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narratives of the deluge, were designed to signify the same identical person, and that illustrious individual was Noah.

Diodorus Sicullus informs us that the Egyptians have a tradition, that "Deucalion's was the universal deluge." Mr. Bryant, the ingenious author which we have had occasion to mention before, affirms that the Osiris of the Egyptians, was a name applied to Ham, and frequently to Noah. Plato declares" that a certain Egyptian priest related to Solon, out of their sacred books, the history of the universal deluge; which took place long before the partial inundations known to the Grecians." The Chinese have a tradition, that "Puoneu, (their Noah,) with his family, escaped the general deluge," and was the favored instrument by which the world was repeopled, after the universal destruction of its inhabitants by water. Plutarch tells us that "Osiris went into the ark, on the seventeenth of Athyr," which was the second month after the autumnal equinox; the very day fixed by Moses, for the commencement of the deluge.

These facts so powerfully and plainly corroborate the history of Moses, that the most ordinary reader can discover, through the records of the most ancient nations, such evident traces of an universal deluge, as to remove all doubt upon the subject, so far as the fact is concerned, unless he is disposed to shut out all the light of history upon an event so important in the annals of the ancient world.

Should any farther evidence be required to place this fact in a still stronger light, such evidence may be found in the histories and traditions of almost every part of the globe. "Sir William Jones, by whom a society for the advancement of Asiatic literature has been instituted at Calcutta, has discovered, that in the oldest mythological books of that country, there is such an account of the deluge as corresponds sufficiently with that of Moses " In addition to these, the Persians have preserved such traditions of the flood, as to remove all reasonable doubt that it has long been believed among them. To the ancient inhabitants of the Island of Cuba, the history, or rather tradition, of the creation and the flood, appears to have

been familiar. For, Herrera informs us that these natives were in possession of the facts, that the world was created by a superior intelligence, and asserted that they had considerable information concerning the flood: they had a tradition that the world was once destroyed by water and "that an old man, knowing the deluge was to come, built a great ship, and went into it with his family and abundance of animals: that he sent out a crow, which did not at first return, staying to feed on the carcases of dead animals, but afterwards came back with a green branch." They also retained a tradition, answering to the account of Noah's two sons covering him while in a state of inebriation, and the scoffings of the third.

The Mexicans, we are told in Casta's history of the Indies, "make particular mention of a deluge in their country, by which all men were drowned."-By Nieuhoff's voyages to Brazil, "we are informed, that the most barbarous of the Brazilians, inhabiting the inland countries, though they scarcely knew any thing of religion, or an Almighty Being; they have some knowledge remaining of a general deluge: it being their opinion that the whole race of mankind were extirpated by a general deluge, except one man and his sister."

The Peruvians, according to the author of the history of the Indies, asserted that they had received by tradition from their ancestors, that long before there were any kings among their forefathers, "when the country was very populous, there happened a great flood: the sea breaking out beyond its bounds, so that the land was covered with water, and all the people perished.' Other natives of the American continent have recited the same tradition, and affirm, that the whole race of man was then destroyed "except six persons (the precise number of Noah's family) being saved in a float, from whom all the inhabitants of the country descended."

It would be easy to multiply examples in confirmation of the truth which we have asserted, that the fact of the general deluge was confirmed by the concurrent testimony of the most ancient nations, and the traditions of the most rude and uncultivated wanderers of the forest: Enough,

however, has been produced to place the subject beyond dispute.

The history which is given by Moses, of this terrific overthrow of a sinful world, is evidently the most ancient of any that has ever been preserved, and might, therefore, be expected to contain a more full and perfect account of that memorable event than any other now extant: And to all such as have examined this subject with attention, it must be obvious, that the account which Moses furnishes is the most full, simple and consistent, that has ever been submitted for rational inspection.

The probability of such an event as the deluge, is strengthened and confirmed by appearances, which admit of no other satisfactory solution: I mean the vast quantities of marine substances, found in every country, upon the highest mountains, at all distances from the sea, and to considerable depths below the surface of the earth. These must either have been tossed by the violence of earthquakes from the bed of the sea, to their present de posits, or have been formed during the long period which the waters of the flood remained upon the earth. But the supposition, that it was the effect of earthquakes, is totally inadmissible, since they are found upon the highest mountains, and at the greatest distances from the ocean. The only conclusion, therefore, which will bear the scrutiny of reason, is, that they were formed during the period in which the earth was overflowed, in the days of Noah.

A method which has sometimes been employed to account for these extensive fragments of marine production, by supposing that they might have been left by those gradual recedings of the ocean, from some parts of the earth, which have been recorded by historians; is, to say the least of it, extremely improbable, if not impossible :-For all the changes effected by the cause here urged, which historians have noticed, or tradition has handed down from the remotest antiquity, will bear no comparison with the effects which are too obvious for denial, in every part of the globe, of marine substances, which must have been left behind, when the waters of the deluge retreated. Indeed, the hypothesis we are considering, appears to be so

wild and extravagant, that we can see no reason for its being offered, except the unavoidable strait to which the deniers of revelation are driven by the unanswerable evidences of a general deluge, in every part of the globe. And when we consider all the instances which ever have, or can be produced, of additional portions of land to either islands or continents, by the waves of the sea; the accession has been so slow, and so trifling, that it would involve the conclusion of the world's antiquity, little inferior to the absurdity of its absolute eternity!-But this hypothesis has already been refuted in the first lecture of this course.

It would be an unnecessary labor, besides an unreasonable tax upon your patience, to lay before you the objections which have been urged against the deluge, by ingenious philosophers, with the able, clear and conclusive replies which have been furnished by the friends of revelation. But I can refer those who wish to examine the arguments upon this subject at large, to the Encyclopedia, where they will find all the arguments and evidences which appear to be worth preserving and handing down to posterity, upon a subject so important to the faith and interest of revealed religion; and which are confidently believed to be sufficient to remove all doubts that may arise, respecting the veracity and credibility of the Hebrew historian.

I have now shown by undeniable evidence, that the Mosaic history of the deluge is supported by the testimony of all the most ancient nations, whose histories or traditions have reached the present age: I have proved, that in every continent, and among the most refined, as well as the most barbarous nations of the globe, the same general outlines of the deluge have been retained and believed, through all the generations which have succeeded that memorable epoch. And I now submit the question to the decision of your reason and sober understanding, whether any fact which must depend upon the voice of history, the voice of tradition, and the physical evidences which are scattered over the whole surface of the globe, has ever received a more full, clear, and ample support than the interesting part of the Mosaic history which has been the subject of this lecture: And

I am fully persuaded that whoever will consider the evidences which I have laid before you, with the least degree of candor, will be fully satisfied of the unqualified credit to which the Mosaic history is entitled.

But, after all the facts and evidences which have been adduced in support of the event which Moses has recorded, of an universal deluge, which destroyed the old world, we are urged, by the boasting disciples of reason, to shut our eyes against all these formidable evidences of truth, and attribute the whole narrative to the craft of a designing priesthood, and the credulity of a world of superstitious, weak and deceived enthusiasts! And suppose we were to make the attempt; how should we reconcile the absurdity of supposing that the most distant ages and nations; of the most opposite opinions and religions; as well as pursuits and manners; should all agree without the least motive, or previous concert, to bear a united testimony to the same subject, for which no adequate foundation, reason or evidence was afforded? And further, we beg leave to ask them, in our turn; if the account which the bible furnishes of the deluge be not true, how will they, or how can they account for the existence of such an ample and universal testimony of the fact, as has bid defiance to the hand of time to erase, and all the arts of skepticism to evade? In closing this Lecture, I feel constrained to ask you, my hearers, what evidence have those, who would persuade you to reject the evidences of revelation, offered to convince you that the history of Moses, which records this tremendous event, is not true? Have they, or can they produce a single particle of proof, that the testimony of Moses is false? They dare not attempt to offer you evidence; for they know that the attempt would be fraught with nothing but insolence, and the most glaring abuse of your understandings. They may, indeed, scoff; they may ridicule the most solemn truths of revelation ; but her solid foundations they can never remove, or even, for an hour, shake!

The Saviour of the world, not only accredited, but quoted the testimony of Moses, concerning the deluge, to enforce the solemn conviction of a tremendous judgment which hung over the polluted nation of the Jews. And

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