Obrazy na stronie

cleanly. The costume of the female peasantry for commercial purposes; they were also the may be also styled simple, but it is striking and first Europeans who made a settlement on the pleasing: their dresses and aprons are usually of coast of Senegal, as early as the fourteenth censcarlet or blue; when the dress is of the first, the tury. The lower classes, as in all other parts of apron is always of the last mentioned color. France, are very free in their manners towards Their head-dresses are very peculiar: in the Pays their superiors, and impatient of contradiction de Caux they are of great height; and those worn and control; but they are honest, faithful, and on Sundays and fête days, being composed of sober. In the towns the inhabitants have not expensive lace and decorated in front with sil- much peculiarity in their accent; but the peaver, are preserved with great care, and frequently santry have a singular drawl, and a singing tone transmitted down through two or three genera- of speech. The Normans have always been actions. Their ears are adorned with very long cused, and probably not without reason, of being gold ear-rings. The nicety of their linen is re-extremely litigious: it is very certain that, before markable; clean linen, indeed, is a luxury pretty the laws were revised and simplified, law-suits freely indulged in by all classes throughout were more frequent; but, since they have been France, and in large towns frequent use is made digested into the present admirable code, the neof the bath. The females of the middle and lower cessity for them has been almost removed, and a classes at Dieppe wear very high caps, the lap- French citizen cannot now be ruined either by pets of which conceal their hair; black, blue, or costs or vexatious delays. In the worst of times, scarlet corsets, and very full petticoats of the lat- however, a lawyer, comparatively speaking, was ter color; black stockings and white aprons. On a rare sight in France: this happy island appears fète-days their necks are usually adorned with to be the elysium of the legal tribe, and probably gold or silver crosses. But the most remarkable contains more of them than the whole continent costume is that of the inhabitants of the suburb of Europe. Polet, in Dieppe, who have preserved the cos- The Scandinavian tribes, on their first settletume of the sixteenth century. Over their trow- ment here, were idolaters. Shortly after this sers they wear short wide petticoats; their waist- event duke Rollo was persuaded to embrace coats are of woollen, confined in front with Christianity, and entered the bosom of the Roribands; a surtout, longer than the petticoat, mish church: since that period the Catholic recompletes their dress, the color of which is always ligion has principally prevailed in Normandy; red or blue, the seams being faced with white but the Protestants of the Calvinistic church are silk about an inch in width; they always wear very numerous, and highly and deservedly recaps of colored cloth or velvet.

spected. Many of them derive their descent The Normans are industrious, economical, and from noble and ancient houses, which were ruined temperate; lively, ingenious, courteous, and during the persecutions of Louis XIV.; for, in brave: they are also keen, far from credulous, some few instances, their members were not and of sound judgment. The nobility and gen- driven into exile. But France, which then, and try live well, and usually much within their in- by subsequent emigrations, lost, in consequence come; not being infected with the contemptible of the folly and bigotry of her sovereign, 500,000 ambition of vying with each other in splendor virtuous and valuable citizens, who were forced and expense, after the manner of the correspond- to take refuge in Holland, Germany, and Enging classes in England: fortunately for France, land, now sets the world a brilliant example of this happy disposition is not confined to Nor- liberality. Great exertions have, it is true, been mandy. But, notwithstanding their economical made since the re-establishment of the house of habits, the French have always been remarkable Bourbon, to restore the ancient order of things, for their hospitality. The merchants of Havre or, in other words, to cause the nation to retroand Rouën live somewhat more expensively; grade to the state of slavery under which it one of the usual, and perhiaps unavoidable, con- groaned during the reign of Louis XIV.; to exsequences of successful commerce. The lower tinguish the light and intelligence so universally classes are content with very plain fare, volun- diffused, and to replace them by darkness and tarily submitting to what would be deemed in ignorance. But the ages of priestcraft and this country, by people of their rank of life, se- tyranny are rapidly rolling by; and the endeavere privations: they seldom drink any thing

but vours that are making, and doubtless will yet be cider, and that of very indifferent quality. The made, to arrest their passage, are likely to prove peasantry live for the most part in villages; de- as futile as the efforts of the magician of former tached cottages are indeed rarely seen.

ages to arrest the passing storm. It is however The Normans in all ages have been devoted to but justice to the Catholic clergy lo state that literature, in which they have greatly excelled. some among them are far from viewing in a As defenders of their country, they bave also favorable light the injudicious measures adopted been preeminent; and to Normandy, especially in their behalf; they are fully impressed with a the town of Dieppe, the French marine is in- sense of the danger to which they are thus exdebted for its most valuable recruits. The fa- posed, and as fully convinced of the propriety mous admiral Abraham du Quesne, the success of their exclusion from all secular power and inful rival of de Ruyter, was a native of that town; Auence. Many of them are men of unquestionand the first expeditions to Florida were under- able learning, virtue, and integrity; and when it taken by its sailors, by whom also (as it has been is considered with what indefatigable zeal most contended, and with great appearance of truth) of them perform duties, infinitely more laborious Canada was first discovered: it is at least certain than those required from the clergy of the estabthat they established a colony in that country lished church of England, and that too for onetenth, and sometimes one-twentieth, part of the great, which was, perhaps, the principal cause stipend of the latter, it is impossible not to feel why he never derived any considerable advanconvinced that they must have entered on their tage from his productions. But he gained an office from conscientious motives. Indeed, what immortal name. He was the author of nine ever the Catholic church may once have been, it comedies and twenty-two tragedies; but his is certainly no longer available in France as a comic humor was inferior to his tragic powers. means of pensioning off on the public the idle He died in 1684, in his seventy-ninth year. His and dissolute youth of the higher and middle portrait is painted on the curtain of the theatre classes. Religion no longer forms part and par- of his native town, on which is also inscribed cel of the political machine in France; the law P. Corneille, natif de Rouen, and on the ceiling does not recognise any of the acts of the clergy, is painted his apotheosis. His bust adorns the nor will the judicial authorities receive in evi- entrance of the house in which he was born in dence any document signed by them: and if the Rue da la Pie; an inscription to his honor their acts happen to be of an illegal nature they has also been placed there, and a tablet erected are now tried with as little ceremony as their lay to his memory. The same tribute of respect has brethren. At the revolution the registers been paid to the memory of his nephew, author throughout France were taken ont of the hands of the Plurality of Worlds, who was born in the of the clergy, and transferred to the civil magis- Rue des bons Enfans. See CORNEILLE (Thomas) trate; they are now deposited at the municipali- The illustrious Fontenelle was also bom a ties; and the form in which they are drawn out Rouën, and the learned Samuel Bochart, author is admirable, and well worthy of imitation, of Sacred Geography, and of the Hierozoicoa ; especially in England, where they are said to be Basnage, who wrote the History of the Bible; kept much worse than in any other country. Sanadon, the translator of Horace; Pradon, Every French citizen is required, within three satirised by Boileau; du Moustier, author of the days of the event, to give notice of the birth of a Neustria Pia; and father Daniel, the famous hischild to the mayor of the district in which it has torian; Jouvenet, one of the most celebrated taken place; marriage must be contracted before painters of the French school, and others of great the same magistrate, the parties repairing to the reputation ; Deshays, Houel, Leger, Le Monnier, municipality, where the marriage is enregistered: Le Tellier, Restout, Saquespée, &c. It was beif a priest should presume to perform that cere- sides the birth place of Peter Bardin, Noël Ales. mony before the civil contract has been made, andre, Nicholas Le Tourneux, Nicholas Lemery, which is all that the law requires, he would be &c. &c. Caën has been hardly less fertile : punished by a long imprisonment and a heavy among its illustrious sons may be enumerated fine. Of the ceremonies of baptism, the sacra- Francis Malherbe, Tanneguile Le Fevre, James ment of marriage, or the interment, the law takes Dalechamps, a celebrated physician, author of no notice, wisely permitting the citizens who live the Historia Plantarum; the laborious lexicograunder its influence to have them performed in pher Constantin ; Stephen Le Moine; Jobn and the manner most agreeable to their consciences. Clement Marot, the poets; John Renaud de How far an equal degree of regard should be shown Segrais; the celebrated Peter Varignon; the to the feelings of dissenters in protestant England, famous Daniel Huët, bishop of Avranches; one of our poets would seem to decide:- father Fournier, &c. I. F. Sarrasin and G. A.

de la Roque came from its immediate neighbourTrue freedom is where no restraint is known,

hood. Havre-de-Grace, although its first founThat Scripture, justice, and good sense disown,

dations were laid little more than three centuries Where only vice and injury are tied, And all from shore to shore is free beside. Cowper.

ago, has produced a host of learned men: J.A.P.

Amelot, author of Louis IX., &c.; P. N. BeauNorma ndy has given birth to so many illus- valit, a famous sculptor ; James Henry Bernar. trious men that the natives of that country din de St. Pierre, his principal works are Etudes might be pardoned if they carried their national de la Nature, Paul et Virginie, La Chaumiere pride to a great length : the Normans, however, Indienne, a fine and masterly satire on the with more just ground for pride than most clergy; he also wrote many other works of other nations, are usually unpresuming, liberal great merit; J. P. A. Blanche, author of Latin in their opinions of others, and ready to do am- poems; Bonvoisin, a famous portrait-painter; ple justice to the merits of foreigners. Rouën G. T. Clémence, author of several theological had the honor of giving birth to Peter Corneille, works; Nicholas Cordier, who died in 1728, he the father of the French drama, called by his wrote some works on nautical affairs; J.B.R.R countrymen the Shakspeare of France. He was d'Apres, a celebrated geographer and hydrograborn June 6th, 1606; his father had been en- pher; his talents and acquisitions were estranobled for his services by Louis XIII. In 1637 ordinary : J. F. C. Delavigne, a celebrated dracame forth the Cid, a tragedy, which gained him matic writer, still living ; Du Boccage de Blea vast reputation. This he supported by many ville, a merchant and very learned man; the other admirable performances, which, as Bayle abbé Diequemare, an excellent naturalist and observes, carried the French theatre to the high- good painter; G. Le Hautoir, a painter and enest pitch of glory, and assuredly much higher graver, famous for his perspectives; L'Aignot

, than the ancient one at Athens.' He was of a Larry, Le Sueur, J. B. Levée, author of the melancholy cast, and spoke little in company, biography of the celebrated men of Havre, of a even upon subjects which he perfectly under- translation of the works of Cicero, &c. &c.; G. stood ; was of exemplary conduct, and by no I. L. de Masseille, the baron Rouilh, maréchal means dexterous in making his court to the de Camp, Michel D. B. Ivon, a distinguished soldier, who fought in all the campaigns from unknown to the Goths, who respected only their 1793 to 1806; he was promoted to the rank scalds; the former worshipped, or at least of adjutant-major, and was always addressed by greatly reverenced, the oak; the latter the ash; the flattering title of the brave Ivon. He was the former highly prized the mistletoe; the latter killed at the bridge of Kolozombin, being the regarded it as a noxious weed. To the Celtic first who attempted to force a passage.

nations letters were unknown; the Gothic tribes Dieppe gave birth to Richard Simon, Bruzen were in possession of them, and not only reverde la Martiniere, Pecquet, Dom. Le Nourry, the enced the inventors, but the letters themselves, fathers Crasset and Gouye, &c. Poussin, the although it is probable that this acquisition was great master of the French school, was born at confined to their scalds or bards; but, be this as Les Andelys in 1594, of poor, but noble parents. it may, Runic inscriptions in the north of EuNotwithstanding his state of destitution his rope are not by any means uncommon. talents and perseverance at length bore down all A consideration of still greater importance is obstacles. The learned Adrien Turnebe was the language of these two nations, than which born at the same place. Simon Vigor was born nothing could well be more unlike.

That they at Evreux; the abbé de Valmont and William differed very essentially in this point, as well Dagoumer at Pont-Audemer; the celebrated as in those already mentioned, we have the sculptors the Anguier, at Eu.

express testimony of Cæsar and Tacitus. The The origin of the ancient Scandinavians, oi accuracy of the former few will doubt; be had Normans, has never been very satisfactorily resided a long time in Gaul, had traversed it from ascertained. Their early history, indeed, is in- one extremity to the other, and had observed its volved in so much obscurity, and is so mixed with inhabitants with the closest attention. He infable and fiction, that it is impossible to rely forms us that the Celts or Gauls differed in lanwith any degree of confidence on the narratives guage, customs, and laws, both from the Belgæ, extant. Disposed, however, to consider these who were of Gothic origin, and from the Aquirelations as the offspring of ignorance and super- tani, who it is possible were originally an stition, rather than of wilful misrepresentation, Iberian people :- Gallia est omnis divisa in we must endeavour to separate that which may partes tres: quarum unam incolunt Belgæ, aliam be true from that which is evidently false; we Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum linguâ Celtæ, must examine and attentively consider proba- nostrâ Galli appellantur. lli omnes linguâ, inbilities, while we reject without hesitation mira- stitutis, legibus, inter se differunt.' From Tacitus cles and impossibilities. The Scandinavians we learn that the Celts or Gauls differed in their appear to have been one of the most important persons from most of their neighbours; that of the Gothic tribe (the Getæ of the ancients) they strongly resembled the Britons, as the Gerwho, at a period antecedent to all authentic his- mans resembled the Caledonians, and the Silures tory, emigrated from Asia, and settled in the the Spaniards :- labitus corporum varii :-north of Europe. It is probable that they were rutilæCaledoniam habitantium comæ,magni artus, originally of the same race as the Celts; but that Germanicam orginem adseverant. Silurum copeople differed so materially from the Goths lorati vultus, et torti plerùmque crines, et posita that great doubts have been entertained on this contra Hispania, Iberos veteres trajecisse, easque head, and the assertion has been hazarded that sedes occupâsse fidem faciunt : proximi Gallis, they never could have been derived from one et similes sunt.' Whether Spain was originally common source. It has been asserted by some peopled by the Celts is much to be doubted, aad authors, who have maintained their opinion with cannot now be ascertained; but it is at least great force of reasoning, that this quarter of the certain that it was partially colonised by them. globe was originally peopled by two distinct That they differed from the Germans in most imraces of men, the Celts and the Sarmatians; the portant points we may easily satisfy ourselves by latter being the ancestors of all the Sclavonian a further reference to Cæsar. It was not only tribes, 'viz. the Russians, Poles, · Bulgarians, in remote ages that the Celtic and Gothic tongues Wallachians, Bohemians, Carinthians, &c., who differed, the same difference continues to exist to this day continue distinct and separate from in the languages spoken by the descendants of the nations of Celtic race; different in their those two nations at this very day; for while the characters, language, manners, institutions, and languages of the Welsh and the Britons, notfrequently in religion : while from the former withstanding that they have been disunited above are descended all the other European nations. twelve centuries, has been so little altered that It has been contended by others that the Celtic the natives of those countries can, without much and Gothic, or Teutonic nations, have been thus difficulty, understand each other, the Welsh and most improperly confounded; as the latter pen- the English, although living in the same island, ple could neither have been derived from, nor under the same laws, and become as it were the did they constitute part of the former, but were, same people, still continue to speak languages ab initio, a perfectly distinct nation. Many cir- perfectly dissimilar. On the other hand, although cumstances, it must be confessed, conspire to the English have been separated above thirteen lead us to this conclusion; nothing could he centuries from the Saxons (their ancestors), their more opposite than their manners and customs; language is radically the same, and bears a close their laws also were different, and a freedom attinity to that of the Belgians, the Swiss, the pervaded the institutions of the Goths that was Danes, and the Swedes. unknown to the Celts; neither did their religions Proof of this sort is irrefragable, and cannot bear any resemblance. The Druids, so reve- fail, we submit, to convince us that from the renced among the nations of Celtic race, were Celts were derived the original inhabitants of

Vol. XV.

3 A

Gaul and Britain, and the present inhabitants of adherents around him, and inflicted on his per. Britanny, Wales, Cornwall, parts of Ireland, son several wounds with his sword and lance, the Highlands of Scotland, and perhaps of Bis- and, just before he expired, informed them that cay in Spain ; while from the Goths were derived he was about to retire to Scythia, to enter into the ancient Germans and Scandinavians, and the the society of the gods. His body was carried present inhabitants of Germany, England, Bel- to Sigtuna, and, in conformity with a custom of gium, Helvetia, Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. which he was the author, it was burnt with much It is true, however, that on submitting the Celtic ceremony. It has been imagined by some that and Gothic languages to a comparison with the the rancorous hatred which this extraordinary Hebrew, so many words will be discovered in man bore to the Romans was the principal inboth, which must have been derived from that centive to all his actions. Forced by those lordly language (unless they were received into those republicans to abandon his country, his hatred three tongues from some other ancient language), knew no bounds; for the Scythians conceiver that one is almost led to infer that the Celts and themselves imperatively called on to avenge all the Goths must have proceeded originally, affronts offered to their name and vation. This though at a period antecedent to the existence hatred he communicated to ail the people of the of any historical records, from one common stock. north, by whom it was cherished from generation Some powerful causes must, however, have ex- to generation, till, falling in concert on that once isted for the extraordinary change which, during powerful empire, after repeated attacks they a long course of ages, took place, not only in finally accomplished its overthrow. the language, but in the persons of those Celtic To the Roman historians we are indebted for tribes, known to the ancients under the general our information respecting the first attack made name of Goths, if these latter really were of upon the republic by the northern nations in the Celtic race. The different regions which they year of Rome 645, and 108th before the Chris peopled and inhabited might have been a lead- tian era. Her liberties were already endangered ing, though by no means a sufficient cause, for by internal disputes and factious intrigues

, when the strong contrast which they presented, and information was suddenly received of the approach which the descendants from those two stocks of a vast body of barbarians (as the Romans still continue to present; but as no satisfactory were accustomed to term all without the pale of evidence on this subject is now likely to be ob- their empire) amounting to above 300,000 men. tained, and their history being of more import- This ghty army consisted principally of the ance than their origin, a brief sketch of the Scan- Cimbri, or inhabitants of the Cimbric-Chersonedinavians, the most northern of the Gothic sus, the most southerly of the Scandinavian tribes

, nations, is here submitted.

who had allied themselves with the Teutodes, The Ases, a Scythian people, who appear to the Tigurians, and the Ambrones. The Gauls have inhabited the country situated between the had been unable to arrest their progress, and, as Black Sea and the Caspian, had for their chief it was supposed that this host was preparing to Sigge, who assumed the name of Odin or Woden, pass into Italy, dismay was imprinted on every the supreme deity of the Scythians; possibly, in countenance. This was during the consulship order to seduce his followers into the belief that of Cæcilius Metellus and Papirius Carbo, the he was himself a divinity, or because he filled latter of whom was instantly despatched with a the office of chief priest. Having assembled powerful army to occupy the passes of the Alps; around his ndard the flower of his own and but the Cimbri took a differ

direction, and of the adjoining nations, he marched to the west, halted on the banks of the Danube. The Roand entered Europe, subduing, as we are in- mans, somewhat recovered from their just alarm, formed, the countries through which he passed, seemed now resolved to carry matters

, as usual

, and erecting them into kingdoms for his sons. with a high hand, and sent to desire them not in He then turned his thoughts to the north, and, any way to molest the Norics, their allies. To directing his thoughts towards Scandinavia, en- this message the Cimbri sent a respectful answer, tered the Cimbric-Chersonesus, which now com- professing their readiness to turn their course prises Holstein, Sleswig, and Jutland. That elsewhere, and their desire to avoid incurring the region being but thinly peopled, its inhabitants displeasure of the republic. The consul, satisfied were incapable of making any effectual resistance, with this appearance of moderation, offered no and passing thence into Funen, of which he as opposition to their departure, and they retired easily took possession, he founded, it is said, the into Dalmatia, whither the Romans followed city of Odensee. Having overrun the remainder them. Watching a favorable opportunity, Carbo of the Danish provinces, and penetrated into attacked them by night; but the Cimbri, indig

. Sweden, which as speedily submitted, he ruled nant at this treacherous act, seized their arms, with unliınited authority, introducing the laws beat back the Romans, and put them to fight. and customs of Scythia." But, notwithstanding This repulse was attended with disastrous contheir extent, his conquests do not appear to have sequences; for all the nations that were desirous been commensurate with his desires ; and, having of throwing off the Roman yoke immediately turned his arms against Norway, his usual suc- ranged themselves under the banners of the cess attended him. Odin, full of glory and Cimbri. Thus reinforced, they again burst into renown, withdrew to Sweden, and, perceiving Gaul, and endeavoured to pass into Spain, but symptoms of his approaching dissolution, scorned were repulsed by the Celtiberians, a people of to wait until that life, which had been so constantly Celtic race who had settled near the Iberus

, and exposed to danger, should be terminated by slow added the name of the river to that of their na and tedious disease. He assembled his warlike tion. Frustrated in this attempt, they despatchec

an ambassador to the Romans to propose terms of the Cimbri are said to have fallen on that of peace, which having been rejected, they at- fatal day; but few escaped to tell the dreadful tacked the army under the command of M. tale; and, if we except them and the small numJunius Silanus with the greatest fury, and en- ber who had remained at home, their whole natirely destroyed it. Cassius Louginus was shortly tion may be said to have perished at a blow. afterwards defeated by the Ambrones ; another This was in the year of Rome 654, and the Roman army, more numerous than the former, 99th before the Christian era. Little mention soon after shared the same fate, above 80,000 of was afterwards made of them by the Roman the Romans and their allies perishing on the authors, whose accounts of the Cimbrian war field, and, to complete their misfortunes, a fourth must be received with due caution ; for, as the ariny, under the command of the consul Manlius Cimbri had no historians of their own to record and the pro-consul Servilius Cæpio, was com- their actions, the Romans, fearless of contradicpletely defeated.

tion, had it in their power to give whatever Every eye was now turned towards Marius, coloring they pleased to events in which they who alone seemed able to avert the impending were engaged, although they appear to have reruin. Catulus Luctatius, whose military abilities counted their own defeats with great impartiality. were scarcely inferior, was associated with him Strabo records that they endeavoured to cultivate in the command. Marius, well aware of the the friendship of Augustus ; and Tacitus briefly errors of his predecessors, determined to pursue informs us that they had preserved nothing but a very different course. He resolved not to give their distinguished name, and renown no less the enemy battle until their ardor had become ancient than extensive-— Parva nunc civitas, sed somewhat cooled, and, with this view, encamped gloria ingens, veterisque famæ latè vestigia main an advantageous position on the banks of the nent.' Rhone ; but this prudence being mistaken for Formidable as were the ancient Scandinavians pusillanimity, the enemy, having first endeavoured by land to most of the nations of Europe, their to force his entrenchments, in which attempt they naval expeditions excited still greater terror, and were unsuccessful, resolved to pass into Italy. Ma- were far more destructive. In the infancy of rius allowed them to file off unmolested during six society, when manual arts are unknown, and days, when, quitting his position, he followed agriculture but little attended to, the inhabitants them as far as Aix, in Provence, where he at- of a maritime country generally embrace a piratacked and partially defeated them, slaying great tical life; this was the case with the Greeks in numbers ; he then retired to his camp, ordering very remote ages, as we are informed by Thucystrict watch to be kept. Shortly afterwards his dides. The northern nations, however, did not army, being advantageously posted on an emi- adopt this course of life till very late; Sidonius nence, was attacked by the Teutones; the fortune Apollinaris, a learned Gaul, who was born at of Rome this day prevailed; her armies were Lyons of an illustrious family, in the early part once again triumphant. If we may rely with of the fifth century, is the first author who touches confidence on the relations of her historians, on the piracy of the Saxons. In the sixth above 20,000 of the enemy were slain, and epistle of his eighth book he thus notices them :90,000 made prisoners. This was in the year of Est Saxonibus piratis cum discriminibus pelagi Rome 653.

non notitia solùm sed familiaritas-Hostis omni But the Cimbri still menaced the safety of the hoste truculentior; improvisus aggreditur, prærepublic; arrived on the banks of the Adige, visus elabitur, spernit objectos, sternit incautos.' Catulus Luctarius was unable to arrest their Agriculture indeed, in consequence of the barpassage, and they crossed that river. They halted renness of the northern regions, could not afford near the Po, in the hope of being joined by the employment to many; but fishing gave occupaTeutones, of whose late defeat they were igno- tion to vast numbers, although in the end it conrant. Marius, at the head of a new army raised ducted them to piracy. For, as the people of one in haste, advanced to meet them, and they came district traversed the ocean, they often met with to an engagement on the plain of Verceil. The those of another, whom they regarded as rivals infantry of the Cimbri was formed into a large and the desire of obtaining undivided possession dense square ; their cavalry, superbly mounted, of some particular bay or creek would often was above 15,000 strong. The Romans were give rise to disputes. At length open attacks drawn up in two wings, with the sun at their were made, which generally ended in the capture backs, a circumstance very advantageous to them. of some of the vessels. The success which alThe Cimbri, exbausted by the intense heat of the tended the first attempts of the Normans graweather, against which they were less able to dually incited them to greater enterprises; they contend than the Romans, became dispirited, ventured farther from their coasts, and explored and were soou defeated; the dust had prevented unknown seas, so that during the eighth, ninth, them from perceiving the inferior forces of the and tenth centuries, the ocean literally swarmed Romans, as these latter, from the same cause, with their vessels, and from one extremity of were ignorant of the vast number of their adver- Europe to the other the maritime provinces were saries. An expedient which they had adopted, continually exposed to their attacks. It is hardly ju order to prevent their ranks from being broken, to be doubted, however, that their naval forces, now served to render their overthrow the more

in consequence of the peculiar manner in which complete; the soldiers of the foremost lines had they carried on their operations, appeared much been linked together with ch and thus, more considerable than they really were ; and coming entangled, were the more easily cut this was also the case with respect to the amount down by the Romans. Upwards of 140,000 of their population. For, as their vessels were

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