Obrazy na stronie

by those excellent men in Constantinople. a large and important section of the ChrisBy a wise selection of youths from different tian population of Turkey, may reasonably parts of the empire, who from their char hope that the time is not far distant when acter and abilities were deemed worthy of it may exercise a marked influence upon the choice, they were shortly enabled to other Christian sects, as well as upon those send into the provinces those who could who surround them; preparing them for sow the seeds of truth and knowledge, the enjoyment of extended political privi. without incurring the suspicions attaching leges, and for the restoration of a pure and to strangers, and without laboring under rational faith to the East. that ignorance of the manners and lan “ The influence of this spirit of inquiry, guages of those amongst whom they mix, fostered by the American missions, has not which must always prove so serious an ob been alone confined to those who have been stacle to foreigners in their intercourse cut off from their own community. The with the natives. A movement of this na Armenian clergy, no longer able to coerce ture could scarcely eseape persecution. The their flocks, or to persecute those who left Armenian clergy, not unfavorable to the them, have found that the only mode of darkness and bigotry which had for centu checking the schism is to reform the abuses ries disgraced their Church, and exercising' of their own Church, and to educate and an uncontrolled power over an ignorant instruct their people. Schools in opposition and simple people, soon raised a cry against to the American establishments have been the ‘Evangelists,' as they were contempt opened in the capital and in most of the uously called. By such misrepresentations large towns of Asia Minor; and elementary and calumnies as are always ready at hand and theological works, of a far more liberal to the enemies of progress and reform, they character than any hitherto published in were able to enlist in their favor the Turk Turkey, have been printed by Armenian ish authorities at the capital and in the printing-presses in Constantinople and provinces. Unfortunately, four sects alone, Smyrna, or introduced into the country the Roman Catholic, the Armenian, the from Venice. This is another, though an Greek, and the Copt, were recognized by indirect, result of their labors, which the the Porte amongst their Christian subjects. American missionaries may justly contemThe reformed Armenian Church was con plate with satisfaction, uomingled with any sequently without an acknowledged head, feelings of jealousy or ill-will. and unable to communicate directly or in “Whilst on this subject, and connected as directly with the government, to make I have been with the Nestorians, I must known its tenets, or to complain of the not omit a tribute of praise to the admirable acts of injustice and persecution to which establishments of the American missions it was exposed. Many persons fell victims amongst the Chaldæans of Ooroomiyah in to their opinions. Some were cruelly tor Persia, under the able direction of the Rev. tured in the house of the Patriarch himself, Mr. Perkins. It was with much regret and others were imprisoned or utterly ru that I was compelled to give up the plan I ined in Constantinople and the provinces. had formed of visiting that small colony Sir Stratford Canning at length exerted his from the New World. The Rev. Mr. Bow. powerful influence to protect the injured en, who crossed the frontiers from Wan, sect from these wanton cruelties. Through has in a true Christian spirit borne witness his exertions and those of Lord Cowley, in the English Cuurch to the enlightened when minister, a firman was obtained from and liberal spirit in which their labors are the Sultan, placing the new Protestant carried on. Forty or fifty schools have community on the same footing as the been opened in the town of Oorvomiyah other Churches of the empire, assigning to and surrounding villages. The abuses that it a head, or agent, through whom it could have crept into this primitive and highly apply directly to the ministers, and extend interesting Church are being reformed, and ing to it other privileges enjoyed by the the ignorance of its simple clergy gradually Roman Catholics and Greeks. This act of dispelled. A printing-press, for which type toleration and justice has given fresh vigor has been purposely cut, now publishes for to the spirit of inquiry bred by the Ameri general circulation the Seriptures and works can missionaries. There is now scarcely a of education in the dialect and character town of any importance in Turkey without peculiar to the mountain tribes. The Enga Protestant community, and in most of the lish language has been planted in the heart principal cities the American mission has of Asia, and the benefits of knowledge are opened schools, and is educating youths for

extended to a race which, a few years ago, the priesthood. Fortunately for the cause, was almost unknown even by name to Eumany men of irreproachable character and rope.”—Pp. 404-407. of undoubted sincerity from the Armenian nation have been associated with it, and its

To this let us add the testimony he success has not been endangered, like that

bears to the personal character of the mis

sionaries themselves. of so many other movements of the same kind, by interested, or hasty conversions. “I cannot refrain from recording the names Those who have watched the effect that of the Rev. Messrs. Goodall, Dwight, Holmes, this desire for improvement and for reli Hamlin, and Schauffler, of the Constantigious freedom is gradually producing upon nople missionary station; the late excellent

and enterprising Dr. Smith, who, like the estimable Dr. Grant, his fellow-laborer in the same field, and many others of his countrymen, has recently fallen a victim to his zeal and devotion; the Rev. Eli Smith, of Beyrout, and Perkins of Ooroomiyah; men who will ever be connected with the first spread of knowledge and truth amongst the Christians of the East, and of whom their country may justly be proud. Personally I must express my gratitude to them for many acts of kindness and friendship. The American mission has now establishments in Smyrna, Brousa, Trebizond, Erzeroom, Diarbekir, Mosul, Aintab, Aleppo, and many other cities in Asia Minor, together with native agents all over Turkey.”—p. 406, Note.

We turn now to personal incidents and illustrations of the Arab character and customs, of which, we assure our readers, the book contains a most pleasant variety. And first let us introduce to their acquaintance a Sheikh of the Boraij. When Mr. Layard was about to make his excursion from Mosul to Arban on the river Khabour, as the Shammar Bedouins were scouring the plains for plunder, he found it necessary to seek the protection and company of one of the influential chiefs of the Shammar tribe; and for this purpose selected Suttum, who was well known to him, and on whom he could rely.

“The Sheikh had the general direction and superintendence of our march. The Mesopotamian desert had been his home from his birth, and he knew every spring and pasture. He was of the Saadi, one of the most illustrious families of the Shammar, and he possessed great personal influence in the tribe. His intelligence was of a very high order, and he was as well known for his skill in Bedouin intrigue, as for his courage and daring in war. In person he was of middle height, of spare habit, but well made, and of noble and dignified carriage; although a musket wound in the thigh, from which the ball had not been abstracted, gave him a slight lameness in his gait. His features were regular and well-proportioned, and of that delicate character so frequently found amongst the nomades of the desert. A restless and sparkling eye of the deepest black spoke the inner man, and seemed to scan and penetrate every thing within its ken. His dark hair was platted into many long tails; his beard, like that of the Arabs in general, was scanty. He wore the usual Arab shirt, and over it a cloak of blue cloth, trimmed with red silk and lined with fur, a present from some Pasha as he pretended, but more probably a part of some great man's wardrobe that had been appropriated without its owner's consent. A colored kerchief, or keffieh, was thrown loosely over his head, and confined above the temples by a rope

VOL. 1.-33

of twisted camel's hair. At his side hung a scimitar, an antique horse-pistol was held by a rope tied as a girdle round his waist, and a long spear, tufted with black ostrich feathers, and ornamented with scarlet streamers, rested on his shoulder. He was the very picture of a true Bedouin Sheikh, and his liveliness, his wit, and his singular powers of conversation, which made him the most agreeable companion, did not be. lie his race.”—Pp. 238—240.

Necessity has made the Bedouin, like our American Indian, a most observant animal; and the sagacity with which both reach correct results from data seemingly insignificant to the civilized man, is often matter of surprise even to those familiar with their acuteness.

“We again visited the remarkable volcanic cone of Koukab. As we drew near to it, Mijwell detected, in the loose soil, the footprints of two men, which he immediately recognized to be those of Shammar thieves returning from the Kurdish encampments. The sagacity of the Bedouin in de termining from such marks, whether of man or beast, and, from similar indications, the tribe, time of passing, and business, of those who may have left them, with many other particulars, is well known. In this respect he resembles the American Indian, though the circumstances differ under which the two are called upon to exercise this peculiar faculty. The one seeks or avoids his enemy in vast plains, which, for three-fourths of the year, are without any vegetation; the other tracks his prey through thick woods and high grass. This quickness of perception is the result of continual observation and of caution encour. aged from earliest youth. When the warriors of a tribe are engaged in distant forays or in war, their tents and flocks are frequently left to the care of a mere child. He must receive strangers, amongst whom may be those having claims of blood upon his family, and must guard against marauders, who may be lurking about the encampment. Every unknown sign and mark must be examined and accounted for. If he should see the track of a horseman he must ask himself why one so near the dwellings did not stop to eat bread or drink water? was he a spy; one of a party meditating an attack? or a traveller, who did not know the site of the tents? When did he pass ? From whence did he come? Whilst the child in a civilized country is still under the care of its nurse, the Bedouin boy is compelled to exercise his highest faculties, and on his prudence and sagacity may sometimes depend the safety of his tribe.

The expert Bedouin can draw conclusions from the footprints and dung of animals that would excite the astonishment of an European. He will tell whether the camel was loaded or unloaded, whether recently

fed or suffering from hunger, whether fatigued or fresh, the time when it passed by, whether the owner was a man of the desert or of the town, whether a friend or foe, and sometimes even the name of his tribe. I have frequently been cautioned by my Bedouin companions, not to dismount from my dromedary, that my footsteps might not be recognized as those of a stranger; and my deloul has even been led by my guide to prevent those who might cross our path detecting that it was ridden by one not thoroughly accustomed to the management of the aniñal. It would be easy to explain the means, simple enough indeed, by which the Arab of the desert arrives at these results. In each case there is a train of logical deduction, merely requiring common acuteness and great experience.”—Pp. 322, 323.

Long practice has given to them a keenness and quickness of vision utterly unknown in polished life: the distant speck, indistinct or even invisible to the ordinary observer, becomes to their naked eyes a clearly defined object, when scarcely distinguishable to the European with his telescope.

“Whilst I was examining the ruins, Suttum, from the highest mound, had been scanning the plain with his eagle eye. At length it rested upon a distant moving object. Although with a telescope I could scarcely distinguish that to which he pointed, the Sheikh saw that it was a rider on a dromedary. He now, therefore, began to watch the stranger with that eager curiosity and suspicion always shown by a Bedouin when the solitude of the desert is broken by a human being of whose condition and business he is ignorant. Suttum 800n satisfied hiniself as to the character of the solitary wanderer. He declared him to be a messenger from his own tribe, who had been sent to lead us to his father's tents. Mounting his horse, he galloped towards him. The Arab soon perceived the approaching horseman, and then commenced on both sides a series of manouvres practised by those who meet in the desert, and are as yet distrustful of each other. I marked them from the ruin as they cautiously approached, now halting, now drawing nigh, and then pretending to ride away in an opposite direction. At length, recog. nizing one another, they met, and, having first dismounted to embrace, came together towards us. As Suttum had conjectured, a messenger had been sent to him from his father's tribe. The Boraij were now moving towards the north in search of the spring pastures, and their tents would be pitched in three or four days beneath the Sinjar hill. Suttum at once understood the order of their march, and made arrangements to meet them accordingly.”—p. 244.

Of their fidelity and hospitality our author recounts numerous instances, for which we must refer to his book; and

there is a delicacy not unworthy of imitation in their mode of communicating sad tidings. Mr. Layard chanced to be the guest of one of the Jebour tribe when intelligence was brought to him of the death of a favorite sister.

“An Arab of the tribe, weary and way. worn, entered the tent and seated himself without giving the usual salutation; all present knew that he had come from the Khabour and from distant friends. His silence argued evil tidings. By an indirect remark, immediately understood, he told his errand to one who sat next to him, and who in turn whispered it to Sheikh Ibrahim, the chief's uncle. The old man said aloud, with a sigh, 'It is the will and mercy of God; she is not dead but released!' Abd. rubbou at once understood of whom he spake. He arose and went forth, and the wailing of the mother and of the women soon issued from the inner recesses of the tent.”—p. 275.

But with all the evidences afforded us of the possession of some of the nobler and better qualities of our kind; there is also proof that some of the weaknesses of our common humanity develope themselves pretty much in the same mode among Arabs and Christians. The story of Suttum's domestic troubles affords an apt illustration, and a pleasant episode in Mr. Layard's narrative. He was about leaving Mosul for the river Khabour, under the protection of Suttum, when the Arab came to prefer a request.

“As he was to be for some time absent from his tents, he asked to take his wife with him, and I willingly consented: Rathaiyah was the sister of Suttăm el Meekh, chief of the powerful tribe of the Abde, one of the principal divisions of the Shammar. Although no longer young, she still retained much of her early beauty. There was more than the usual Bedouin fire in her large black eyes, and her hair fell in many ringlets on her shoulders. Her temper was haughty and imperious, and she evidently held more sway over Suttum than he liked to acknowledge, or was quite consistent with his character as a warrior. He had married her from motives of policy, as ce menting an useful alliance with a powerful tribe. She appears to have soon carried matters with a high hand, for poor Suttum had been compelled, almost immediately after his marriage, to send back a young and beautiful wife to her father's tent. This prior claimant upon his affections was now on the Khabour with her tribe, and it was probably on this account that Rathaiyah, knowing the direction he was about to take, was so anxious to accompany her husband. She rode on the dromedary behind her lord, a comfortable seat having been made for her with a rug and a coverlet."

P. 264.


We confess this little circumstance does as their brides according to Bedouin law. not make on us an impression very favor Adla now sought to be reconciled through able to Mrs. Suttum; more particularly

me to her husband. Rathaiyah, the new as we learn from Mijwell, a brother of

wife, whose beauty was already on the Suttum, that she was the wooer and not

wane, dreaded her young rival's share in the wooed :

the affections of her lord, over whom she

had established more influence than a lady “He entertained me, as

we returned

might be supposed to exercise over her home, with the domestic affairs of his fam

spouse amongst independent Arabs. The ily. Rathaiyah had offered herself in mar Sheikh was afraid to meet Adla, until, after riage to Suttum, and not he to her; a com much negotiation, Hormuzd acting as ammon proceeding, it would appear, among bassador, the proud Rathaiyah consented to the Bedouins. Suttum had consented, be receive her in her tent. Then the injured cause he thought it politic to be thus allied

lady refused to accept these terms, and the with the Abde, one of the most powerful matter was only finished by Hormuzd takbranches of the Shammar, generally at war ing her by the arm and dragging her by with the rest of the tribe. But his new

force over the grass to her rival. There wife, besides having sent away her rival, all the outward forms of perfect reconciliahad already offended his family by her tion were satisfactorily gone through, alpride and haughtiness. Mijwell rather though Suttum evidently saw that there looked upon his brother with pity, as a hen was a different reception in store for himpecked liusband.”—p. 316.

self when there was no European eye-witThe cavalcade had not proceeded far on

Such are the trials of married life its way to the Khabour, before another

in the desert!”—pp. 293, 294. interesting illustration of conjugal amia Alas! can it be that there are Mrs. bility was furnished by this proud lady. Caudles all over the world ? Is not even

Mr. Layard, speaking of Suttum, says, the Desert exempt from them? Who “He came to me before nightfall, some

can blame poor Suttum for seeking, as he what downcast in look, as if a heavy weight

did, to alleviate his cares and dissipate his were on his mind. At length, after various

troubles in the exciting sport of falconry? circumlocutions, he said that his wife would And here we touch a topic which, for the not sleep under the white tent which I had sake of our home sportsmen, we may not lent her, such luxuries being, she declared, pass unnoticed. There is probably no part only worthy of city ladies, and altogether of the globe where the hawk is better unbecoming the wife and daughter of a trained than on the Tigris and Euphrates. Bedouin, “So determined is she,' said Sut

It is easy to see that Mr. Layard himself tum, “in the matter, that, Billah! she de

entered into the sport with no little ardor serted my bed last night and slept on the

and he seems to write about it con amore. grass in the open air; and now she swears she will leave me and return on foot to her

He is on the lower Euphrates, and thus kindred, unless I save her from the indig

speaks : nity of sleeping under a white tent.” It “I spent the following day with Abde was inconvenient to humor the fancies of Pasha, who was an ardent sportsman, and the Arab lady, but as she was inexorable, I entertained me with hawking. The Arab gave her a black Arab tent, used by the and Kurdish chiefs, who were in his camp, servants for a kitchen. Under this sheet were summoned at dawn to accompany of goat-hair canvass, open on all sides to him. Most of them had their own falcons the air, she said that she could breathe and huntsmenan indispensable part of freely, and feel again that she was a Be..

the establishment of an eastern nobleman. douin."--Pp. 267, 268.

We formed altogether a very gay and goodPresently they reached Arban on the

ly company. Bustards, hares, gazelles,

francolins, and several wild animals aboundKhabour, and then comes the interview

ed in the jungle and the plains, and before between the rival wives.

we returned in the afternoon scarcely a “Soon after our arrival at the Khabour, horseman was without some trophy of the Adla, Suttum's first wife, came to us with chase dangling from his saddle. her child. After the Sheikh's marriage “Two of the hereditary Pashas of Kurdiswith Rathaiyah, she had been driven from tan, claiming descent from the ancient Arab her husband's tent by the imperious temper tribe of Beni Khaled, were with us. Deof his new bride, and had returned to Mog- prived of their family possessions, and livhamis her father. Her eldest sister was ing as exiles in Baghdad, no longer able to the wife of Suttum's eldest brother Sahi wage war or to go on marauding expeditions, man, and her youngest, Maizi, was be their chief employment was hunting. They trothed to Suttum's youngest brother were formerly renowned for their wellMijwell. The three were remarkable for trained falcons. their beauty; their dark eyes had the true “The Bedouins, too, of whom there were Bedouin fire, and their long black hair fell many in the camp, are, as I have already in clusters on their shoulders. Their cous remarked, much given to the chase, and esins, the three brothers, bad claimed them pecially to hawking. Unable to obtain a

variety of falcons, they generally use the species called Chark, a bird found in the Sinjar, in the hills near Arbil, and in the rocky ravines of northern Mesopotamia. They educate them with care; but the great trainers in the East are the Persians and Kurds. The Turks are seldom sufficiently active to engage in these manly pursuits.

“The hawk most valued by Eastern sportsmen is the Shaheen, a variety of the northern peregrine falcon, and esteemed the most noble of the race. Although the smallest in size, it is celebrated for its courage and daring, and is constantly the theme of Persian verse. There are several kinds of Shaheen, each distinguished by its size and plumage; those from the Gebel Shammar, in Nedjd, are the most prized, but being only brought by occasional pilgrims from Mecca, are very rare,

The next best are said to come from Tokat, in Asia Minor. The Shaheen should be caught and trained when young. It strikes its quarry in the air, and may be taught to attack even the largest eagle, which it will boldly seize, and, checking its flight, fall with it to the ground. The sportsman should, however, be at hand to release the falcon immediately, or it will soon fall a victim to its temerity. It is usually flown at the crane, the middle bustard (houbara), geese, and francolins. There is a variety called the Bahree, found on the borders of the Persian Gulf, which can be taught to catch geese, ducks, and all manner of waterfowl; but it is difficult to keep and train.

“The next in value is the Balaban, which can be trained to strike its quarry either in the air or on the ground. It is found in the neighborhood of Baghdad and in other parts of Mesopotamia; is caught and trained when full grown, and is flown at gazelles, hares, cranes, bustards, partridges, and francolins.

“The Baz and Shah Baz ( Astur plumbarius, the goshawk, and the Falco lanarius) is remarkable for the beauty of its speckled plumage and for its size. It strikes in the air and on the ground, and, if well trained, may take cranes and other large game. The Balaban and Baz, when used by the Persians for hunting hares, are sometimes dressed in a kind of leather breeches; otherwise, as they seize their prey with one talon, and a shrub or some other object with the other, they might have their limbs torn asunder.

"The Chark (? Falco cervialis), the usual falcon of the Bedouins, always strikes its quarry to the ground, except the eagle, which it may be trained to fly at in the air. It is chiefly used for gazelles and bustards, but will also take hares and other game.

"The bird usually hawked by the Arabs is the middle-sized õustard, or houbara, It is almost always captured on the ground, and defends itself vigorously with wings and beak against its assailant, which is often disabled in the encounter. The falcon is generally trained to this quarry with

a fowl. The method pursued is very simple. It is first taught to take its raw meat from a man, or from the ground, the distance being daily increased by the falconer. When the habit is acquired, the flesh is tied to the back of a fowl; the falcon will at once seize its usual food, and receives also the liver of the fowl, which is immiediately killed. A bustard is then, if possible, captured alive, and used in the same way. In a few days the training is complete, and the hawk may be flown at any Targe bird on the ground.

"The falconry, however, in which Easterns take most delight, is that of the gazelle. For this very noble and exciting sport, the falcon and greyhound must be trained to hunt together by a process unfortunately somewhat cruel. In the first place, the bird is taught to eat its daily ration of raw meat fastened on the stuffed head of a gazelle. The next step is to accustom it to look for its food between the horns of a tame gazelle. The distance between the animal and the falconer is daily increased, until the hawk will seek its meat when about half a mile off. A greyhound is now loosed upon the gazelle, the falcon being fiown at the same time. When the animal is seized, which of course soon takes place, its throat is cut, and the hawk is fed with a part of its flesh. After thus sacrificing three gazelles, the education of the falcon and greyhound is declared to be complete. The chief art in the training is to teach the two to single out the same gazelle, and the dog not to injure the falcon when struggling on the ground with the quarry. The greyhound, however, soon learns to watch the movements of its companion, without whose assistance it could not capture its prey.

“The falcon, when loosed from its jesses, flies steadily and near the ground towards the retreating gazelles, and marking one, soon separates it from the herd. It then darts at the head of the affrighted animal, throws it to the ground, or only checks it in its rapid course. The greyhound rarely comes up before the blow has been more than once repeated. The falconer then hastens to secure the quarry. Should the dog not succeed in capturing the gazelle after it has been struck for the third or fourth time, the hawk will generally sulk and refuse to hunt any longer. I once saw a very powerful falcon belonging to the Abde Pasha hold a gazelle until the horsemen succeeded in spearing the animal. The fleetness of the gazelle is so great, that, without the aid of the hawk, very few dogs can overtake it, unless the ground be heavy after rain.

“The pursuit of the gazelle with the faleon and hound over the boundless plains of Assyria and Babylonia is one of the most exhilarating and graceful of sports, displaying equally the noble qualities of the horse, the dog, and the bird.

“The time of day best suited for hawking is very early in the morning, before the

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