents an action or event as yet to come, so as to be accomplished or finished at or before the occurence of some other future action or event; as, I shall have written before the post arrives; we shall have dined at twelve o'clock.

The conjugation of a verb is the regular arrangement and combi pation of its several numbers, persons, moods, and tenses.

There are two voices, the active and passive.

The conjugation of an active verb is called the active voice; and that of a passive verb, the passive voice.


To have.


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Present Tense.

1. pers. I have,

1. We bave, 2 pers. Thou bast,

2. Ye or you have, 3. pers. He bath, or bas.

3. They have.

Imperfect Tense.

1. I bad.

1. We bad, 2. Thou badat,

2. Ye or you had, 2. He had.

3. They had.

Perfect Tense.

1. I have had,

1. We have had, 2. T'hou bast bad,

2. Ye or you have bad, 3. He bath, or bas bad.

3. They have bad.

Pluperfect Tense.

Plur. 1. I had had,

1. We had had, 2. Thou hadst. had,

2. Ye or you had bad, S. He bad bad,

3. They bad had.

First Future Tense.

Plur. 1. I shall or will have,

1. We sball or will have, 2. Thou shalt or wilt hate,

2. Ye or you shall or will bare, 3. He sball or will bave.

3. They shall or will have. Second Future Tense.

Plur. 1. 1 shall or will have had,

1. We sball or will have bad, 2. Thou shalt or wilt bave had,

2. Ye or you shall or will bave bad, 3. He shall or will have bad.

3. They sball or will lare kad.



Plus. 1. Let me have,

1. Let us bave, 2 Have thou, or do tiquu bare,

2. Have ye or you, or do yo or you have, Let him bare

3. Let them here.


Present Tense.

Plur. 1. I may or can have,

1. We may or can have, 2. Thou mayst or canst bare,

2. Ye or you may or cun bare, 3. He may or can have,

3. They may or can have,

Imperfect Tensé. Sing.

Plur. 1. I might, could, would, or sbould have, 1. We might, could, would, or should hare, 2. Thou mightst,coulilat, wouldst, or sbouldst have, 2. Ye or you might, could, would, or should love, 3. He might, could, would, or sbould bave. 3. They might, could, would, or should have

Perfect Tense. Sing.

Plur. 1 I may or can have had,

1. We may or can bave had, 2. Thou mayst or canst have bad,

2. Ye or you may or can bave had, 3. He may or can have bad.

3. They may or cao bave bad.

Pluperfect Tense. Sing.

Plar. 1. I migbt, could, would, or should have had, 1. We might, could, would, or should have bad, 2 Thou mightst, couldet, wouldst, or shouldst 2. Ye or you might, could, would, or should have had,

have bad, 3. He migbt, could, would, or should have had. 3. They might, could, would, or should have bada

Present Tense.

Plur. 1. If I have,

1. If we bave, 2. If thou have,

2. If ye or you have, 3. If he have.

3. If they have.*

INFINITIVE MOOD. Prosent Tense, To bare.

Perfect Tense, To have bad.



Cornpound Perfect,

Having had. The neuter verb to be, often used as an auxiliary, is conjugated in the following manner.


To be.

Present Tense.

Plur. 1. I am,

1. We are 2. Thou art,

2. Ye or you are, 3. He is

3. They are, Imperfect Tense.

Plar. 1. I was,

1. We were, 2. Thou wait

2. Ye or you were 3. Be was

3. They were.


* The remaining tenses of the rubjunctive mood, are in general, similar to the correspondent tanker of the iodicative mood; with me ad lition to the verb, of a conjunction, expressed or implied, depoling a condition, motive, wish supposito, &c. Il wil he proper to direct the learper dore put all the tants of this mood, wila a conjunction preinad to each of them.

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