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In the facsimile tracing of one page of the MS. vI have given the older writing only as it would have appeared before the vellum was devoted to its later use. The different form of the letters in the text and the Catena will at once be seen. The repreparation of the vellum to fit it for palimpsest use has, in the case of this, as well as some other MSS., somewhat distorted and twisted the lines, so that their original regularity is lost. Whenever the book is opened and unfolded, so as to restore it to the order of the ancient writing, leaf by leaf may be flattened and pressed so as to remove some of the present distortion of the lines; such for instance as that shown in lines 18 and 19 of the Catena in the facsimile, which are brought together from the refolding in the present binding. The existence of such distortion must be borne in mind in all the attempts made to read palimpsest MSS.; for otherwise the partially seen letters may be mistaken for others differing from them in size.

The passage from CYRIL in the Catena in the facsimile, will be found in Mai Nova Patrum Bibliotheca, tom. ii. p. 235, line 2 from bottom, to p. 236, line 28; there are these differences of reading: in line 4 (of the facsimile), MAI reads, ‘тоге ё'дл тратта; line 6, pspapfúprìrat; line 17, Мы omits 'rñe after ëvrì; line 21, MAI reads xa'rà (Эта, and omits втефци; line 28, MAI тал-а ¿fava-ía; ib. ‘где fyîlç; line 29, MAI omits aů'roùç, and presently after reads той vioíì.


Some into whose hands this volume may come, will possibly ask for a definition of what is meant by a Palímpsest MS. Those who are familiar with such terms will excuse what may seem superfluous to them in such a point being stated. : п

In ancient times, when writing materials were scarce, it was not unfrequent to use th same substance, whether tablet or piece of vellum, more than once: and if the former writL ing were erased or washed out, it would be almost as suitable for such purposes as it had been at first. Montfaucon says (Palaeographia. Graeca, 19, 20), “ Usi sunt praeterea Veteres charta deletili, sive pugillaribus, ubi priùs Scripta abradere ae detergere, novaque 5111)— stituere poterant. Hoc vero pugillarium genus Palímpsestum vocat Cicero ad Trebatium [Ерр. а‹1 Famil. vii. 18]; Nam quod in Palimpsesto, inqnit, laudo equidem parsímoníam; sed mirar quod in Ша chartula [пер-й, quod delere машет, nísi forte formulae таз: поп anim puto te meas ершом‘: delere ut reponas шаг.‘ Plutarchus item walípxlmo'fov simpliciter, alibique ‚ЗцЗМои мидии—гон appellat, a glráw, rado, abstergo, delen. Alii Palinxestum, vel Palinxystum vocant a Één» vel für» ejusdem signiíieationis verbo. Hujusmodi vero pugillares ex membrana adornabantur, et spongiis, si quid prius scriptum erat, ita delebatur, ut ne vestigium. quidem pristinae scriptionis remaneret. Palimpsesta item in Tabulis ceratis fiebant, {п quibus, ait Quintilianus, [ас-{Идти est ratio delendí.”

“Шеи Egyptian Papyrus was less in use in the manufacture of books, it is probable that the employment of palimpsest vellum became more habitual. This was often the case, not from disregard for the books which were destroyed when their material was employed for some new purpose, but because of the older volume having been worn out, or having in part become illegible. They were able to re-use their more expensive material in a way in which we cannot employ our old books. But it appears that a habit sprun'g up of destroying

Testament during the first four Centuries,” “ An Introduction to the Study of the Gospels,” etc); in the preparation of an edition of the Greek New Testament, with a revised Text.

"‘ The note of Manutius is “ Palimpsestus membrana fuit'iterum abrasa ut aliquid rursus in ea scriberetur.” ' xxii PREFACE.

books in order to use the vellum on which they were written for some new purpose which would have a тоге ready sale. Thus the Quini-Sext Council, Ад). 692, prohibits (Canon lxviii.) the destruction or cutting up of the books of the Old or New Testament, or of approved Ecclesiastical writers, for various purposes, especially for delivering them to those who are called Ватина-‚1177101; unless, indeed, they had been rendered useless by moths, wet, etc. Probably we possess no palimpsest, the later writing of which belongs to so early a period as this.

It has been long known that in various libraries MSS. of' the middle ages exist, which have beneath the plain and legible writing, traces of more ancient works. Thus, the Codex Ephraemi, at Paris, was long ago noticed as being written over large portions of the New Testament, and some of the Old; and about a century and a half since, many of­ its readings were deciphered by ÑVETSTEIN. In 1762, KNITTEL read and edited from a Palimpsest in the \Volt`enbüttel Library, portions of two MSS. of the Gospels (Р and Q), and parts of the Gothic version of the Epistle to the Romans. At the end ofthe last century, Dr. BARRETT read much of St. Matthew's Gospel in the Dublin Palimpsest Z), which he afterwards edited.

But it was reserved to the present age to examine Palimpsest MSS. with real care and attention, and indeed to search for earlier writing beneath that which proceeded from the hands of book-copyists of the middle ages. The written vellum stored in libraries has thus rendered to light its buried treasures, almost in the same manner as have the mounds of Nineveh or the plain of Babylon.

Forty years ago the palimpsest researches in the Ambrosian Library at Milan, carried out by the late Cardinal MAI, excited no small measure of attention and interest. lVorks long supposed to be lost were brought to light; and thus, from the Library already spoken of', and some others, there appeared, edited by MAI and others, such works as the Epistles of St. Paul in the Gothic version of Ulphilas, the Institutes of Gaius, and Cicero De Republica.

In the earlier researches of this kind, the chemical re-agents which were employed were such as to injure the vellum greatly: the object sought was to read in any way the older writing; and thus, to make the ancient ink again legible, inf'usion of galls was used, which made the whole of the MS. thoroughly unsightly. The mode adopted when F LECK obtained permission, at Paris, to apply chemical restoration to the Codex Ephraemi, was somewhat better: but it involved the separate immersion of each leaf` in a certain tincture: the older writing was brought to light of a definite blue colour; but the vellum also received stains of various hues in almost every part. Happily it is now known that it is not needful thus to disfigure these precious ancient MSS.: minute and long continued attention will often succeed in deeiphering Palimpsest MSS. without any chemical application: and where this is necessary, the vapour of the Hydro-sulphate of Ammonia suffices to combine with the Iron of the ancient Ink still remaining in the vellum; and thus the ancient letters are produced in а distinct green colour.

In examining palimpsests which have not been dealt with chemically at all, it often appears strange that the vellum should have been re-used, with letters of ancient writing so distinct in parts. rPhe f'act is that the vellum when re-prepared by Washing outl the ink, and then re-smoothing the surface, would show not a trace of the original black ink.” But

* It is generally found that those parts of re-used MSS., which had been written in red, are enlirely efl'aecd, so that not a trace of the vermilion colour remains : this Conax ZAcYN'rHrUs is, however, an exception; perhaps from some peculiarity in the red ink employed, or possibly from the greater coarseness of the vellum.

in the course of ages, the iron in the ink shows itself in the red oxide which has lbeen formed; and this it is that makes the twofold writing visible.

Sometimes the same vellum has been used repeatedly, so that there are traces of three or four writings one over the other. ­ . ,t

Almost all palimpsests are fragmentary as regards the ancient writing. For when an old book was cut up to be re-used, much of the vellum might be unsuitable for a second preparation: such portions would of course be rejected and thus lost; while others might be employed in forming various new books: and those parts which remained together in a. newly formed volume would be put together without the least regard to the ancient order.`

At other times various parts of old books would be used in making one new one: thus vthe Wolfenbüttel Palimpsest, read by KNITTEL, contained in the older writing parts of two MSS. of the Greek Gospels, and part of the Gothic version of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans, besides other fragments. A Syriac MS. in the British Museum (belonging to the treasures procured in the Nitrian valleys), had beneath it a large portion of St. Luke's ­Gospel in Greek (R), and a piece of Euclid, besides the part of the Iliad, read, transcribed, and edited by Dr. CURETON.' A special reference to this edition of the Homeric part of that MS. may properly close these remarks on Palimpsest MS.; for the six pages lithographed in facsimile at the end of that volume, are the best representations of both writings in a palimpsest that I have ever seen. The black later writing, and the faintly visible ancient letters are both represented as the MS. now exhibits them: the part beneath the black Syriac writing will show how much care and attention are requisite in the attempt to read the original letters. ' ' . ' ` Í

In the facsimile of E, which I have given, I have not attempted to do more than to exhibit the original writing of the MS. as it was first written: yin doing this I have been obliged to show the present distortion of some of the lines; but a suiiicient notion may be formed of the original MS. It would have been far beyond any artistic powers of mine to have traced the later writing, as well as the ancient, so as to show how the MS. appears in its present state. But in fact, for this volume, occupied wholly with the ancient writing of E, this might have been an object of interest, but not of importance.1'

I should have been glad to have possessed any information relative to Prince COMUTO, so as to have known where he obtained this MS. The inquiries which I made on the subject «его fruitless: I now give the only notices which I have found of even his name.

In the very interesting Journal of the late ETIENNE DE GBELLETi (better known in xxiv PREFACE.

*' Fragments of the Iliad of Homer from a Syriac Palimpsest. Edited by WILLIAM CUBETON, M.A. [now D.D. and Canon of Westminster]. Printed by order of the Trustees of the British Museum, by Richard Taylor', мпсссы.

’f Photography has been successfully applied to reproduce specimens of some MSS. ; that of F (Codex Augiensis), as published by Mr. ScnrvENEB may be specified. How far this would do for a Palimpsest may be doubted. For in these MSS. the ancient letters have often lost all colour; and both the writing and the vellum are of various shades of brown and yellow. Often too the letters on the opposite side of the vellum show through more plainly than those which belong to the side itself. ч

I Memoirs of the Life and Gospel Labours of STEPHEN GBELLET, edited by Benjamin Seebohm [voL ii., p. 27; ed. 2. 1861], chap. xxxvi.

England and America as STEPHEN GRELLET), who was in the Island of Zante in September 1819, there is the following notice :

“ 14th. We had this morning a visit from Prince Coim'ro, with whom we had been before. He is a serious aged man. Не went with us to a Meeting held at the Protopapa's, which was largely attended by the Greeks and English. Many of the clergy, and military and civil отсев, were also present. There appeared to be an open door with them to receive what, in the love of Christ, we felt is our plwe to proclaim to them.”

In the life of WILLIAM ALLEN (who was with ETIENNE DE GRELLET at that time), this visit of Prince COMUTO is also mentioned under the same date, with a few particulars:

“Prince CoMUTo called, and was very kind and civil. He is an old man, and seems to have much influence ; he speaks French, but Italian is the most common language here, next to Greek. We attended the Bible Committee, and I was glad that we were there, as a question arose respecting the propriety of distributing the present edition of the Greek [1. е. Romaic] Testament. Prince CoIIUTo condemned it in the strongest terms, and opposed its circulation. We asked the Proto-papa, who was in the chair, if the sense was affected by the badness of the language, but it was generally admitted that it was not ; we then said, that although the language might not be classical, yet if the poor could understand it, they might still derive considerable benefit; and we stated with what eagerness it had been received in the different islands as we came along. This turned the scale, Prince CoMUTo gave way; and IsAAc LowNDEs, who is placed here by the London Missionary Society, presented the Committee with seventy copies which had been sent from Malta, and which are to be distributed in the towns and villages. When the Committee broke up, I told Prince Созшто that Выпив, at Scio, was engaged in making a translation of the Scripture lessons into good modern Greek; he exclaimed, it was one of the greatest things which could be done for Greece.”“l

I am indebted to THOMAS MACAULAY, Esq., of Leicester (third son of the late Rev. Aulay Macaulay), for a few particulars relative ’to General MACAULAY, his uncle: which I give in his own words, combining what he kindly communicated in different letters in answer to inquiries.

“General MACAULAY (whose Christian name was Colin) was a son (I believe the second) of the Bev. John Macaulay, who died [in 1789] Minister of Cardross, in Dumbartonshire, by his Wife Margaret Campbell, daughter of “ Campbell” of Inveressregan, Argyleshire. Не was brother to the Rev. Aulay Macaulay, the well known scholar and antiquary, and also of Zachary Macaulay, consequently Uncle to the Historian, Lord Macaulay. General Macaulay served for about thirty years in India, in the Company's army; he was present at Seringapatam, and' was one of Sir David Baird's companions in the wellknown two years’ imprisonment in Tippoo Saib's underground dungeon, where light was never allowed to penetrate. He was for many years on intimate terms with the late Duke of Wellington, and several letters addressed to him are to be found in Gurwood's and other published letters and dispatches of' the Duke's.

“ After his return from India in 1811, General Macaulay took very little part in public affairs. Не sat in Parliament one Session for the Borough of Saltash, but took no part in any debate. F or many years, and partly from his infirm state of health, very much of his time was passed abroad; and I know that he was at Zante about the year 1820, recollecting well his description of the vile abominations which he had witnessed there in the preparation of the dried fruit for the English market.

“General Macaulay was an extremely good scholar, of literary habits, with exquisite taste, and highly polished manners; and I have no doubt that he had a keen perception of the valuable nature of the document which he brought from Zante. Indeed the two things in which he took most interest were the success of the Foreign Bible Society and the Abolition of Slavery. То promote the one, he took advantage of his long residences on the Continent; and to assist the other, he accompanied the Duke of

* Life of WILLIAM ALLEN, with selections from his Correspondence. Three volumes, 1846.

‘ Vol. 2, p. 122.

In the above citations, the name of the Prince is in each case printed ConNUTo, which I have

corrected to Соипто, as given by the Prince himself in Greek, and by General MACAULAY in Italian.

Wellington to the Congress at Verona, where proposals were submitted for the entire Abolition of the Slave Trade.

“He died at Clifton, in the year 1836, and was buried in the Church-yard of the old Church there.“

In the “ Life of William Allen," already referred to, mention is often made of General MACAULAY, and that at first while William Allen was also at Verona at the time of the Congress. General MACAULAY appears (11. р. 275) to have reached Verona, October 18, 1822; his endeavours were earnest to use the Duke of Wellington’s influence that the Slave Trade should be declared to be Piracy by the united voice of the Congress. Two days afterwards Mr. Allen writes, “ General MACAULAY came in to say, that he was ordered to leave Verona to-morrow, having been sent for to the Police, and his permission to stay withdrawn. I advised him to lose no time in seeing the Duke of Wellington upon this extraordinary procedure.” The next day the entry respecting General MACAULAY is, “the Duke has settled his business with the Police.” As General MACAULAY was able to remain at Verona to urge the suppression of the Slave Trade, William Allen soon left: the Duke undertook to do what he could on behalf of this object, and also in relation to the sufferings of the Waldenses: on the former subject “ the Duke said that he had received instructions to urge the matter of Piracy, and should certainly do so” (р. 279); and of the latter, “ with regard to the Waldenses, he said that Canning had written to him on the subject, and it would come before Congress” (р. 282); and the writer also states that on “the subject of the persecution of the Waldenses, the Duke of Wellington informed me that he had received instructions from Canning, to remonstrate with the King of Sardinia” (р. 284).

These were the two objects which led General MACAULAY to remain at Verona, where he was encouraged by the countenance of the British Plenipotentiary there, and of the Foreign Secretary at home; both of whom considered the claims of humanity, and the rights of conscience, as understood by Protestant Christians, to be worthy of their support, even when Foreign Powers might be least disposed to admit either.

The CODEX ZACYNTHIUS is the only Uncial Palimpsest of the Greek Testament yet described of which the later writing is also Biblical. Perhaps a more full examination of Lectionaries, and other Greek Testament MSS., written from the twelfth to the fourteenth century, would bring to light portions of the Sacred Text in ancient writing, preserved for our use like this, in the Providence of God, by being buried.


PLYMOUTH, Christmas, 1860.

*‘ The following is all the inscription on his tombstone, on the north side of the old Church at Clifton :­-“ Sacred to the Memory of Цепь-белым COLIN MACAULAY, who departed this Life February 20th, 1836, aged 76 Years.”

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