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will be at the pains of gathering you a notes to heads of families in the neighborfull house, at the worst."
hood, and in the immediate service of So Mr. Edward spent the remainder the mythological tyrant referred to beof the day in penning and despatching fore.
To be continued
THE POLAR SEAS AND SIR JOHN FRANKLIN.
Insuetum per iter gelidas enavit ad Arctos.
in another direction. The progress of the Holy Sepulchre, in the middle ages, Arctic discovery has always been attendthe Christian world has not been so unani ed by fatalities. The Portuguese brothers, mously agreed on any thing as in the de Cortereal, in the beginning of the sixsire to recover Sir John Franklin, dead or teenth century, passed away from the alive, from the dread solitudes of death sight of men into the hyperborean latiinto which he has so fearlessly ventured. tudes, whence they returned no more. Near a score of ships have been sent, at a About half a century later, Sir Hugh Wilvast expense, from the two hemispheres, loughby, looking for China beyond the to explore and follow his traces, and satisfy, coast of Labrador, perished with his crews; with whatever results, the universal in and his frozen body was found, some years terest in his fate; and the efforts of the after, by Russian or Eskimo fishermen, English and Americans are as yet un with the journal of his voyage crumbling dissuaded by the failure of so many re by his side. Thirty years subsequently, searches. Hearts of oak are still beating Sir Humphrey Gilbert, proceeding to enter hopefully on that Northern quest, and the Northern pass, went down off the signal guns are still heard booming round coast of Newfoundland. Hudson perishthe gates of the indistinct and awful Po
ed among the icebergs in 1610; and now lynya. The history of progress in the di the world is leaning reluctantly to the rection of the North-West or North-East opinion that the names of Franklin, FitzPassage leaves no doubt at all that, as a james, and Crozier must be added to this sea-route across the world, it is not to be dreary roll of Polar catastrophes. thought of; and that, even if a fortunately For a long time after Baffin, Frobisher daring expedition should succeed in thread and Hudson, the map of Arctic America ing its way through the treacherous and
received no new names or delineations. hummocky labyrinths of the Polar Sea, In 1741, Behring, the Russian, discovered nothing but the geographical theory would the straits that bear his name. In 1771, be the better for it. For all purposes of Hearne, a servant of the Hudson's Bay commerce or intercourse, in fact, the Cro Company, was the first who saw the Polar ker Mountains that Sir John Ross saw, Sea flowing round this continent. In mirageously, one evening after dinner, in 1773, Captain Phipps with the Seahorse 1819, might in reality lie across the open and Carcass, made some explorations in ing of Lancaster Sound, tracing "No the North. Then came the great wars, in Thoroughfare” along the formidable and which a little lad who went with Phipps repulsive horizon. Much has been said
among the icebergs—Horatio Nelsonof the open sea round the Pole; but sup bore so famous a part, and, for over forty posing it exists—and there is no reason to years, the scientific curiosity of man was doubt it does—it is a place guarded against absorbed in the thunder of the captains navigation by a circle of floes, hummocks, and the shouting that agitated the warmer icebergs and so forth, eternally shifting, seas of the world. It was not till a few grinding, groaning and howling, and thus years after the general peace, that Capt. making all exits and entrances matters of John Ross renewed those more recent exdesperate uncertainty.
plorations which, within living memory; From the first discovery of Northern have been pretty continuously followed America by Cabot, the Arctic passage en ever since, and which may be briefly algaged the attention of geographers and luded to before speaking of Sir John pilots who dreamed evermore of a short Franklin's last expedition and those set cut to India
on foot for his rescue. To Agra and Lahor of Great Mogul,
In 1818, Captain Ross proceeded to the
North, with the ships Isabella and the an achievement which, first and last, drew Alexander, having under his command on the adventurous energies of Columbus James C. Ross, his nephew, W. E. Perry,
Down to the Golden Chersonese
and Edward Belcher-men who subse pushed on towards the Fort. When the quently distinquished themselves in Polar latter reached it at last, after having left voyages of discovery. Ross proceeded three more Canadians to perish in the through Davis' Straits into Baffin's Bay, track—they found it deserted and foodless. and reached Lancaster Sound, from which and, looking into each other's emaciated place he returned to England with the in faces, burst into tears. Sending part of formation that he saw a range of moun his men forward, Franklin was forced to tains, which he had named the Croker stay at the fort, with three others, also Mountains, stretching across that inlet unable to proceed-and he and they had and barring all progress to the West by no food but the soup of old bones picked that way. The voyage was a failure. In up or dug from the ground. In a day or the same year, the ships Dorothea and two they were joined by Richardson and Trent, under the orders of Capt. Buchan, Hepburn who informed him that Michel with whom Lieut. Franklin acted as se the Iroquois had assassinated Mr, Hood, and cond in command, were sent to Behring's that the Doctor had shot him in turn. On Straits. But the perils and difficulties of the first of November, two Canadians died this expedition were more remarkable at the fort, and the survivors could not rethan the results of it, and the ships re move them. On the 7th, Indians came bring. turned before the close of the year. ing provisions, and they were all saved,
In 1819, Franklin, impressed by the when nearly at the last gasp. Certainly Sir discoveries of Hearne, Mackenzie and John Franklin did not proceed on his last others, along the northern edge of this voyage to the Polar scas, uninured to the continent, undertook to trace the looked dreariest and most perilous chances of for passage, from the mouth of the Cop that terrible region. permine River, eastward, by the shore, to While Franklin was suffering in this wards the waters of Hudson's Bay. Pro overland expedition, Lieutenant Parry was ceeding from one of the forts of the Hud making his most successful voyage. In son's Bay Company, attended by Mr. Back May 1819, he proceeded with the Hecla and Dr. Richardson, since distinguished and Griper to Lancaster Sound, where he for their explorations, he traced the Cop- proved the Croker Mountains to be as permine to the ocean. Thence, his party, visionary as those of Hy Brasil off the with their boats and sledges, journeyed north-west coast of Ireland, and, advanalong the coast, for 600 miles; till at last, cing through the strait which he named having reached a point which they named after Mr. Barrow, Secretary of the AdmiTurnagain, and finding their provisions ralty, made the most pronounced discoverfalling short, they quitted the sea and ies of modern research in that region. took up their march, of fifty days, along He first saw and named Wellington ChanHood's River towards Fort Enterprise. nel Regent's Inlet, Bathurst's, Byam In September 1820, commenced the drear Martin's, Melville's and other islands, now iest and most miserable of journeys. The called the Parry Islands. He also saw expedition consisted of Franklin, Dr. Rich and defined Banks' Land in the southardson, Mr. Hood a young officer, Mr. western distance. These places have ever Back, Hepburn a sailor, ten Canadians since been the great landmarks of Northwith French names, and two Indians. ern research ; no navigator has gone beThe country was desolate, barren, and yond them, and all subsequent discoveries covered with snow. In a few days their have been made about them and with relpemmican failed and their chief resource erence to them. Travelling over Byam was a sort of moss called tripe de roche. Martin's Island, Parry's officers discovThough they succceded in shooting a few ered remains of Eskimo huts, and traces animals, their sufferings from hunger and of oxen, hares, reindeer and other creacold soon became dreadful, as they slowly tures, proving that in the neighborhood of made their way through snow-drifts and the Polynya there is no want or difficulty ravines, and over torrents, in the direction of animal existence. This voyage was a of Point Lake. Franklin fainted from fortunate one in every respect. Parry exhaustion and want of food. Mr. Back, ran rapidly in, made his discoveries, winand three men were hurried in advance tered, and came out again in the open towards Fort Enterprise to hasten relief, season. His next voyage, in 1821, with while Franklin and the rest moved pain the Fury and Hecla, was to the lower fully on, at the rate of five or six miles a waters—those of Hudson's Bay; and he day. They were soon reduced to eat the spent the winter of that year in Fox's leather of their old shoes and two Canadi Channel. He passed two winters in the ans dropped down and perished in the snow. North, and explored Melville's Peninsula. Dr. Richardson, Hepburn, and Michel the In 1823, Capt. Clavering conveyed Capt. Iroquois, remained with poor Mr. Hood Sabine to Spitzbergen and Greenland, to under a tent, while Franklin and the rest make experiments, determining the con
figuration of the earth. Lyons proceeded tried to get out of Regent's Inlet; but he in 1824, with the intention of examining was obliged to give up the attempt, and Melville's Peninsula and going thence, if retrace his steps to the wreck of the Fury, possible, to Franklin's Point Turnagain, where he passed his fourth winter of on the American coast. But the expedi- 1832–3. In August, 1833, he made one tion was so shaken about and distressed, more vigorous effort to get out, and, havthat it was forced to return.
ing passed in the boats through Barrow's In the spring of 1824 Parry with the Straits, he and his men were happily ships Hecla and Fury, made his third picked up, in Lancaster Sound by the Northern voyage.
He went into Barrow's whaler, Isabella, the captain's old ship of Straits and wintered at Port Bowen, on discovery. The people of England boRegent's Inlet. Next year he proceeded lieved Ross and his crew had perished, westward and examined the coast of and, in the midst of their doubts and reNorth Somerset. Here, on the eastern grets, the nation was surprised and rejoiced shore of the Inlet, he was forced to leave by the news of his rescue.
He has rethe Fury and return home.
trieved every thing, and the Croker MounIn 1826 Capt. Franklin went down the tains were no longer remembered to his river Mackenzie and explored the coast prejudice. to the westward, 374 miles. His party În 1833, Captain Back made a journey returned to England in October 1827. In from the Hudson's Bay station to the 1826 Capt. Beechy sailed into the Pacific Polar Sea. He went eastward beyond and entered Behring's Straits. But he Franklin's Point, Turnagain, and traced made no eastward progress.
the coast in the direction of Repulse Bay, Parry undertook his fourth voyage in a point within Hudson's waters. He re827. He went to Spitzbergen and leav turned in 1835, and sailed in 1836 up ing his ship proceeded with sledges, over through Hudson's Straits, to try the land, towards the pole, which is about chance of finding a way across the inter600 miles from Hakluyt's Headland. But val lying between his late land exploration the attempt was fruitless. While he and on the west, and the bottom of Regent's his men were creeping up on boats and Inlet. But the voyage was unsatisfactory. sledges, to between 82o and 83° beyond In 1836, Dease and Simpson went from a which none have ventured, the ice they fort of the Hudson's Bay Company along were on was moving slowly to the South the Mackenzie to the Arctic coasts, and and their severe labor was all thrown examined the latter; but with no remarkaway.
able result. In 1845, other expeditions In 1-29, Captain John Ross, who had were set on foot. One was that of Dr. suffered a good deal in reputation from the John Rae, who proceeded from Fort treacherous Croker Mountains, resolved Churchhill, on Hudson's Bay, in July, to make another effort. As government 1846, and, travelling arduously northwould not encourage him, he was indebted ward with boats and sledges, discovered for his outfit to Mr. Felix Booth, a Lon Boothia to be a peninsula. The other don distiller, and subsequently a knight expedition was that of Sir John Frankand lord mayor, who, in return for his li lin. berality, has received an Arctic immor From the foregoing, it will be perceived tality-an enduring monument in icebergs that, after the first voyage of Parry, all
- in those regions bearing the names other progress was, so to speak, carried on Boothia, Felix, Lord Mayor, as the reader within and below his extreme delineations. may see on glancing at the map. Indeed, No one had ventured beyond Cape Walhe should do more than glance at it; for ker in the direction of Banks' Land, to the without it, any disquisition on the North west and south of North Somerset, or ern discoveries will make but a confused gone beyond Parry's Islands to the northimpression on his memory. Captain Ross west, or to the north, through Wellington went into Barrow's Straits, and entered Channel. Neither had any attempt been Regent's Inlet. He visited the land on made from Baffin's Bay, above Lancaster the west coast, and called it Boothia. He Sound, to enter those remote waters said wintered there, and, in 1831, his nephew, to flow round the pole. And, indeed, it James C. Ross, planted the English flag was no wonder that the explorers preferon the magnetic pole, in latitude 700 171 red the more known and southerly latinorth, and 96° 46' 4411 west longitude, tudes of Repulse Bay. Boothia, Coronation where the dip of the needle was nearly Gulf, and Victoria Land, to the remoter vertical. In April, 1832, finding his ship, solitudes of the more northern ways; the Victory, could not be extricated from while, at the same time, the narrowed the ice, Ross left it, and journeyed to the space between the extreme of continental Fury Beach for boats that were lying exploration from the west, and the coasts there. With these, after vast labor, he of Regent's Inlet and Hudson's Bay, very
naturally led men to look for the passage
Ross. Sir John was accompanied by Capin that direction.
tain Fitzjames and Captain Crozier, and Sir John Franklin was born at Spilsby, the squadron had a complement of 138 in Lincolnshire, in the year 1786. He He was spoken by the whaler Enentered the English nary in 1800 as mid terprise, Captain Martin, in Baffin's Bay, shipman, He served in the Polyphemus, on the 20th of July, and his ships were and, as a middy on board, witnessed the last seen on the 26th (fastened to an icebattle of the Baltic before Copenhagen, berg in Melville Bay) by Captain Dannett, where Nelson paid back the old Corsair of the whaler Prince of Wales. Franklin compliments of Regpar Lodbrok. Young had he himself stated-five years' proviFranklin went afterwards with Captain sions on board, and told Martin he could Flinders on a voyage of discovery to the
make them last seven years, if necessary, coasts of New Holland, and was ship with the help of the game which he was wrecked on a coral reef in August, 1803. sure of procuring Sir John was early inured to those perils When 1817 had passed away without and privations which attended his course tidings from the absent voyagers, some in life. He was signal-midshipman on anxiety began to be felt. After a time board the Bellerophon in the sea-fight of Sir John Ross expressed his belief the exTrafalgar in 1805, reading through the pedition was frozen up to the southwest smoke the signs of battle as they flew of Melville's Island. Sir Francis Beaufort, from mast to mast. In 1808, Lieutenant Sir W. E. Parry, Captain Beechy, Captain Franklin escorted the expatriated Bragan Sir John Richardson, and Captain Sir zas--flying before Junot and the other James C. Ross, were nearly of the same French generals-from the Tagus to the opinion, and thought that Franklin, if Rio Janeiro. Again, in 1814, he was with obliged to quit his ship, would try to make Packenham at New Orleans, trying to get his way, by an unknown interval, to the at Jackson behind the immortal mud Mackenzie or Coppermine, on the contiparapets and sand-bags (no cotton packs nent. Dr. McCormack and Captain Penny among them-we have Andrew's word spoke of Wellington Channel and Jones's for it), and was wounded in the boat ser Sound; but the former authorities greatly vice while. behaving spiritedly and well. relied, in forming their conclusions, on the In 1818, he commanded the Trent, and orders of the Admiralty, which a British accompanied Buchan to the north. Next officer is strictly bound to respect. These year he made that terrible overland jour orders were, that Sir John should endeaney to which we have briefly alluded. In vor, in the first instance, to proceed to1825, he made another overland expedition wards Behring's Straits, in a south westtowards the Polar Sea, leaving England erly direction from Cape Walker, and the in great depression of mind in consequence alternative, in case the way should be of his first wife's illness. This lady, closed, was an attempt through the opendaughter of Mr. Porden, architect, of Lon ing of Wellington Channel. In the spring don, died in less than a week after he had of 1848, Sir James C. Ross was sent with left England, carrying with him the flag the Enterprise and Investigator to Lancasshe had given him to hoist on reaching ter Sound. He found a barrier across the Polar Sea. He was obliged, by the Wellington Channel, and a vast quantity imperfect success of the expedition, to hoist of ice in Barrow's Straits. He wintered it on Garry's Island, at the mouth of the in the harbor of Port Leopold, where the Mackenzie River. He has left narratives Straits, Regent's Inlet, Wellington Chanof these two overland expeditions. In nel, and the Western opening made a cross 1827, he was presented by the Geographi or sort of northern Quatre Bras. The cal Society of Paris with a gold medal winter was passed in southerly explorings. worth $250. In 1828, he married Jane, With Lieutenant McClintock, Sir James daughter of John Griffin, Esq., of London, explored the west coast of North Somerand in 1829, Captain Franklin was knight- set, and Lieutenant Robinson examined ed by George IV. He was actively em the western shore of Regent's Inlet beyond ployed in the Mediterranean during the Fury Beach. Before quitting his quarters, war of Greek Independence, and received Sir James built a house at Port Leopold, for his services the order of the Redeemer leaving there fuel and provisions for of Greece. Sir John, if now alive, is in twelve months. He then made his way
into Lancaster Sound, and, on the 5th of Franklin left England on the 26th May, November, 1849, reported himself at the 1815, with the Erebus and Terror-two Admiralty, having missed the North Star ominously-named ships, which had been which had been sent out to him with inoriginally built for purposes of bornbard structions to attempt the passage through ment, and had only just returned from the Wellington Channel. Antarctic exploration under Sir James C. In 1848, Sir John Richardson again pro
his 67th year.
ceeded from the Hudson Bay stations to Three headstones, with inscriptions, markthe Arctic Sea, and explored the coast be ed these graves, and the dates were from tween the mouths of the Mackenzie and January to April
, 1846. Captain Austin's Coppermine, and also part of Wollaston's ships wintered southwest of Cornwallis Land, in the hope of finding some trace of Island. Several officers on foot rounded the missing expedition; but in vain. In the west end of Melville Island, in longithe same year the Plover, Captain Moore, tude 114° west, and saw land beyond the and the Herald, Captain Kellett, went up 116th meridian. The intermediate bays through Behring's Straits with the pur and passages were also explored. On the pose of intercepting Franklin's party should south of Barrow's Straits Captain Ommait have passed through the archipelago ney, Lieutenant Osborne, Meccham, and southwest of Cape Walker. On this sta Browne-at a season when the cold was tion the Plover has remained, co-operating 70° below zero, and spirits froze in bottles with other ships, and sending out explor -traced Cape Walker and the adjoining ing partios occasionally. In 1850, Lieut. straits to within 180 miles of Victoria Pullen of the Plover journeyed to the
Land. mouth of the Mackenzie, and so eastward Captain Penny's ships explored part of to Point Bathurst, whence he attempted Wellington Channel. He saw three blue to go to Banks' Land—that unvisited land openings to the west from that channel seen from the coasts of Parry's Islands. the north and east being closed with ice. But he failed; and in 1851 he returned to He perceived a strong current running from the Mackenzie River.
the westward, and it was his opinion, and The North Star, sent out in 1849 with that of all who accompanied him, that the instructions for Sir James C. Ross, win- prevailing winds were from the northwest. tered in Wolstenholme Sound, in Baffin's He attempted to send a party in that diBay, and returned to Spithead in Septem- rection, under Mr. Stuart, but it was stopber, 1850, after having seen in Lancaster ped by the water, which could be seen Sound the large squadron sent in that stretching on to the horizon. Penny asyear to look for the lost expedition. The serts there is a great amount of animal movements of this squadron must be fresh life in this region-four-footed, feathery, in the minds of most of our readers. Cap and finny-walruses, seals, whales, bears, tain Austin's ships, the Resolute and As hares, foxes, wolves, reindeer herds, flocks sistance, with their tenders, went from of king and eider ducks, brent. geese. gulls, England in May, 1850. In the same and other water-fowl. It should be obmonth, Mr. Grinnell's ships, the Advance served that the walrus can exist but where and Rescue, under De Haven and Griffin, there is open water, in which it may
rise proceeded to the north. Captain Penny for air. carried up his two ships, the Lady Frank Captain Forsyth, in the Prince Albert, iin and the Sophia; the veteran, Sir John made a rapid run to the Arctic circle and Ross, went in the Felix, and Captain For back to England in the space of four syth in the Prince Albert. In August, all months. He went through Lancaster these ships were in Lancaster Sound and Sound, and on to the Fury Beach, in ReBarrow's Straits, or the adjoining waters. gent's Inlet. Finding great obstructions On the 13th of that month, Captain Om to any further progress westwardly, he maney-Austin's second in command went up Wellington Channel, and, returnand Sir John Ross heard from Eskimos ing quickly, brought home the news of the in Barrow's Straits that two ships were relics on Beechy Island. By this time the crushed off Cape Dudley Diggs, and the chief points in Lancaster Sound and Barcrew's afterwards killed-in the winter of row's Straits had been examined, and also 1816 — by the natives. But this report the farther end of Melville Island beyond was owing to a misconception of the Es Cape Walker, without revealing any traces kimo language. On the 23d of August, of Sir John Franklin and his crews. Captain Ommaney, and, a few days later, The American ships, so generously misCaptain Penny, found traces of the miss sioned by Mr. Grinnell on this fraternal ing squadron on Point Riley and Beechy errand, were caught in the ice in Lancaster Island, at the opening of Wellington Chan Sound, borne up Wellington Channel, then nel. These were a small guide-board at back again, and out through Lancaster tached to a boarding-pike eight feet long, Sound into Baffin's Bay-a drift of 1000 and bearing an index pointing the way to miles during 267 days! Having at last the ships, a wooden anvil block, some rem extricated his ships, De Haven again pronants of rope and clothes, several hundred ceeded to confront the deadly difficulties cmpty meat-cannisters, and, above all, the of the search, but was checked by the ice, graves of three men of the squadron: John and obliged reluctantly to return to NewHartnell, and William Baine, of the Ere York in October, 1851. bus, and John Torrington, of the Terror. While all these ships were exploring