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ative of the Pope; and he confessed that even the words of truth should be pronounced with humility and distrust.* It may be mentioned, too, if any excuse be required for so natural an act of expediency, that he wrote this letter at the express solicitation of his ancient friend and patron Staupitz.

He received no answer. The Legate was expecting either still further effects from the mediation of the Vicargeneral, or fresh instructions from Rome, or the revocation of the safe-conduct of the Emperor. But Luther had now performed all that he deemed his duty to the church, and he was not disposed to encounter any unnecessary risk. So long as he remained within the same. walls with the Legate, however respectable the protection extended to him by the Elector, he was not safe. His friends, suspecting the present inactivity of the agents of Rome, urged his immediate departure from Augsburg. He consented; and, the means of escape being provided, he left the city by a private gate before daybreak on the morning of the 19th of October. One of the senators furnished him with an escort. A horse had been left for him by Staupitz; and, having once cleared the walls, he set off with as much speed as if Gaetan and all his myrmidons had been already in full pursuit. But it is recorded that, so indifferently was he equipped in boots, spurs, and other appliances, and perhaps so little practised in that mode of travelling, that, after his day's journey of eight weary German miles, he fell down on the straw, entirely overcome by fatigue, and slept by the side of his beast.

Before his departure he prepared two other compo

* "Sed oportuit reverentiam servare ei qui vice summi pontificis fungetatur; tum quod etiam verissime dicta aposteat cum humilitate et timore asserere et tueri." Admonitio in Acta Augustana. Apud Seckend. 1. i. s. 18. § xxxix.

sitions. One of them was a second letter to the Legate: its professed object was to announce his design, of withdrawing; but it was not delivered, nor of course intended to be delivered, till after he had completed that design. It was written with greater boldness than the former, and, though he mentioned in it his great weakness of body and extreme poverty, he abstained from all expressions approaching to flattery, and even so far impugned the authority of the Cardinal, as to avow that he was now looking to the Pope himself for the decision of the cause. And in communicating the nature of his resolutions he declared, parenthetically, his conviction that his own prince would be better pleased to hear of his appeal, than of his retractation.*

The other was a solemn Appeal to the Pope. In this celebrated paper, which was his first formal act of insubordination, he explained the true nature of his previous proceedings-how his Theses involved no question of articles of faith, or of any of the commandments of God or of the church, but were confined solely to that of indulgences. He remonstrated against the citation to Rome, and remarked on the partiality of the judges there appointed, and on the dangers to which he would have been liable in that city; which he did not, however, fear to designate, even in a submissive address to its sovereign, as "a city of homicides." He complained that the Legate before whom he had appeared was a Dominican and an enemy; and that, though at first humane and courteous, he had finally rejected his submission, and commanded him, under pain of excommunication, either

* "Scio enim principi nostro illustrissimo gratum facturum appellando magis quam revocando."

"Juxta Esaiam de Roma fere dici potest: justi habitaverunt in ea, nunc autem homicidæ."

to retract, or to present himself at Rome. He then repeated in the strongest possible terms* his professions of fidelity to Pope Leo X., and his absolute adhesion to every doctrine which could be proved from Holy Writ, the fathers of the church and the sacred canons. Lastly, he pronounced his deliberate appeal, from the aforesaid Most Holy Lord the Pope not well informed, to the same the Lord Leo X., by Divine Providence Pope, when he should be better informed.

He left this document in the hands of his friends, not to be presented to the Legate, but to be affixed, two or three days after his departure, to the door of the cathedral to the end that its publicity might be effectually secured, and that all the Christian world might learn the nature of the controversy and the grounds of his resist

ance.

* "Ex quibus me gravatum æsumque et oppressum sentio, cum et hodie fatear solummodo me disputasse, et omnia sub pedibus Ssi Domini nostri Leonis X. subjecisse, ut occidat, vivificet, reprobet, approbet, sicut placuerit. Et vocem ejus vocem Christi in ipso præsidentis agnoscam. Et legitime protestor me nihil dicere aut sapere velle, quod non in et ex sacris literis et ecclesiasticis patribus, sacrisque canonibus probari potest. Idcirco a præfato Ss Domino nostro papa non bene informato ejusque prætensa commissione . . ad Ssm. Dominum in Christo patrem et Dominum nostrum Dominum Leonem Dei providentia Papam X. melius informandum provoco, appello in his Scriptis. . .," &c. The document is of considerable length, occupying four or five folio pages.

CHAPTER VII.

PROCEEDINGS AT WITTEMBERG.

Gaetan writes to Frederick-the substance of his letter-its objectsLuther's eloquent answer-he offers to depart into exile-his two letters to Spalatin-remarks on these compositions-petition of the university of Wittemberg for Luther-confidence acquired by him after the affair of Augsburg-Acts of the Conference of AugsburgPublication of an appeal from the Pope to a general council-premature through the printer's treachery-substance of this, and remarks on it—some of Luther's own expressions-Frederick's cautious and dignified answer to Gaetan-Luther's continued suspense and uncertainty.

THE position of Rome in respect to her spiritual subjects was such, that, in any difference that might arise with them, any result not involving the entire overthrow of the malcontents was a dangerous defeat to herself. This is to a great extent true of all despotic powers; but most strictly so of that, which based its despotism upon credulity, and could hope to reign no longer than it could hope to deceive. None knew this secret so well as the more intelligent officers and emissaries of the Vatican. And thus Gaetan, when he learnt the departure of Luther and the bold appeal by which he had signalised it, began to tremble for the success of his mission and for his credit at the apostolical court. Yet, as the offender had escaped from his hands, and was again under the immediate protection of Frederick, no other expedient remained than a direct attempt to gain that prince. With this view, the Legate addressed to

him, on the 25th of October, a letter containing his own account of the proceedings at Augsburg, of which the following is the substance:

"Most Illustrious Prince, Martin Luther arrived, provided with letters from your Excellency; and before he came to me he set about to furnish himself with a safeconduct, which he obtained from the imperial councillors through your influence yet not without my knowledge; for those personages would grant him nothing, except with my permission. But I told them they might act as they chose, provided my name were not involved in the matter. Yet I began to wonder; for if you placed confidence in me, there was no need of this safe-conduct; if should not have sent him to me as to did not, you you a father.

"Brother Martin then came to me, and first made some excuses about his safe-conduct, owing to enmities and so forth; then he said that he was come to listen to me, and to profess the truth as professed by me. I received him most willingly and courteously, and embraced him with the arms of a father. I told him, above all, that he should be interrogated according to solid Scripture and the holy canons; and, if he came to his senses and gave security that he would not return to his vomit, I had the authority of Pope Leo to arrange everything.

"I then proved and paternally admonished him that his Theses and Sermons were at variance with the apostolical doctrine, especially respecting indulgences, and I cited the Extravagant of Clement VI. as in direct opposition to him. I adduced besides the ancient custom of the Roman church; and in respect to another article of faith, on the sacraments, I showed that his opinion was unsound and opposed to Scripture and the doctrine of the church. In opposition to that clear and manifest Extravagant he said something or other not worth re

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