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judges: they are men to be believed; not so, CHAP. our adversary. Again, a man may decline taking his oath, on the ground that he disapproves of making appeals to heaven in matters of mere pecuniary interest; that if he had less reverence for the gods, he would swear most readily, since by this he would obtain the object in view; and a villany with gain is better than one altogether unproductive. This reluctance to swear will thus appear to proceed from virtue, and not from any apprehension of being convicted of perjury: he will seem, not to fear the oath, but to disdain it through honest scorn; and his refusal will seem to illustrate the saying of Xenophanes, that, in a dispute between honest men and knaves, a reference to oaths is no better than a judicial combat between address and awkwardness. Of the third case, that in which a man is ready to make oath in his own cause, the propriety may be enforced by saying, that, however distrustful of his adversary, he is sure of himself, and sure that the judges may perfectly rely on his integrity; and then converting the proposition of Xenophanes, maintain that litigant parties can never be put more on a foot of equality, than when a man, fearless of the gods, is obliged to defer to the oath taken by a man of piety: and why should the latter feel reluctance to swear, since the judges, how respectable soever their characters, must themselves be sworn, before they can exercise their honourable functions? If it suits our purpose to defer to the adversary's oath, we may then allege, that nothing can bet

BOOK ter become persons of religion and virtue than


Arguments for and against


on oath.

to submit their interests to the gods; that we desire no other judges, nor ought our opponent to desire them, the whole matter being referred to his own religion and oath; that it would be absurd in him to decline this attestation, which even his judges must make, before they can pass sentence in his cause. Having shown what is to be said in these simple cases, it is plain how we must proceed when any two of them are coupled; as when a man is willing to make oath himself, but unwilling to defer to that of his adversary; or when he is willing to abide by his adversary's oath, but unwilling to take his own; or when he is alike willing to give and take, or absolutely refuses to do either; all these are merely combinations of the cases treated above, so that the arguments must be precisely the same, only expressed conjunctively.

When, upon the discovery of some error in our evidence, we wish to alter the affidavit before correcting made, we may repel the reproach of perjury, by maintaing that all perjury is injustice, and that all injustice is voluntary; but nothing can be more involuntary than the result of compulsion and deception: perjury, therefore, is in the mind and intention, not in the mere words that are uttered. But should our adversary wish to correct his former declaration, it is then that we must magnify the sanctity of oaths, to tamper with which is to dissolve all those ties which hold society together. From oaths, the laws them


selves derive their validity, and oaths are indis- CHAP. pensable in all who administer them; and "can it be endured while you, who are judges, must abide by your decisions, because of the oath which you have taken, that oaths, made in your presence, should be set at nought by the contending parties?" These and other amplifications will be here in their proper place: such are the general doctrines concerning inartificial proofs.82

82 Conf. Cicero de Partit. Orator. & Quintilian, Instit, I. v. cap. 4, 5, 6, 7.




Deliberative and Judicial Eloquence; on what their respective success depends.-The three requisites to Persuasion, independently of Argument. - Transition to the Doctrine of the Passions. - Anger; - Its Definition - Causes - Its natural Subjects and Objects.-Love and Hatred. -Fear.-Shame. - Pity. - Indignation.-Envy.Emulation.-Passions and Characters, as modified by Age - Birth Riches Power; and their contraries. The Sources of Argument respectively appropriate to the three kinds of Oratory. The Topics common to all the three kinds :- 1. The Topic derived from the nature of contraries; -2. From that of conjugate terms; — 3. From relatives;-4. A fortiori;-5. Parity of reason; -6. From consistency in will and conduct; -7. Ad hominem;-8. From definition; -9. From diversity of signification. 10. From division. 11. From accumulation of instances; - 12. From precedent; - 13. From resolution of the genus into its several species; 14. From consequences ; 15. From the consequents of contraries.-16. From variance in the opinions of men, expressed and secret ;-17. From analogy; — 18. From identifying things with their consequences;-19. From inconsistency with previous resolutions; - 20. From substituting a probable motive for the real cause; -21. From the general causes impelling all human action; -22. From improbability itself;— 23. From incongruity;

24. From explaining false appearances; - 25. From
the improbability of the cause to that of the effect;
26. From the contrast of designs ;- 27. From incon-
sistency with former actions; 28. From names.
Arguments less convincing than Replies; and why. —
The most impressive are those natural, but not obvious.
The eight kinds of sophisms. -Solutions and Objec-
tions; their nature and number.



pends on a

opinion of the speaker, and judicial elo

quence on


favourable disposition in

the hear


THE topics to be employed to impel or to CHA P. restrain, to praise or to blame, to accuse or to defend, have now been enumerated and explained: Deliberathe objects ever to be kept in view, are utility, tive elohonour, and justice; on approved notions of mainly dewhich, respectively, all propositions must turn, favourable calculated to persuade and prevail in the three kinds of oratory. But as every discourse is proposed to the judgment of the hearers, for, in matters of deliberation, the advice which we give is submitted to their consideration, and in judicial trials, we plead and argue with a view to obtain their favourable sentence; it is of mighty importance that we should exhibit ourselves to these hearers in an advantageous light, and appear to be actuated by great good-will towards them; and also that they, on their part, should be in a frame of mind and temper consonant to our views. The effect of political speeches, that is, of deliberative eloquence, depends mainly on the opinion conceived of the orator or statesman: in pleadings before courts of justice, on the other hand, the principal point is the favourable disposition of the judges; for their decisions will vary according

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