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glossed with a golden lustre, the crown of the head, nape, and back, darkening to almost perfect black; the quills are chocolate, with white shafts, the tail black, slightly barred with ash; the legs are feathered to the ankles; the feet bright yellow, with large, strong scales, and powerful, blue claws.
The whole port and demeanor of this bird is truly graceful and majestical ; his ordinary position is erect, and his gaze heavenward. He is full of daring courage, entirely apart from his predatory rapacity, and will attack a man, or any animal which offers him an affront or injury when in confinement.
Concerning his longevity, some remarkable facts have come under my own ob servation; a singularly fine specimen of this bird having been kept, from a time beyond the memory of persons now living, by a more remote branch of my own family, on an old hall on the frontiers of Herefordshire ; and being regarded, especially by the servants, with something nearly akin to superstitious awe.
This bird was more or less familiar to ine from my seventh to my twentieth year; and I well remember the mingled fear and admiration with which I used to regard his fierce glee, the superb clashing of his great wings, the fire of his eyes, and his exulting shrieks in times of wild, tempestuous weather, in thunderstorms, and hurricanes of wind, especially. At such times, it appeared as if the long: light, but strong, chain could not control his awakened impulses; nor the courtyard, of which he had the undisputed range, contain his mounting spirit.
The heads of the family to which I refer had died young, and no distinct record existed of the period of the eagle's capture. His attendant, however, was an old gardener, who had been born, and lived to his eightieth year, in the house. He remembered no time when the eagle was not as then, and he did remember that his father, to whose office he succeeded, had spoken of the bird as being sent, a scarce fledged nestling, from North Wales, while he was yet a stripling, to the hall.
I saw that eagle last in about the year 1828; and I am well satisfied that he had then passed a century, although he showed no signs of age; and though I cannot assert that he is yet living, I do not doubt it, for I believe I should have heard of his death, had it occurred.
This eagle was fed, for the most part, on rabbits, which he slew himself-not by the way as an especial act of execution, but in process of devouring—and it is remarkable, that though he would clutch and eagerly swallow gobbets of raw meat,
if thrown to him, he would not touch dead birds or quadrupeds.
I cannot say, however, that his appetite was ever severely tempted by long fasting
At another riod, I had an opportunity of studying two Golden Eagles, a male and female, with a young year-old bird having the ring-tail plumage, which were kept in a large timber cage, embracing two considerable fir trees in its precincts.
The nest of these birds had been harried, among the crags near Greta Bridge; the young one was taken; and, by his means, the parents had been trapped, by the device well known to game preservers, as the circle.
At the time of my seeing these eagles, they had tasted nothing but water for nearly a week, during the whole of which time, a dead fox had lain untouched in their den. That they were nearly famished was evident from the fury with which they tore and devoured, almost alive, some unhappy pigeons, which were thrown to them. Whether in a free state the Golden Eagle will never partake of dead food cannot easily be proved; that he is most reluctant to do so, is certain ; and I think it probable that, as most animals of prey are endowed with a power of resistance to the pangs of hunger proportionate to their avidity, this gallant bird would submit to great extremity before he would condescend to carrion.
An excellent sportsman and good naturalist, not nearly so well known in this country as he deserves to be, Colquhoun of Luss, who from his abode in the wildest part of the Scottish Highlands has had great opportunities of observing eagles, confirms, from personal knowledge, many of the facts stated above—especially the cruel mode of killing, the hare-diet, and the peculiarity of the young bird being ring-tailed.
By the way, it is not here unworthy of remark, that, in a country so distant as Greece, an age so remote as that distinguished by the battles of Marathon and Platæa, nearly 500 years B. C., the poet Æschylus had noted the peculiar prey of the warlike birds of Jupiter, and even their distinctive coloring, while it is even open to doubt whether he was not aware of the immature condition of the whitetailed bird, which he assimilates to the younger and less warlike of the Atreid princes.
As the passage is curious, in more ways than one, I have quoted it' entire from a recent translation of the fine play which contains it, published in the university press at Harvard.
“What time the impetuous bird sent out
ful, it is no unfrequent occurrence, when The Achaians' two-throned power, And Ilellas' martial tower,
the sportsman starts one, for an eagle to In league resolved and stout
pounce down and carry it off, struggling, Sent them with puissant spear, and potent hand, with the greatest ease.
In this case, he Against the Teucrian land, The king of birds to the king of ships appearing
always allows the hare to run a long way The royal palace nearing.
out of shot before he strikes, and is apt to On the spear-hand, conspicuous in place,
miss altogether. When no enemy is Onc black and white-tailed oneA teeming hare devouring with her race,
near, he generally adopts the more sure Their last course brietly run."
way of tiring out his game. Letting this passage go merely for what "The color of the golden-eagle differs it is worth, as the illustration of another much. Some are so dark as almost to and entirely foreign subject, it is at least justify the name of the “black-eagle, remarkable, as indicating the perfect iden which they are often called in the Hightity of appearance, habit and association lands :—in others, the golden tint is very of the fierce hare slaughterers, at a place bright, and many are even of a muddy and time so remote.
brown. I do not think that the age of The witness I shall now call to the bar the bird has any thing to do with this, as is no poet nor dreamer, but a stalwart I have seen young and old equally varikilted Highlander, as apt with the rifle as able. The sure mark of a young one is the pen, and duly qualified, as a Duinhe the degree of white on the tail: the first wassal, or Highland gentleman nigh of kin year the upper half is pure, which gradto the chief of Luss, to stick the single wally becomes less so, by streaks of feather of the war-eagle in his own blue brown-about the third or fourth year bonnet.
no white is to be seen." Hear to the author of " The Moor and This I presume, with the facts I have the Loch." “ The Golden Eagle is not” adduced concerning the young ring-tail he says—" nearly so great a foc to the taken from the nest of golden parents, farmer as to the sportsman; for although would be in itself sufficient to establish a pair having young will occasionally the identity of the species; but I presume pounce upon very young and unprotected this, among ornithologists, is sufficiently lambs, and continue their depredations done already. until scared away, the more usual prey There are a class of people who choose consists of hares, rabbits, and grouse-a to believe their eyes only, without using fact sufficiently proved by the feathers what small modicum of brains they may and bones found in their eyries. A pair chance to possess, in the endeavor to comused to build every year in Balquidder, prehend what their eyes do actually seeanother in Glen Oyle, and a third in these people, who are of the same breed Glenartney: The shepherds seldom mo with the sapient Jerseymen who are lested the old ones; but by means of lad ready to swear that the Sora rail become ders, at considerable risk, took the young frogs in winter; and with that learned and sold them. One of these, brought to Theban of the Massachusetts legislature, Callander, no: long ago, when scarcely who insisted that snipe and woodcock are full fledged, would seize a live cat thrown the same bird, and after careful examinato it for food, and bearing it away with tion of Wilson, Audubon, &c., still perthe greatest ease tear it to pieces, the cat sisted these people, I say,
will doubtless unable to offer any resistance, and utter insist that, inasmuch as one of these ing most horrid yells.
birds has a white tail, and the other has • When two eagles are in pursuit of a not, they are not one, but two. hare, they show great tact-it is exactly For geniuses of this order, however, I as if two well-matched greyhounds were do not write ;-to those, however, who turning a hare; as one rises, the other reason as they read, I have a word or two descends, until poor puss is tired out; of explanation, lest they attach a meaning, when one of them succeeds in catching other than that I intended, to one phrase her, it fixes a claw in her back, and holds I have used, and which cannot well be by the ground with the other, striking all altered, although it is in some degree the time with the beak. I have several liable to misapprehension.
This word times seen cagles coursed in the same way said, I shall close a paper which has alby carrion crows and ravens, whose terri ready come nigh to transcending limits. tory they had invaded; the eagle gene premising only that if the readers of rally seems to have enough to do in keep Putnam wax not weary of Ornithomanes ing clear of his sable foes, and every now and his, at least, harmless mania, he has and then gives a shrill whistle or scream. yet a few matters to discourse anent the
“ If the eagle is at all alarmed when in Bald-headed Eagle, and his most unwilling pursuit of his prey, he instantly bears it purveyor, the fish-hawk or osprey, of off alive. Where Alpine hares are plenti whom more anon.
In speaking of the Golden Eagle, above, members its prey living, instead of fracin relation to his devouring his prey with turing its skull or decapitating it with a out previously slaughtering it, I adopted single blow, as some of the falcons do, the word cruel ; I wish it, however, to be but a peculiarity arising from the fact understood that I intended the applica that the talons of the eagle, which are not tion to the sufferings of the unfortunate necessarily mortal weapons, and not his victim, and by no means to the disposition beak, are his instruments of offence; and, of the slaughterer, whose carnivorous in secondly, that the inferior size and power stincts and modes of satiating them are of his victims do not oblige him to kill. in alike from on high.
order to conquer them. The quality of cruelty—that is to say, No animal, however ferocious, kills of inflicting pain for the pleasure of inflict wantonly, or beyond the extent of his aping it—is unknown to the brute creation; petites. If the tiger or the domestic cat to kill, is the necessity of the carnivora, to seem to torment, it is only that they detorture, the peculiarity of man.
sire to detain their captive until their It is no mercy that leads the warbler hunger shall prompt them to destroy. to kill the caterpillar or worm before In the whole range of God's creation, swallowing it, but merely a matter of from the eagle to the humming-bird, from precaution, since, devouring its prey whole, the lion to the lamb, there is neither to devour it alive would be at least un wickedness nor cruelty but that which toward.
arises from perverted reason. It is no cruelty in the eagle that it dis
THE rain is beating sullenly to-night,
The wild red flowers like flames are drenched away,
Strikes cold and disinal. Only yesterday
Washed up the daisies, and the barks of trees
The brier hung heavy with the yellow bees.
Now all is blank—the wind climbs drearily
Against the hills, the pastures close are browsed;
Ants cease from running, and the bat is housed.
Of comfort sends me from its home above;
Slowly and sadly fading out of love.
I only see the wild boughs as they blow
Against my window, see the purple slant
And yet again the whistling March will plant
In their own time—the king-cups in their day
If my weak thoughts could strike upon the way.
opinions and actions of his friends and AMERICAN.—Three portly volumes, con acquaintances, they cannot but prove an tainining “The Works of WILLIAM H. important addition to our historical literSEWARD," have just been published by ature. Mr. Sparks is a laborious and Redfield. They contain nearly every
generally faithful editor, but we hope that thing that has come from the prolific pen in the forthcoming volumes he has conof their author, from his messages as fined his editorial supervision to the work Governor of the State of New-York, and of compilation, and not correction. We his speeches in the Senate of the United fully agree with Lord Mahon, that the States, down to his addresses to Whig writings of eminent historical personages meetings, and his general correspondence. ought to be given to us with all their imNor is there any want of variety in the perfections on their head. topics of which they treat-politics, inter --Rural Essays by A. J. DOWNING, nal improvements, farming, education, edited, with a memoir of the author, by prison discipline, Ireland and Irishmen, Geo. Wm. Curtis ; and a letter to his Webster, Clay, Lafayette, Kossuth, sla friends by Frederika Bremer, is the very, as well as law arguments and letters title of a large volume just issued by G. to dinner committees, are among them; P. Putnam & Co., uniform with Mr. Dowsome treated with elaborate carefulness, ning's Landscape Gardening, The and others in a more brief and familiar book comprises his contributions to the style. A memoir of the author, with an Horticulturist, and contains a great numengraving of his face and residence, is ber of essays upon all departments of prefixed to the whole. As it is our in rural life, treated with that singular mastention to devote a special article to this tery of the subject, and the ability to prebook, we satisfy ourselves here with a sent the most accurate rural science in a simple announcement of its appearance. popular, graceful and elegant manner,
- What a rare instance of almost equal which so eminently distinguished the aueminence in two brothers, is that of the thor. We have lost few men whom the BROTHERS HUMBOLDT, a sketch of whose country could so ill spare as Downing. biography, translated from the German, His influence was universally acknowhas recently been published by the Harp ledged and perceived, and his works will ers! ALEXANDER, the man of science, long continue to be our standard authorunquestionably takes the precedence of ities in American rural art. The present WILLIAM, the statesman and diplomatist; volume completes his works. It is an enbut both are men of the highest intellect tirely original book in its way; a unique ual range, and the noblest character. collection of essays interesting and inThe incidents of their travels and studies structive not only to those who live in the given in the volume before us are full of country, but to all who have any sympainterest and instruction.
thies beyond the city. We remark espe—" The_Captive in Patagonia,” by cially his chivalric courtesy toward woBENJAMIN FRANKLIN BOURNE—a gentle men, the graceful hints and cheerful adman who, going ashore at the Straits of vice he gives them concerning their garMagellan, fell into the hands of the Giants, dens and flowers, and bis great interest in whose manners and customs, their cruelty, the rural life of English women, to which cowardice and filthiness, he describes with he alludes in his letters from England, -no little animation and apparent fidelity. which form part of the volume, -as well He was kept too close a prisoner to allow as in several of the essays. The profound him to add much to our geographical regard which he inspired in many women, knowledge of the country.
whose friendship he was fortunate enough -A valuable work, the “ Correspond to enjoy, is well indicated in the commuence of the Revolution,” to be edited by nication of Miss Bremer, which speaks of JARED SPARKS, is announced at Boston. him, as the Editor observes in the preface, It will contain letters from more than a “ with the unreserved warmth of a private hundred individuals who acted a con letter." It is a volume heartily to be comspicuous part in our revolutionary drama, mended as a book for summer reading ; and who were among the correspondents while its calm and shrewd insight, its vaof Washington. The editor selected and rious and regulated knowledge, its transcopied them from the original manuscripts parent and simple style, will make it a while engaged in preparing the “ Writings permanent companion of the thoughtful of Washington, and they may, there and refined who believe, with Lord Bacon, fore, be regarded as a continuation of that that “God Almighty first planted a garwork. Illustrative of the life of the den,” and, indeed, it is the first of human Great Chief, and at the same time of the pleasures.
-We have not heard of Martin Farqu mer Nights--A Gift of Love for the har Tupper's being sent to an insane asy Beautiful,” is the inexplicable title of a lum, or we should suspect him of writing small volume of verse by T. H. CHVERS, a little book entitled the New Bond of M. D., which has come to us from PhilaLove, which has been politely sent to us, delphia, although_it is copyrighted in but which is so strictly anonymous that Massachusetts. Dr. CHVERS remarks the title-page does not even bear the name in his preface, that “it is obvious that no of a publisher. The book is extremely true poet ever yet wrote for the Aristarchi Tupperish, but with a certain wildness of the world-only to show them how that the author of Proverbial Philosophy little they know-but only for the divine has not displayed in any of his published Areopagus of Heaven.” And we coincide writings. The new bond of love which wholly in the Doctor's opinion. We do the author has invented, consists of the not think any true poet ever did any following modest proposal, which is almost thing of the kind. What possible motive equal to Swift's humane suggestion for could have induced the author of the book the alleviation of Irish suffering.
before us, after having written his verses “Let every human being under the broad to publish them, we have no means of face of heaven, make up his mind, by his knowing, although he says in concluding own free will, to work during one month of his preface, “ Thus have I moulded on the every year, according to the best of his swift circling wheel of my soul some of ability, for the benefit of those who are the manifold members of that Divine only less competent, but not less good." Beauty which lives immortal in the shin
-Stuart's work on the Naval and Mail ing House of Life.” And therein, we imSteamers of the United States, recently agine, lies the whole mystery. published by Norton, of this city, is one -An instructive book is the "Reason of the very finest examples of book-mak and Faith and other Miscellaneous Esing that we can boast of. It is not often says," of Henry RODGERS. They are exthat a purely scientific and practical work tracted mostly from the Edinburgh Reis published as a show-book, like the bril view, where they attracted considerable liant works of fancy that are expressly attention at the time by their learning, intended for the ornamentation of centre vigor, and pervading thoughtfulness. Mr. tables in richly furnished drawing-rooms. Rodgers can scarcely be regarded as a pro
- A book published in nearly as hand found thinker, though he certainly is an some style as the above is Bartlett's Com acute and careful one, while his writings mercial and Banking Tables, which comes exhibit unusual cultivation, and the most to us from Cincinnati, and gives a most decided religious principle. His articles satisfactory indication of the arts of print on Old Fuller, the church historian, and ing and binding west of the Alleghanies. on the Correspondence of Luther, are as It is a most serviceable and excellent agreeable as they are instructive. work.
--A complete edition of “Jefferson's - The Autobiography of an English Works” is said to be in preparation at oldier in United States Army,” Washington, the editorship having been is the title of a rather readable volume committed to the hands of a distinguished which has been recently republished from gentleman of Virginia. All the collections the London edition by Stringer & Towns of Jefferson that we have had heretofore end. It is worthy of remark, that while have been incomplete, giving us merely some of our most popular authors gradu fragments of his voluminous productions. ated in our national and mercantile ships, Jefferson was the master-spirit of his day, the army has not furnished us a single who left the impress of his genius on the writer of eminence; and the fact is the institutions and mind of his country; and more remarkable, as the officers of the
every thing that he wrote ought to be in army have nearly all had an academical the possession of the public. We should education, while our navy is composed like to see as perfect a record of his existchiefly of self-educated men.
ence made, as Charles Francis Adams has lish soldier was a Scotch hand-loom given us of his illustrious rival and friend weaver, who came to this country to work John Adams. But let there be no tamperat his trade, and, not finding employment, ing with his manuscripts: what we have a enlisted in the army, and served through right to, in the case of all such men, is the Mexican war. It is very well to have their own sayings and doings, and not the the observations of an intelligent soldier, interpretations of editors, who may conwho was a participator in the Mexican ceive it necessary to suppress or alter their campaign, and who is sure of not erring writings, to suit the opinions of the day, on the favorable side in giving his account or of particular localities. If Jefferson had of the conduct of our army.
weaknesses, or was chargeable with incon—“Virginalia ; or Songs of my Sum sistencies, or entertained offensive opinions,