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you have to do." At the same time he presented him the cup. Socrates received it from him with great calmness, without fear or change of countenance, and regarding the man with his usual stern aspect, he asked, "What say you of this potion? Is it lawful to sprinkle any portion of it on the earth as a libation, or not?" "We only bruise," said the man, " as much as is barely sufficient for the purpose." "I understand you," said Socrates, "but it is certainly lawful and proper to pray the gods that my departure from hence may be prosperous and happy, which I indeed beseech them to grant." So saying, he carried the cup to his mouth, and drank it with great promptness and facility.
Thus far most of us had been able to refrain from weeping. But when we saw that he was drinking, and had actually drunk the poison, we could no longer restrain our tears. And from me they broke forth with such violence, that I covered my face and deplored my wretchedness. I did not weep for his fate, so much, as for the loss of a friend and benefactor, which I was about to sustain. But Crito unable to restrain his tears was compelled to rise. And Apolodorus, who had been incessantly weeping, now broke forth into loud lamentations, which infected all who were present except Socrates. But he, observing us, exclaimed, "What is it you do, my excellent friends? I have sent away the women that they might not betray such weakness. I have heard that it is our duty to die cheerfully, and with expressions of joy and praise. Be silent, therefore, and let your fortitude be seen." At this address we blushed and suppressed our tears. But Socrates, after walking about, now told us that his legs were beginning to grow heavy, and immediately laid down, for so he had been ordered. At the same time the man who had given him the poison, examined his feet and legs, touching them at intervals. At length he pressed violently upon his foot, and asked if he felt it. To which Socrates replied, that he did not. The man then pressed his legs, and so on, showing us that he was becoming cold and stiff. And Socrates feeling of himself assured us, that when the effects had ascended to his heart he should then be gone. And now the middle of his body growing cold, he threw aside his clothes and spoke for the last time, "Crito, we owe the sacrifice of a cock to Esculapius. Discharge this and ne
glect it not." "It shall be done," said Crito; " have you any thing else to say?" He made no reply, but a moment after moved, and his eyes became fixed. And Crito seeing this, closed his eye-lids and mouth.'
FOR THE PORT FOLIO.-INDIAN POLITENESS.
SOME years ago, I think in 1800, I had the pleasure of meeting in Italy with Mr. Ellis, formerly governor of Georgia, when under the British crown. He delighted in recollections of the colony; and, I remember, in speaking of the acute conceptions of the native Indians, his relation of the following circumstance.
After some difficulties that had occurred between the white settlers and the aborigines, in which several skirmishes had taken place, he succeeded in restoring peace; and, as was customary in such cases, the Indian chiefs were invited to the government house, to receive presents of arms, &c. The principal chief, however, did not appear on the day appointed. The delivery of the presents was postponed until all expectation of his arrival was abandoned. They were then divided among those who did attend. A few days afterwards the chief arrived. The governor expressed to him his regret that he had not come in time to receive a part of the presents; and, as he was very desirous of propitiating his good will, he told him he would send by a packet, just ready to sail, for certain arms, &c. of superior workmanship, which he named, and that as soon as the packet should return from England, he should be sent for to receive them. The Indian expressed his obligation, and returned to the forests.
On the arrival of the packet a messenger was sent to the chief, who was received by the governor in a room in which the various articles that had been named to him, were all arranged. They were splendid arms, and savage finery; but although articles best calculated to captivate his heart, his eyes glanced round the room with apparent unconcern, and he made no observations respecting them. The governor, apprehensive from his manner that
he was not satisfied with the present, desired the interpreter to ask him if the articles did not equal his expectations. He replied, yes. Why then, proceeded the interpreter, do you not thank him for them?-The chief appeared to reflect for a moment, when fixing his eyes on the querist, he said-Six months ago I was here. The governor then promised me these things-when he promised them, then he gave them. I then thanked him for them. Were I to thank him for them now, would it not appear as if I had doubted the fulfilment of his promise?
FOR THE PORT FOLIO.-CRITICISM.
AMERICAN MEDICAL BOTANY, being a collection of the native medicinal plants of the United States, containing their botanical history and chemical analysis and properties and uses in medicine, diet, and the arts; with coloured engravings. By Jacob Bigelow, M. D. member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, of the American Philosophical Society, &c. Rumford professor and lecturer on Materia Medica and Botany in Harvard University. Vol. I. Parts I. and II.-Boston, Cummings and Hilliard; Philadelphia, H. Hall, pp. 197 and 20 plates. 7 dolls. Vol. I. Part. I. contains the Botanical character and history, &c. of the following plants:Datura Stramonium or Thorn Apple. Eupatorium perfoliatum or Thorough wort. Phytolacca decandra or Poke. Arum tryphyllum or Dragon root. Coptis trifolia or Gold thread. Arbutus uva ursi or Bearberry. Sanguinaria Canadensis or Blood root. Geranium maculatum or Cranesbill. Triosteum perfoliatum or Fever root. Rhus vernix or Poison Sumach.
In Part II. we find the following:
Conium Maculatum or Hemlock. Cicuta Maculata or American Hemlock. Kalmia Latifolia or Mountain Laurel. (The engraving of this plant is inserted in the present number of the Port Folio.) Spigelia Marilandica or Carolina Pink root. Asarum Canadense or Wild Ginger. Iris Versicolor or Blue Flag. Hyoscyamus Niger or Henbane. Solarum Dulcamara or Bitter Sweet. Lobelia Inflata or Indian tobacco. Solidago odora or Sweet scented Golden Rod.
THIS is by far the most elegant and useful book on the science of Medical Botany, which has been published in the United States. We have waited for the completion of a volume, the first
part of which was published some months since, before we ventured to form an opinion on its character and claims. The author, Dr. Bigelow, is advantageously known as a writer on this subject by a work on the plants of Boston and its environs, and his general merits are strongly attested by a recent appointment as professor at Harvard University, on the foundation established by our countryman, count Rumford. From the prospectus to this work, now before us, it appears that we are to expect two more volumes like the present, the whole to contain 600 pages, and sixty elegantly coloured engraving's.
There are two ways in which a work on Medical Botany may be executed. The one consists in mere compilations from the flimsy theses of candidates for medical degrees; in bringing together, without examination, the trite accounts of Dispensatories, and in giving "a local habitation" to the garrulous reports of old market women. The other is to be accomplished by original examinations of the articles under consideration, by a cautious scrutiny of the previous opinions of others, by endeavouring to profit by correct details, rather than to dazzle by novelty and exaggeration; and in fine by establishing the character of each plant on the basis of its real properties, without crowding it with a multitude of strange names out of "all such readings as never were read." The former plan is easily accomplished, and may wear a very specious appearance; but in the end it is of little value, and must perish like all other gewgaws of the moment. The latter requires labour and time, but is sure to meet its reward in the confidence of the public. We do not hesitate to place the work of Dr. Bigelow under the latter class.
What confers a peculiar value on the labours of Dr. B. is, that his medical opinions are not taken up at random from any and every thing, which could be found in print or the nursery respecting the plants, but they have all been submitted to the order, of the author's own examination, and the results, whether favour able or unfavorable to the character of the article, are impartially stated. Hence the statements of the author may be received as authentic, whether they tend to enhance the previous character of an article, or to refute the errors of the credulous respecting.
In several instances we have new and important lights thrown upon the characters of vegetables. Thus in regard to the Kalmia latifolia, a beautiful flowering shrub well known in this state, and particularly on the whole range of the Alleghany mountains, we had been previously led to consider it as of a poisonous character; equally injurious to man and beast. The late Dr. Barton had informed us that the Indians make use of a decoction of this plant to destroy themselves, and that a few drops of the tincture poured on the body of a vigorous rattle snake, killed the reptile in a very short time. Dr. Thomas, in an Inaugural Dissertation, has confirmed the prevailing opinion that this shrub actually possesses strong narcotic properties. But from Dr. Bigelow we have a different statement.
"From my own experience," he says, "I am not disposed to think very highly of the narcotic power of the Kalmia. I have repeatedly chewed and swallowed a green leaf of the largest size, without perceiving the least effect in consequence. I have also seen the powder, freshly made from leaves recently dried, taken in doses of from ten to twenty grains, without any subsequent inconvenience or perceptible effect. The taste of these leaves is perfectly mild and mucilaginous, being less disagreeable than that of most of our common forest leaves.
"I am inclined to believe that the noxious effect of the Kalmia upon young grazing animals may be in some measure attributed to its indigestible quality, owing to the quantity of resin contained in the leaves."
In this work we find a refutation of the opinion that the Asarum Canadense is an emetic.
"It has been asserted, and the statement copied from one book to another, that the Asarum Canadense is a powerful emetic. I presume that subsequent writers have taken their opinion from Cornutus, who, in his plants of Canada, informs us, that two spoonfuls of the juice of the leaves of the Asarum, (meaning the Euroéan plant, rather than the American,) are found to evacuate the stomach powerfully. I can hardly doubt, if such an operation has really been produced from the Canadian species, that it must have taken place in irritable stomachs, to whom two spoonfuls of any crde vegetable juice would have proved emetic. Having