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Page 14, line 3, for this read the.

It should be mentioned that the states of all the members of the Germanic body, no less than those of the electors, were free from the direct control of the Emperor. Their independence may, indeed, already have been somewhat curtailed by the permanent establishments created by the Diet of 1595, for the maintenance of the peace of the empire and the general administration of political justice. The outrages of the most unruly knights and nobles, who still clung to the old barbarous right and practice of private warfare, were unquestionably repressed. But the Emperor yet possessed very little acknowledged power over the members of the Diet; and the frequent deliberations of that numerous body, swelled as it was by the representatives of the free cities, were not calculated, I think, to enlarge his authority over the several states which composed it.

P. 15, 1. 15.—The subject of those perpetual disputes between the bishops and magistrates of the imperial cities, was generally the limit of their respective jurisdictions. Indeed, we ought never to lose sight of the fact, that the Roman Catholic church (as has been well observed) was not merely a religious organisation; it was, besides, an enormous aggregate of temporal property and temporal powers and functionsgreat powers exercised under a foreign head and for the profits of foreigners in a great measure. The priests were at that time not merely religious teachers and professors, but a vast and powerful order in society, yet subject to the condition of exercising their power through the physical arm of others. It was these temporal powers which continually brought the church into collision with the most active and stirring portions of the laity, and made them objects of jealousy and hatred. These were predisposing causes, which showed themselves at almost every Diet between the council of Basle and the appearance of Luther, and stand among the most obvious preliminaries of the Reformation.

P. 20. The administrative committee of the empire (das Reichs regiment) which had been very lately created and assembled, despatched to Pope Alexander VI. an embassy and remonstrance on the general violation of the concordat of Basle, and on ecclesiastical grievances and

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exactions; but particularly upon the money which was extracted from Germany by means of the sale of Indulgences, under pretence of their being applied for the defence of Christendom against its enemies, but not really so applied.

In 1501 the Diet of Nuremberg passed a resolution to detain twothirds of the money then accruing throughout Germany from the sale of Indulgences (on occasion of the centenary jubilee) for the exclusive purpose of defence against the Turks, and to permit only one-third to go into the possession of the papal legate.

These two facts have been furnished me (from the Sophronizon of Paulus) by a learned friend, who remarks on them: In neither case is there any objection to the selling of Indulgences-the objection is taken to the application of the proceeds.

P. 55, 1.23.-Erase the word hundred.

P. 64, 1. 5.-Perhaps "apud hominem" should rather be translated "in the sight of man." Such is certainly the grammatical interpretation of the words. Yet the other was, more probably, what Luther meant. One has often this perplexity in interpreting his writings.

P. 108, 1. 10, &c.-My remarks are here confined to the "despotism of the Pope;" I do not intend to apply them to the disputed doctrines of his church. The censures which I have ventured on "the method of the scholastics," (or "the abuse of Aristotle," for it is the same thing) are not, I hope, too general. I have never denied that it has sometimes produced good results; nor would I dispute, that even that exercise of the intellectual powers, trammelled as they were and circumscribed by forms and technicalities, may have been preferable to absolute inactivity and torpor. Yet I cannot readily admit that to have been a sound method of reasoning, which engendered such amazing frivolities and sophistry; nor can I agree with those who think, that the absurdity of the conclusions proceeded in all cases, or in most cases, from the falsehood of the data.

P. 154, 1. 21.—It is not intended by this remark to imply, that the very lowest classes throughout Germany were generally adverse to the enterprise of Luther, however ill they may have been disposed at Augsburg—still less so, as the Reformation made progress. Doubtless its most trustworthy and intelligent supporters were to be found in a somewhat higher condition; but the accounts of the rustic insurrections of that period attest the hatred existing among the lowest against the wealth and the supremacy of ecclesiastics. This may have been the extent of their feeling on the subject; but even this would incline them towards Luther.





Condition of the Church at the beginning of the Sixteenth Century— Systems of learning-that of Aristotle-that of the Humaniststhe limits of their Operation-Erasmus-General progress of intellectual Improvement-Exertions of Maximilian-Numbers of eminent Individuals-Theology alone made no advance-The security of the High Papists, and the causes of it-Fidelity of the Princes and Universities-Peace at home and abroad-No important or dangerous heresy or schism - The attempts at Reformation had been thwarted-The court of Rome more decorous than heretofore-The Pope personally had many attractive qualities-The progress of commercial intercourse and civilisation-and of education through the Art of Printing-No Grievances had been redressed-nor were the heresies absolutely suppressed-nor the principles of Self-Reformation extinct-Particular condition of Switzerland-Of Germany-Imperial Cities-Every thing was in progress except the Church—It was clear that some change must befal it, though what or whence was uncertain -The doctrine of Indulgences as then professed-Gradual corruption of the practice from the Bull Unigenitus to the end of fifteenth century-Indulgences of Innocent VIII., and dissensions occasioned -Others in 1515 and 1516-Faint attempt at resistance by Maximilian-Grant of Leo X. to Albert, Archbishop of Mayence-The Instructions of Albert-The agency of John Tetzel-The pretext was the restoration of St. Peter's-Manner of preaching the Indulgences, proclamations, processions, &c.-Expressions employed by TetzelForm of Absolution-Observations.

It is no longer necessary to enter into any particulars in order to prove, that very great abuses prevailed in the Roman Catholic Church at the beginning of the sixteenth



century, because there is not now any writer who would affect to dispute that fact. Much of the system, as it was then administered, from the pomp of the Vatican down to the ceremonies of the most obscure congregation-from the morals of the court of Rome down to those of the sensual monk and concubinary priest, was in direct opposition to the law of Christ, and even to the first principles of human virtue. Yet was it no easy matter to overthrow, or even to correct it. The roots of the church were fixed in the credulity and devotion of the multitude; and it might hope to stand unhurt, unaltered, so long as it could retain its authority there. "It is with the vulgar" (says Pallavicino, than whom none had examined more closely the springs of the ecclesiastical machinery,) "it is with the vulgar, that the supreme power finally rests; and there, if not in reason, at least in fact, is the supreme tribunal."* Such is especially the condition of a spiritual despotism. It may lean on the occasional interest of princes,—it may court the precarious favour of the great; but its last appeal is to the fidelity of the common people.

Thus it was, that the power of Rome could not be at all seriously or generally shaken, until her enemies could gain some access to the minds of the vulgar; and this could only be brought to pass by a somewhat general diffusion of at least the first elements of reasoning and learning. It was the work of ages to reach this point. The papal system laid its foundations in utter darkness and on the ignorance of mankind. strengthened and enlarged and surrounded with a thousand outworks, during a long period of scarcely less obscurity. The first light which appeared was that of Aristotle. The churchmen regarded it with suspicion, and would willingly have removed or extinguished it.

It was

* "Istoria del Concilio di Trento," lib. i. cap. ix.

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