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ty for another, by buying or selling, with a view to gain. Though private emolument is its origin, it is the bond of society, and by it one country participates in the productions of all others.
13. Cosmography:--Cosmography is a description of the world, or the universe, including the earth and infinite space. It divides itself into two parts, Geography and Astronomy,
14. Criticism. Criticism is an art which teaches us to write with propriety and taste ; but greatly abused by writers in anonymous reviews, who make a trade of it, and sell their opinions.
15. Dew.- Dew is produced from extremely subtile particles of water Aoating in the air, and condensed by the coolness of the night. 16. Electricity.--Electricity is a power
in nature which is made to shew itself by friction. If a stick of sealing-wax, or a piece of glass be rubbed upon the coat, or upon a piece of flannel, it will instantly attract pieces of paper, and other light substances. The power which occasions this attraction is called electricity.
Io larger experinents, this power appears in liquid fire, and is of the same nature as lightning. In e particular kind of new experiments, it has lately acquired the name of Galvanism.---Sec Blair's Grammar of Natural and Experimental Philosophy.
17. Earthquakes. An earthquake is a sudden motion of the earth, supposed to be caused by electricity; but the difference in the mode by which earthquakes and lightning are effected, has not yet been clearly ascertained. Others ascribe it to steam generated in the caverns of the earth.
18. Ethics.-Ethics, or Morals, teach the science of proper conduct according to the respective situations of men.
19. Geography. Geography is that science which makes us acquainted with the constituent parts of the globe, and its distribution into land and water. It also teaches us the limits and boundaries of countries; and their peculiarities, natural and political. It is the eye and the key of history.
20. Geometry. This sublime science teaches the relations of magnitude, and the properties of surfaces. In an extended sense, it is the science of demonstration. It includes the greater part of mathematics, and is generally preferred to logic in teaching the art of reasoning.
21. Hail.-Hail is formed from rain congealed in its descent by the coolness of the atmosphere.
22. History.--History is a narration of past facts and events, relative to all ages and nations. It is the guide of the statesman, and the favourite study of the enlightened scholar. It is, or ought to be, the common school of mankind, equally open and useful to princes and subjects.
23. Rainbow.The rainbow is produced by the refraction and'reflection of the sun's beams from falling drops of rain. An artificial
rainbow may be produced by means of a garden engine, the water s from which must be thrown in a direction contrary to that of the sun.
24. Logic.---Logic is the art of employing reason efficaciously in inquiries after truth, and in communicating the result to others.
25. Mechanics.-Mechanics teach the nature and laws of motion, the action and force of moving bodies, and the construction and effects of machines and engines.
26. Medicine. The art of medicine consists in the knowledge of the disorders to which the human body is subject, and in applying proper remedies to remove or relieve them.
27. Metaphysics.-Metaphysics may be considered as the science of the mind. From the nature of the subjects about which it is employed, it cannot lead to absolute certainty.
28. Mists.--Mists are a collection of vapours, commonly rising from fenny places or rivers, and becoming more visible as the light of the day decreases. When a mist ascends high in the air, it is called a cloud.,
29. Music.-Music is the practice of harmony, arising from a combination of melodious sounds in songs, concerts, &c.
30. Natural History.-Natural history includes a description of the forms and instincts of animals, the growth and properties of vegetables and minerals, and whatever else is connected with nature.
31. Optics.-- The science of Optics treats of vision, whether pera formed by the eye, or assisted by instruments. It teaches the construction and use of telescopes, microscopes, &c.
32. Painting.–Painting is one of the fine arts; and by a known ledge of the principles of drawing and the effects of colours, it teaches to represent all sorts of objects. A good painter must possess an original genius.
33. Pharmacy.-Pharmacy is the science of the apothecary. It teaches the choice, preparation, and mixture of medicines.
34. Philosophy.-Phibosophy is the study of nature, of mind, and of morals, on the principles of reason
35. Physics.--Physics treat of nature, and explain the phenomena of the material world.
36. Poetry.---Poetry is a speaking picture; representing real or ficti tious events by a succession of mental imagery, generally delivered in measured numbers. It at once refines the heart, and elevates the soul. 37. Rain.
Rain is produced from clouds, condensed, for run together by the cold; which, by their own weight, fall in drop of water. When they fall with violence, they are supposed to be spelled by the attraction of electricity.
38. Religion.--Religion is the worship offered to the Supreme Ben ing, in the manner that we conceive to be the most agreeable to his will, in order to procure his blessing in this life, and happiness in a future state.
39. Sculpture.-Sculpture is the art of carving or hewing stone and other hard substances into images.
40. Snow.-Snow is congealed water or clouds; the particles of which freezing, and touching each other, descend in beautiful flakes.
41. Surgery.-Surgery is that branch of the healing art which consists in manual operations by the help of proper instruments, or in cutting wounds by suitable applications.
42. Thunder and Lightning.-These awful phenomena are occasioned by the power called electricity. Lightning consists of a stream of the electrical fire, or fluid, passing between the clouds and the earth; and the thunder is nothing more than the explosion, with its echoes.
Thunder and lightning bear the same relation to each other as the fash and the report of a canoa; 2nd by the space of time which occurs between them in both cases, their distance from a particular spot may be known, reckoning 1142 feet for every mornent.
43. Tides.-The tides are the alternate flux and reflux of the sea, which generally takes place every six hours. The tides are occasioned by the united attraction exercised by the moon and sun upon the waters.
44. Versification.-Versification is the arranging of words and syllables in such equal order, as to produce that harmony which distinguishes poetry from prose. Verse may be either blank or in rhyme. In blank verse, the last words of the line do not correspond in sound as they do in rhyme.
N. B. For further particulars on all these and many other subjects, the tutor should put into the hands of his pupils, Blair's Universal Preceptor, or General Gravimàr of Arts, Sciences, and Knowledge; or Watkins's Portable Encyclopedia; and Blair's Grammar of Natural and Experimental Philosophy.
ABBREVIATIONS USED IN WRITING AND PRINTING. 4. A. S. Fellow of the American HON. Honourable.
PMG, Professor of Music in Academy of Arts and Sciences. J.H. S. Jesus the Saviour of inen. Greshain College. 4. B. or B. A. Bachelor of Arts. J. D. Doctor of law,
P. $. Pustscript.
REG. PROP. King's professor 4. D. in the year of our Lord. LIEUT. Lieutenant.
RT. HON. Right bonourable. 4. M. or M. A. Master of Arts. L. S. Place of the seal,
IST. Saint. 4. M. In the year of the world. L. L. D, Doctor of the common s. T. P. Professor of Divinity 1. M. Before noon.
a: d Civil law.
XT. Christ. P. M. Afternoon.
M. D. Dortor in physic. XTN. Christian, B. D. Bachelor of Divinity. MR. Master, or Mister. ULT. The last. D. D. Doctor of Divinity. MRS. Mistress.
IB. or IBID. The same place. BP. Bishop M. S. Sacred to the memory.
Id. The same. BART.Eronet.
M. P. Member of Parliament. E. G. or 1'. G. as for example. COL. Colonel M. S. Manuscript.
1. E. That is. C. S. Keeper of the Seal. MSS. Mapuscripts.
Q. D. As if he should say. C. P. S. Keeper of the privy sea! N. B. Mark well.
Q. L. As much as you please. ESQ. Esquire. NO. Number.
IQ. S. A sufficient quantity. F.L.S. Fellow of the Linnæn N. s. New Style
U.S.A.United States of America. society. 0. S. Old Style.
V. for VIDE, See. F. A. $. Fellow of the Anti-Oxon. Oxford.
viz. for VIDELICET, The quarian society.
PHILOM. A lover of matbeRR. S. Fellow of the Royal| matics.
&, end. society.
PER CENT. By the boodreJ. &c, e' ceteraand forth. 6. A. George the King.
is to say.
For the details of grammar I must refer the learner to the Juvenile Expositor, or to any other modern grammar which is not too long and complex. It has heen the author's endeavour in this Epitome, to retain all the essential or indispensivle parts of English Grammar, and to re ject all superfluous inatter. The general division of letters is into vowels and consonants. The vowels are, a, e, i, o, u, and sometimes w and y. All the other letters, and sometimes w and y, are called consonants. A diphthong is two vowels forming but one syllable: as, ou in sound.
A triphthong is three vowels forming but one syllable: as, eau in beau.
A proper diphthong has both the vowels sounded: is oi in voice, ou in ounce.
An improper diphthong has but one of the vowels sounded: as ea in eagle, oa in boat. : A syllable is so much of a word as can be pronounced at once: as, a, an, ant, bit ter, but ter fly.
Words are sounds, used as signs of our thoughts.'
A word of one syllable is called a monosyllable; a word of two syl lables, a dissyllable; a word of three syllables, a trisyllable; and a word of four or more syllables, a polysyllable.
Words of two or more syllables, have an accent on one of the syllables,
Accent signifies that stress of the voice, which is laid on one syllable, to distinguish it from the rest. Thus, in áp ple, the accent is on the first syllable; anal in a rise, it is on the second syllable. The mark placed above the syllable, and which denotes the accent, is also called the accent.
Words are divided into primitive and derivative.
A primitive word is that which cannot he reduced to any simpler word in the same language; as, child, gold, king, mean.
A derivative word is that which takes its origin from another word called its primitive, root, or radical; as, from child comes childish; gold, golden ; king, kingly; mean, meanly. *
GENERAL RULES FOR SPELLING, RULE 1.-All monosyllables ending in 1, with a single vowel before it, have double ll at the close; as, mill, sell.
RULE 2.-All monosyllables ending in l, with a double vowel before it, have one I only at the close; as, mail, sail. A compound wurd is made up of two or more wordo; as, owi-flower, rose-bud, mulberry-tree, doo
RULE 3.-Monosyllables ending in l, when compounded, retain but one l each; as, fulfil, skilful.
RULE 4.-All words of more than one syllable, ending in l, have one I only at the close; as faithful, delightful. Except, befall, recall, unwell.
RULE 5.-All derivatives from words ending in 1, have one l only, as, equality from equal; fulness from full. Except they end in er or ly; as, mill, miller; full, fully.
ROLE 6.--All participles in ing from verbs ending in e, lose the e final; as, have, having; amuse, amusing. Except they come from verbs ending in double e, and then they retain both; as, see, secing; gree, agreeing.
RULE 7.-All adverbs in ly, and nouns in ment, retain the e final of their primitives ; as brave, bravery; refine, refinement. Except judgment and acknowledgment.
RULE 8.--All derivatives from words ending in er, retain the e before the r; as, refer, reference. Except hindrance from hinder; remembrance from remember; disastrous from disaster ; monstrous from monster.
RULE 1.–All compound words, if both end 'not in l, retain their primitive parts entire; as, millstone, changeable, graceless. Except always, also, and deplorable.
RULE 10.-All monosyllables ending in a consonant, with a singlo vowel before it, double that consonant in derivatives; as, sin, sinner; ship, shipping
RULE 11. All monosyllables ending in a consonant, with a double vowel before it, double not the consonant in derivatives; as, sleep, sleepy; troop, trooper.
RULE 12.--All words of more than one syllable ending in a consonant, and accented on the last syllable, double that consonant in derivatives ; as, commit, committee; compel, compelled.
ETYMOLOGY. The words of the English language are reducible to nine kinds, call ed the nine parts of speech.
1. The words a, or an and the, used before nouns to modify their sense, are called articles.
2. Ail names of things are called nouns.
4. All words which are used instead of nouns or for nouns are called pronouns.
5. All actions are expressed by verbs. 6. All words which modify actions or qualities are called adverbs.
7. All words which are used to join words or sentences, or parts of Rentences, are called conjunotions,