Obrazy na stronie
PDF
ePub

SONING.

time.

Sect. 1 1.—Rules for PLLOSOPHICAL REA- motions, and retained in their proper orbits,

tend to the sun; and are reciprocally as the In his second book Sir Isaac Newton treats of squares of the distances from the sun's centre. the properties of Muids, and their powers of re- The former part of this proposition is manifest sistance; and lays down such principles as en- from phenomenon 5, just mentioned, and from tirely overthrow the doctrine of Des Cartes's theor. II.; the latter from the phenomenon 4, vortices, which was the fashionable system in his and cor. 6, of theor. ll. But this part of the

In the third book he begins particularly proposition is with great accuracy deducible to treat of the natural phenomena, and apply from the quiescence of the aphelion points. For them to the mathematical principles formerly a very small aberration from the reciprocal dudemonstrated; and, as a necessary preliminary plicate proportion would produce a motion of to this part, he lays down the following rules for the apsicles, sensible in every single revolution, reasoning in natural philosophy :-1. We are to and in many of them enormously great. admit po more causes of natural things than such Prop. Ill. The force by which the moon is as are both true and sufficient to explain their retained in its orbit tends towards the earth, natural appearances. 2. Therefore to the same and is reciprocally as the square of the distance natural effects we must always assign, as far as of its place from the centre of the earth. The possible, the same causes. 3. The qualities of former part of this proposition is evident from bodies which admit neither intension nor remis- phenomenon 5, and theor. II.; the latter from sion of degrees, and which are found to belong phenomenon 6, and theor. II. or III. It is also to all bodies within the reach of our experiments, evident from the very slow motion of the moon's are to be esteemed the universal qualities of all apogee; which, in every single revolution, bodies whatsoever. 4. In experimental philoso- amounting but to 3° 3' in consequentia, may be ply, we are to look upon propositions collected neglected : and this more fully appears from the by general induction from phenomena as accu- next proposition. rately or very nearly true, notwithstan ling any Prop. 11 The moon gravitates towards the contrary hypotheses that may be imagined, till earth, and by the force of gravity is continually such time as other phenomena occur, by which drawn off from a rectilinear motion, and retained they may either be made more accurate, or liable in its orbit.—The mean distance of the moon to exceptions.

from the earth in the syzīgies in semidiameters of The phenomeva first considered are, 1. That the latter is about 60. Let us assume the mean the satellites of Jupiter, by radii drawn to the distance of 60 semidiameters in the syzigies; and centre of their primary, describe areas propor- suppose one revolution of the moon in respect of tional to the times of the description; and in at the fixed stars to be completed in 27 d. 7 h. 43 m., their periodic times, the tixed stars being at rest, as astronomers lave determined; and the circumare in the sesquiplicate ratio of their distances ference of the earth to amount to 123,249,600 from its centre. 2. The same thing is likewise Paris feet. Now, if we imagine the moon, deobserved of the phenomena of Saturn. 3. The prived of all her motion, to be let go, so as to five primary planets, Mercury, Venus, Mars, descend towards the earth with the impulse of Jupiter, and Saturn, with their several orbits, all that force by which it is retained in its orbit, encompass the sun. 4. The fixed stars being it will, in the space of one minute of time, desupposed at rest, the periodic times of the five scribe in its fall 151 Paris feet. For the versed primary planets, and of the earth about the sun, sine of that are which the moon, in the space of are in the sesquiplicate proportion of their mean one minute of time, describes by its inean modistances from the sun. 5. The primary planets, tion at the distance of 60 semidiameters of the by radii drawn to the earth, describe areas no earth, is nearly 15, Paris feet; or, more accu ways proportionable to the times: but the areas rately, 15 feet 1 inch and 1 line,. Wherefore, which they describe by radi drawn to the sun since that force, in approaching to the earth, inare proportional to the times of description. 6. creases in the reciprocal duplicate proportion o The moon, by a radius drawn to the centre of the distance; and, upon that accourt, at the the earth, describes an

area proportional to surfice of the earth is 60 X 60 times greater than the time of description. All these phenomena at the moon; a body in our rexions, falling with are undeniable from astronomical observations, that force, ought, in the space of one minute of and are explained at larre under the article time, to describe 60 X 60 X 157; l'aris feet; ASTRONOMY. The mathematical demonstrations and, in the space of one second of time, to deare next applied by Sir Isaac Newton in the fol- scribe 151, of those feet; or, more accurately, 15 lowing propositions :

feet 1 inch i lines. And with this very force Prop. I. The forces by which the satellites we actually find that bodies here on earth do of Jupiter are continually drawn ofl' from rectili- really descend.- For a pendulum oscillating senear motions, and retained in their proper orbits, conds in the latitude of Paris, will be 3 Paris tend to the centre of that planet; and are reci- feet and 3. lines in length, as Mr. Huygens has procally as the squares of the distances of those observed. And the space which a heavy body satellites from that centre. The former part of describes, by falling one second of time, is this proposition appears from theor. II. or III. to half the length of the pendulum in the dupliand the latter froin cor. 6, of theor. V., and the cate ratio of the circumference of the circle to its same thing we are to understand of the satellites diameter; and is therefore 15 Paris feet 1 inch

1 line. And therefore the force by which the Prop. II. The forces by which the primary moon is retained in its orbit, becomes, at the planets are continually drawn off from rectilinear very surface of the earth, equal to the force of

of Saturn.

[ocr errors]

gravity which we observe in heavy bodies there. that all sorts of heavy bodies (allowance being And therefore (by rules 1 and 2) the force by made for the inequality of retardation by some which the moon is retained in its orbit is that small resistance of the air) descend to the earth very same force which we commonly call gravity. from equal heights in equal times; and that equaFor, were gravity another force different from that, lity of times we may distinguish to a great accuthen bodies descending to the earth with the joint racy by the help of pendulums. Sir Isaac Newimpulse of both forces would fall with a double ton tried the thing in gold, silver, lead, glass, velocity, and, in the space of one second of time, sand, common salt, wood, water, and wheat. would describe 30: Paris feet; altogether against He provided two wooden boxes, round and equal, experience.

filled the one with wood, and suspended an equal The demonstration of this proposition may be weight of gold in the centre of oscillation of the more diffusely explained after the following man- other. The boxes hanging by equal threads of per:-Suppose several moons to revolve about eleven feet, made a couple of pendulums, perfectly the earth, as in the system of Jupiter or Saturn, equal in weight and figure, and equally receiving the periodic times of those moons would (by the the resistance of the air. And, placing the one argument of induction) observe the same law by the other, he observed them to play together which Kepler found to obtain among the planets; forwards and backwards, for a long time, with and therefore their centripetal forces would be equal vibrations. And therefore the quantity of reciprocally as the squares of the distances from matter in the gold was to the quantity of matter the centre of the earth, by prop. I. Now, if the in the wood, as the action of the motive force lowest of these were very small, and were so near (or vis motrix) upon all the gold to the action of the earth as almost to touch the tops of the high- the same upon all the wood; that is, as the est mountains, the centripetal force thereof, re- weight of the one to the weight of the other. taining it in its orbit, would be very nearly equal And the like happened in the other bodies. to the weights of any terrestrial bodies that should By these experiments, in bodies of the same be found upon the tops of these mountains; as weight, he could manifestly have discovered a may be known from the foregoing calculation. difference of matier less than the thousandth part Therefore, if the same little moon should be de- of the whole, had any such been. But, without serted by its centrifugal force that carries it all doubt, the nature of gravity towards the plathrough its.orbit, it would descend to the earth ; nets, is the same as towards the earth. For, and that with the same velocity as heavy bodies should we imagine our terrestrial bodies removed do actually descend with upon the tops of those to the orb of the moon, and there, together with very mountains, because of the equality of forces the moon, deprived of all motion, to be let go, that obliges them both to descend. And if the so as to fall together towards the earth; it is cerforce by which that lowest moon would descend tain, from what we have demonstrated before, were different from that of gravity, and if that that, in equal times, they would describe equal moon were to gravitate towards the earth, as we spaces with the moon, and of consequence are find terrestrial bodies do on the tops of mountains, to the moon, in quantity of matter, as their it would then descend with twice the velocity, as weights to its weight. Since the satellites of being impelled by both these forces conspiring Jupiter perform their revolutions in times which together. Therefore, since both these forces, that observe the sesquiplicate proportion of their is, the gravity of heavy bodies, and the centripe- distances from Jupiter's centre, their accelerative tal forces of the moons, respect the of the gravities towards Jupiter will be reciprocally as earth, and are similar and equal between them- the squares of their distances from Jupiter's selves, they will (by rules i and 2) have the centre; that is, equal at equal distances. And

And therefore the force which re- therefore, these satellites, if supposed to fall totains the moon in its orbit is that very force wards Jupiter from equal heights, would describe which we commonly call gravity; because, other- equal spaces in equal times, in like manner as wise, this little moon at the top of a mountain heavy bodies do on our earth. And by the same must either be without gravity, or fall twice as argument, if the circumsolar planets were supswiftly as heavy bodies use to do.

posed to be let fall at equal distances from the Having thus demonstrated that the moon is sun, they would, in their descent towards the retained in its orbit by its gravitation towards sun, describe equal spaces in equal times. But the earın, it is easy to apply the same demon- forces, which equally accelerate unequal bodies, stration to the motions of the other secondary must be as those bodies: that is to say, the planets, and of the primary planets round the weights of the planets towards the sun must be sun, and thus to show that gravitation prevails as their quantities of matter. throughout the whole creation. After which Sir Further, that the weights of Jupiter and of his Isaac proceeds to show from the same principles, satellites towards the sun are proportional to the that the heavenly bodies gravitate towards each several quantities of their maiter, appears from other, and contain different quantities of matter, the exceedingly regular motions of the satellites. or have different densities in proportion to their For, if some of those bodies were more strongly bulks.

attracted to the sun in proportion to their quanProp. V.

All bodies gravitate towards every tity of matter than others, the motions of the saplanet; and the weight of bodies towards the tellites would be disturbed by that inequality of same planet, at equal distances from its centre, attraction. If at equal distances from the sun, are proportional to the quantities of matter they any satellite, in proportion to the quantity of its contain.

matter, did gravitate towards the sun with a It has been confirmed by many experiments, force greater than Jupiter in proportion to his

same cause.

sensible.

according to any given proportion, suppose of d (according to Aristutle, Des Cartes, and others) io e; then the distance between the centres of the there is no difference betwixt that and other sun and the satellite's orbit would be always bodies, but in mere form of matter, by a succes. greater than the distance between the centres of sive change from form to form, it might be she sun and of Jupiter nearly in the subduplicate changed at last into a body of the same condiof that proportion. And, if the satellite gravitated tion with those which gravitate most in proportowards the sun with a force less in the propor- tion to their quantity of matter; and, on the other tion of e to d, the distance of the centre of the band, the heaviest bodies, acquiring the first form satellite's orb from the sun would be less than of that body, might by degrees quite lose their the distance of the centre of Jupiter's from the gravity. And therefore the weights would desun in the subduplicate of the same proportion. pend upon the forms of bodies, and with those Therefore, if at equal distances from ihe sun the forms might be changed, contrary to what was accelerative gravity of any satellite towards the proved in the preceding corollary. sun were greater or less than the accelerating Cor. 3. All spaces are not equally full. For, if gravity of Jupiter towards the sun but by to all spaces were equally full, then the specific part of the whole gravity, the distance of the gravity of the fluid which fills the region of the centre of the satellite's orbit from the sun would air, on account of the extreme density of the be greater or less than the distance of Jupiter matter, would fall nothing short of the specific from the sun by zoh, th part of the whole distance; gravity of quick-silver or gold, or any other the that is, by a fifth part of the distance of the ut- most dense body; and, therefore

neither gold, most satellite from the centre of Jupiter; an nor any other body, could descend in air. For eccentricity of the orbit which would be very bodies do not descend in fluids, unless they are

But the orbits of the satellites are specifically heavier than the Huids. And, if the concentric to Jupiter; therefore the accelerative quantity of matter in a given space can by any gravities of Jupiter, and of all satellites, towards rarefaction be diminished, what should hinder a the sun, are equal among themselves. And, by diminution to infinity? the same argument, the weight of Saturn and of Cor. 4. If all the solid particles of all bodies bis satellites towards the sun, at equal distances are of the same density, nor can be rarefied withfrom the sun, are as their several quantities of out pores, a void space or vacuum must be matter; and the weights of the moon and of the granted. (By bodies of the same density, our carth towards the sun are cither none, or accu- author means those whose vires inertiæ are in the rately proportional to the masses of matter which proportion of their bulks.) they contain. But further, the weights of all the iProp. VI. That there is a power of gravity parts of every planet towards any other planet tending to all bodies, proportional to the several are one to another as the matter in the several quantities of matter which they contain. That parts. For if some parts gravitated more, others all the planets mutually gravitate one towards less, than in proportion 10 the quantity of their another, we have proved before ; as well as that matter; then ihe whole planet, according to the the force of gravity towards every one of them, sort of parts with which it most abounds, would considered apart, is reciprocally as the square of gravitate more or less than in proportion to the the distance of places from the centre of the quantity of matter in the whole. Nor is it of planet. And thence it follows that the gravity any moment whetier these parts are external or tending towards all the planets is proportional to internal. For if, as an instance, we should ima- the matter which they contain. Moreover, since gine the terrestrial bodies with us to be raised up all the parts of any planet A gravitate towards to the orld of the moon, to be there compared any other planet B, and the gravity of every part with its body; if the weights of such bodies is to the gravity of the whole as the matter of the were to the weights of the external parts of the part to the matter of the whole; and (by law 3) moon as the quantities of matter in the one and io every action corresponds an equal re-action : in the other respectively, but to the weights of therefore the planet B vill, on the other hand, thie internal parts in a greater or less proportion ; gravitate towards all the parts of the planet A; then likewise the weights of those boilies would be, and its gravity towards any orie part will be to io the weight of the whole moon in a greater or less the gravity towards the whole as the matter of proportion; against what we have showed above. the part to the matter of the whole. Q. E. D.

Cor. 1. llence the wciglits of bodies do not Cor. 1. Therefore the force of gravity towards depend upon their forms and textures. For, if any whole planet arises from, and is compounr'ed the weighis could be altered with the forins, they of, the forces of gravity tovar:is all its party. would be greater or less, according to the variety Magnetic and Hentrice tractions afford us examof forms in equal matter; altogether against eri ples of this. Ir rail treciir is towards the whole perience.

arise from the citractions towarus the severai Cor. 2. Cniversally all bodies alont the earth parts. The things may be camily ucderstood in gravitate towards the cartlı; and the weinkis of grevily, if we consider a greater planetas formed ail, at equal distances from the curth's centre, are of a nw.ber of lesser planets, 11?eting together as the quantities of matter which they soverally in one siobe. For hence it would appear that contain. This is the quality of all bodies within ihe force of the whole must arise from the forces the reach of our experiments; and, therefore (hy of the component parts. If it be objected that, rule 3), to be attirmed of all bodies whatsoever according to this law, all bodies with us must If etlier, or any other body, were croper altovether mutually gravitate one towards another, whereas void of gravity, or were io gravir.ie less in pro- no such gravitation any where appears ; it is anportion to its quantity of matter; then, because shered that, since this rantation towards these bodies is to the gravitation towards the whole therefore the densities of dissimilar spheres are earth as these bodies are to the whole earth, the as those weights applied to the diameters of the gravitation towards them must be far less than spheres. But the true diameters of the sun, Juto fall under the observation of our senses. (The piter, Saturn, and the earth, were one to another experiments with regard to the attraction of as 10,000, 997, 791, and 109; and the weights mountains, however, have now further elucidated towards the same, as 10,000, 943, 529, and 435, this point.)

respectively; and therefore their densities are as Cor. 2. The force of gravity towards the seve- 100, 941, 67, and 400. The density of the earth, ral equal particles of any body is reciprocally which comes out by this computation, does not as the square of the distance of places from the depend upon the parallax of the sun, but is departicles.

terinined by the parallax of the moon, and thereProp. VII. In two spheres mutually gravita · fore is here truly defined. The sun, therefore, is ing each towards the other, if the matter, in places a little denser than Jupiter, and Jupiter than Saon all sides round about and equidistant from the turn, and the earth four times denser than the centres, is similar, the weight of either sphere sun; for the sun, by its great heat, is kept in a towards the other will be reciprocally as the sort of a rarefied state. The moon also is denser square of the distance between their centres. For than the earth. the demonstration of this, see the Principia, book Cor. 4. The smaller the planets are, cæteris i. prop. 75 and 76.

paribus, of so much the greater density. For so Cor. 1. Hence we may find and compare to- the powers of gravity on their several surfaces gether the weights of bodies towards different come nearer to equality. They are, likewise, cæplanets. For the weights of bodies revolving in teris paribus, of the greater density as they are circles about planets are as the diameters of the nearer to the sun. So Jupiter is more dense than circles directly, and the squares of their periodic Saturn, and the earth than Jupiter. For the platimes reciprocally; and their weights at the sur- nets were to be placed at different distances from faces of the planets, or at any other distances the sun, that, according to their degrees of denfrom their centres, are (by this prop.) greater or sity, they might enjoy a greater or less proportion less, in the reciprocal duplicate proportion of the of the sun's heat. Our water, if it were removed distances. Thus, from the periodic times of Venus, as far as the orb of Saturn, would be converted revolving about the sun in 224 d. 163 h.; of the into ice; and in the orb of Mercury, would utmost circumjovial satellite revolving about quickly fly away in vapor. For the light of the Jupiter in 16 d. 16,5h.; of the Huygenian satel- sun, to which its heat is proportional, is seven lite about Saturn in 15 d. 223 h.; and of the times denser in the orb of Mercury than with moon about the earth in 27 d. 7h. 43 m.; com- us; and by the thermometer Sir Isaac found that pared with the mean distance of Venus from the a seven-fold heat of our summer sun will make sun, and with the greatest heliocentric elongations water boil. Nor are we to doubt that the matter of the utmost circumjovial satellite from Jupiter's of Mercury is adapted to its heat, and is therefore centre, 3' 16"; of the Huygenian satellite from more dense than the matter of our earth; since, the centre of Saturn 5' 4" ; and of the moon from in a denser matter, the operations of nature rethe earth, 10' 33": by computation our author quire a stronger heat. found that the weight of equal bodies at equal

It is shown in the scholium of

prop.

XXII. distances from the centres of the sun, of Jupiter, book ii. of the Principia, that, at the height of 200 of Saturn, and of the earth, towards the sun, Ju- miles above the earth, the air is more rare than piter, Saturn, and the earth, were one to another it is at the superficies of the earth, in the ratio of 30 as vos31, and topisa respectively. Then, because to 0·0000000000003998, or as 75000000000000 as the distances are increased or diminished the to 1 nearly. And hence the planet Jupiter, reweights are diminished or increased in a dupli- volving in a medium of the same density with cate ratio ; the weights of equal bodies towards that superior air, would not lose by the resistances the sun, Jupiter, Saturn, and the earth, at the of the medium the 1,000,000th part of its motion distances 10,000, 997, 791, and 109, from their in 1,000,000 years. In the spaces near the earth

that is, at their very superficies, will be as the resistance is produced only by the air, exha10,000, 943, 529, and 435, respectively.

lations, and vapors. When these are carefully Cor. 2. Hence likewise we discover the quan- exhausted by the air-pump from under the retity of matter in the several planets. For their ceiver, heavy bodies fall within the receiver with quantities of matter are as the forces of gravity at perfect freedom, and without the least sensible equal distances from their centres, that is, in the resistance; gold itself, and the lightest down, let sun, Jupiter, Saturn, and the earth, as 1, 1967, fall together, will descend with equal velocity ; state and Topin respectively. If the parallax of and though they fall through a space of four, six, the sun be taken greater or less than 10" 30'", the and eight feet, they will come to the bottom at quantity of matter in the earth must be aug- the same time; as appears from experiments ibat mented or diminished in the triplicate of that have often been made. And therefore, the celesproportion.

tial regions being perfectly void of air and exhaCor. 3. Hence also we find the densities of lations, the planets and comets, meeting no The planets. For (by prop. LXXII., book i.) the sensible resistance in those spaces, will continue weights of equal and similar bodies towards si- their motions through them for an immense space milar spheres, are, at the surfaces of those of time. spheres as the diameters of the spheres. And

centres,

[graphic]

New Year's GIFTS. Nonius Marcellus resers was born at Sarre Louis in 1769, and entre the origin of new year's gifts among the Romans a private into a regiment of hussars. 43 to Titus Tatius, king of the Sabines, who reigned beginning of the revolution he was made at Rome conjointly with Romulus, and who captain, and served with distinction at Net having considered as a good omen a present of and Valenciennes. His address and bror some branches cut in a wood consecrated to first attracted the notice of Kleber, under vi_ Strenia, the goddess of strength, which he he became an adjutant-general

. Herzy received on the first day of the new year, made general of a division, and commania authorised this custom afterwards, and gave to French cavalry during the invasion of Sus these presents the name of strenæ. The Ro- land in 1798, when he is said to have been mans on that day celebrated a festival in honor with considerable humanity to the uokas. of Janus, and sent presents to one another of inhabitants of that country. The frica figs, dates, honey, &c., to show their friends year he distinguished himself ander las that they wished them a happy and agreeable and shared, in 1800, in the victons life. Clients, or those who were under the pro- Moreau at Moeskirch and Hobenlinda tection of the great, carried presents of this kind 1804 he received the bâton of marshal; 21 to their patrons, adding to them a small piece of following year gained the battle to stay silver. Under Augustus, the senate, the knights, owed the title of duke of Elchingen. He: and the people, presented such gifts to him, and next employed against the Prussians and ! in his absence deposited them in the capitol. sians, in Friedland, and the British in the fez Of the succeeding princes some adopted this sula, where he showed skill in retreating the custom and others abolished it; but it always our distinguished Commander from Parts continued among the people. The early Chris- In 1812 he was present in Russia at the ter tians condemned it, because it appeared to be a battle of Mojaisk, where he commandi relique of Paganism, and a species of supersti- centre of the French army, and obtuset tion; but, when it became nothing more than a further title of prince of Moskwa. His mark of esteem, the church ceased to disapprove afterwards lost the battle of Dennewitz

, is! of it.

many, he retired to Paris in disgrace ; bu a NEXI, in Roman antiquity, persons free-born, soon again employed. He had justly carmi: who for debt were reduced to a state of slavery character of a brave leader, whatever were By the laws of the XII. tables it was ordained, principles, and afterwards contributed to 3. that insolvent debtors should be given up to their the emperor to resign, and to retire to Elle creditors to be bound in fetters and cords, was one of the first of the imperial genera." whence they were called Nexi; and, though they submitted to the Bourbons, and thus prese did not entirely lose the rights of freemen, yet his titles and pensions. In 1815, when Ba they were often treated more harshly than the parte escaped from Elba, Ney was at his ez slaves themselves.

in the country, and received orders to NEXT, adj. & adv. Sax. next, nebse; the to his government of Bescançon. He we superlatives of neþ or nyb, Goth. and Dan. næst ; Paris, making strong protestations of loyat Teut. nechst. Nighest or nearest, in time, place, the king, and promised it is said to brinzor degree; at the time or term immediately pre- the disturber of Europe in an iron cage

then proceeded towards Lyons; but inste Want supplieth itself of what is next, and many His subsequent career was as unfortunate 3

attacking the invader he joined his stars! If the king himself had staid at London, or, which conduct was unprincipled. He followed to had been the next best, kept his court at York, and master to Waterloo, and being afterwards sent the army on their proper errand, liis enemies had rested was tried by a commission as a tratar been speedily subdued.

Clarendon. Louis XVIII., and shot.
The queen already sat

NIAGARA, a river of North America, ist High on a golden bed ; her princely guest from the north-east end of lake Erie, and for Was next her side, in order sat the rest. into lake Ontario. It forms the boundary

Dryden. O fortunate young man ! at least your lays,

tween the United States and Upper Canada

, a Are next to his, and claim the second praise. Id.

its course, which is nearly north, is thirts" Finite and infinite, being by the mind looked on

miles in length, and varies in breadth from as modifications of expansion and duration, the next

a mile to a league. For the first few miles fro thing to be considered is, how the mind comes by lake Erie

its breadth is 300 yards

, and it

is de .

Locke.

enough for vessels drawing nine or ten & That's a difficulty next to impossible. Rowe. water; but the current is extremely irregular a The unwary nymph

rapid, and the channel so intricate and meet Desired of Jove, when next he sought her bed, that it is only navigable for boats. In precies To grant a certain gift.

Addison's Ovid. ing downwards the river widens, the rocks & The good man warned us from his text

appear, and the waters glide smoothly alones That none could tell whose turn should be the neat. far as fort Chippeway, which is about three e

Gay. above the falls, Here the bed of the river and There, blest with health, with business unper- becomes rocky, and the waters are violends

plext, This life we relish, and ensure the next.

tated by those successive rapids which copy

Young. NEY, Marsal, a celebrated general and peer any boat by chance to be carried but a little mer

all boats to stop at Chippeway; indeed, we of France, under the Imperial government. He further, nothing could save it from being dastes

ceding.

times the next way.

« PoprzedniaDalej »