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met had an old-Bettyish look, in their middle age Roman numerals on its face, aprons and bonnets rouges, like fools' and some images in niches on the outside. caps. The men wore commonly the same Probably its counterpart has existed in bonnet rouge, or red woollen, or worsted Normandy for a thousand years. At the cap, or sometimes blue or gray, looking to church of Chateau Richer, which is the us as if they had got up with their night next parish to l'Ange Gardien, we rtad, caps on, and in fact, I afterwards found looking over the wall
, the inscriptions in that they had. Their clothes were of the the adjacent church-yard, which began cloth of the country, étoffe du pays, gray with, “ Ici git” or “repose," and one over or some other plain color. The women a boy contained, - Priez pour lui.” This looked stout, with gowns that stood out answered as well as Père la Chaise. We stiffly, also, for the most part, apparently knocked at the door of the curé's house of some home-made stuff. We also saw here, when a sleek friar-like personage, in some specimens of the more characteristic his sacerdotal robe appeared to our Parlezwinter dress of the Canadian, and I have vous Anglais ? Even he answered, “Non, since frequently detected him in New Monsieur ;" but at last we made him unEngland by his coarse gray home-spun derstand what we wanted. It was to find capote and picturesque red sash, and his the ruins of the old chateau. 6 Ah! oui ! well furred cap, made to protect his ears oui !” he exclaimed, and donning his coat, against the severity of his climate.
hastened forth, and conducted us to a It drizzled all day, so that the roads did small heap of rubbish which we had alnot improve. We began now to meet ready examined. He said that fifteen with wooden crosses frequently, by the years before, it was plus considérable. road-side, about a dozen feet high, often Seeing at that moment three little red old and toppling down, sometimes stand birds fly out of a crevice in the ruins, up ing in a square wooden platform, some into an arbor-vitæ tree, which grew out times in a pile of stones, with a little niche of them, I asked him their names, in such containing a picture of the virgin and child, French as I could muster, but he neither, or of Christ alone, sometimes with a string understood me, nor ornithology; he only of beads, and covered with a piece of glass inquired where we had appris à parler to keep out the rain, with the words, pour Français ; we told him, dans les Etatsla vierge, or Inri, on them. Frequently, Unis; and so we bowed him into his on the cross-bar, there would be quite a house again. I was surprised to find a collection of knick-knacks, looking like an man wearing a black coat, and with apItalian's board; the representation in wood parently no work to do, even in that part of a hand, a hammer, spikes, pincers, a of the world. flask of vinegar, a ladder, &c., the whole The universal salutation from the inperchance surmounted by a weathercock; habitants whom we met was bon jour, but I could not look at an honest weather at the same time touching the hat; with cock in this walk, without mistrusting bon jour, and touching your hat, you that there was some covert reference in it may go smoothly through all Canada to St. Peter. From time to time we passed East. A little boy, meeting us would rea little one story chapel-like building, with mark, “ Bon jour, Monsieur; le chemin a tin-roofed spire, a shrine, perhaps it would est mauvais : " Good morning, sir; it is be called, close to the path-side, with a
bad walking Sir Francis Head says lattice door, through which we could see that the immigrant is forward to "apprean altar, and pictures about the walls; ciate the happiness of living in a land in equally open, through rain and shine, which the old country's servile custom of though there was no getting into it. At touching the hat does not exist,” but he these places the inhabitants kneeled and was thinking of Canada West, of course. perhaps breathed a short prayer. We saw It would, indeed, be a serious bore to be one school-house in our walk, and listened obliged to touch your hat several times a to the sounds which issued from it; but it day. A Yankee has not leisure for it. appeared like a place where the process, We saw peas, and even beans, collected not of enlightening, but of obfuscating the into heaps in the fields. The former are mind was going on, and the pupils receiv an important crop here, and, I suppose, ed only so much light as could penetrate are not so much infested by the weevil as the shadow of the Catholic church. The
There were plenty of apples. churches were very picturesque, and their very fair and sound, by the road-side, but interior much more showy than the dwell they were so small as to suggest the origin ing houses promised. They were of stone, of the apple in the crab. There was also for it was ordered in 1699, that that a small red fruit which they called snells, should be their material. They had tinned and another, also red and very acid, whose spires, and quaint ornaments. That of name a little boy wrote for me “pinbéna." l'Ange Gardien had a dial on it, with the It is probably the same with, or similar
to the pembina of the voyageurs, a species publique we were directed apparently to of viburnum, which, according to Richard that private house where we were most son, has given its name to many of the likely to find entertainment. There were rivers of Rupert's Land. The forest trees no guide-boards where we walked, bewere spruce, arbor-vitæ, firs, birches, cause there was but one road; there were beeches, two or three kinds of maple, no shops nor signs, because there were bass-wood, wild-cherry, aspens, &c., but no artisans to speak of, and the people no pitch pines (pinus rigida). I saw very raised their own provisions; and there few, if any, trees which had been set out were no taverns because there were no for shade or ornament. The water was travellers. We here bespoke lodging commonly running streams or springs in and breakfast. They had, as usual, a the bank by the road-side, and was ex large old-fashioned, two-storied box stove cellent. The parishes are commonly sepa in the middle of the room, out of rated by a stream, and frequently the which, in due time, there was sure to farms. I noticed that the fields were fur be forthcoming a supper, breakfast, or rowed or thrown into beds seven or eight dinner. The lower half held the fire, the feet wide to dry the soil.
upper the hot air, and as it was a cool At the Rivière du Sault a la Puce, Canadian evening, this was a comforting which, I suppose, means the River of the sight to us. Being four or five feet high Fall of the Flea, was advertised in English, it warmed the whole person as you stood as the sportsmen are English, “the best by it. The stove was plainly a very imsnipe-shooting grounds," over the door of portant article of furniture in Canada, and a small public-house.' These words be was not set aside during the summer. ing English affected me as if I had been Its size, and the respect which was paid absent now ten years from my country, to it, told of the severe winters which it and for so long had not heard the sound had seen and prevailed over. The master of my native language, and every one of of the house, in his long-pointed, red them was as interesting to me as if I had woollen cap, had a thoroughly antique been a snipe-shooter, and they had been physiognomy of the old Norman stamp. snipes. The prunella or self-heal, in the He might have come over with Jacques grass here, was an old acquaintance. We Cartier. His was the hardest French to frequently saw the inhabitants washing, understand of any we had heard yet, for or cooking for their pigs, and in one place there was a great difference between one hackling flax by the road-side. It was speaker and another, and this man talked pleasant to see these usually domestic with a pipe in his mouth beside, a kind operations carried on out of doors, even of tobacco French. I asked him what he in that cold country.
called his dog. He said Brock! At At twilight we reached a bridge over a Binet's they called the cat min-min! little river, the boundary between Chateau min! min! I inquired if we could cross Richer and St. Anne, le premier pont de the river here to the Isle of Orleans, thinkSt. Anne, and at dark the church of La ing to return that way when we had been Bonne St. Anne. Formerly vessels from to the Falls. He answered, “ S'il ne fait France, when they came in sight of this pas un trop grand vent." If there is not church, gave “a general discharge of their too much wind, they use small boats or artillery,” as a sign of joy that they had pirogues, and the waves are often too high escaped all the dangers of the river. for them. He wore, as usual, something Though all the while we had grand views between a moccasin and a boot, which he of the adjacent country far up and down called bottes Indiennes, Indian boots, and the river, and, for the most part, when had made himself. The tops were of we turned about, of Quebec in the hori calf or sheep-skin, and the soles of cowzon behind us, and we never beheld it hide turned up like a moccasin. They without new surprise and admiration; yet, were yellow or reddish, the leather never throughout our walk, the Great River of having been tanned nor colored.
The woCanada on our right hand was the main men wore the same. He told us that he feature in the landscape, and this ex had travelled ten leagues due north into pands so rapidly below the Isle of Or the bush. He had been to the Falls of leans, and creates such a breadth of level St. Anne, and said that they were more horizon above its waters in that direction, beautiful, but not greater, than Montthat, looking down the river as we ap morenci, plus bel mais non plus grand proached the extremity of that island, que Montmorenci. As soon as we had rethe St. Lawrence seemed to be opening tired the family commenced their devointo the ocean, though we were still about tions. A little boy officiated, and for a three hundred and twenty-five miles from long time we heard him muttering over what can be called its mouth.
When we inquired here for a maison In the morning, after a breakfast of tea,
maple sugar, bread and butter, and what which was, in fact, only the bank of the I
suppose is called a potage (potatoes and St. Lawrence. Beyond this we by good meat boiled with flour), the universal dish luck fell into another path, and following as we found, perhaps the national one, I this or a branch of it, at our discretion, ran over to the Church of La Bonne St. through a forest consisting of large white Anne, whose matin bell we had heard, pines,—the first we had seen in our walk,it being Sunday morning. Our books we at length heard the roar of falling wasaid that this church had “long been an ter, and came out at the head of the Falls object of interest, from the miraculous of St. Anne. We had descended into a cures said to have been wrought on visit ravine or cleft in the mountain, whose ors to the shrine.” There was a profu walls rose still a hundred feet above us, sion of gilding, and I counted more than though we were near its top, and we now twenty-five crutches suspended on the stood on a very rocky shore, where the walls, some for grown persons, some for water had lately flowed a dozen feet highchildren, which it was to be inferred so er, as appeared by the stones and driftmany sick had been able to dispense with; wood, and large birches twisted and splinbut they looked as if they had been made tered as a farmer twists a withe. Here to order by the carpenter who made the the river, one or two hundred feet wide, church. There were one or two villagers came flowing rapidly over a rocky bed at their devotions at that early hour, who out of that interesting wilderness which did not look up, but when they had sat a stretches toward Hudson's Bay and Dalong time with their little book before the vis's Straits. Ha-ha Bay, on the Saguepicture of one saint, went to another. Our nay, was about one hundred miles north whole walk was through a thoroughly of where we stood. Looking on the map, Catholic country, and there was no trace I find that the first country on the north of any other religion. I doubt if there are which bears a name, is that part of Ruany more simple and unsophisticated pert's Land called East Main. This rirCatholics any where. Emery de Caen, er, called after the holy Anne, flowing Champlain's contemporary, told the Hu from such a direction, here tumbled over guenot sailors that "Monseigneur, the a precipice, at present by three channels, Duke de Ventadour (Viceroy), did not how far down I do not know, but far wish that they should sing psalms in the enough for all our purposes, and to as good Great River."
a distance as if twice as far. It matters On our way to the falls, we met the little whether you call it one, or two, or habitans coming to the Church of La three hundred feet; at any rate, it was a Bonne St. Anne, walking or riding in sufficient water-privilege for us. I crosscharettes by families. I remarked that ed the principal channel directly over the they were universally of small stature. verge of the fall, where it was contracted The toll-man at the bridge, over the St. to about fifteen feet in width, by a dead Anne, was the first man we had chanced tree which had been dropped across and to meet since we left Quebec, who could secured in a cleft of the opposite rock, and speak a word of English. How good a smaller one a few feet higher, which French the inhabitants of this part of served for a hand-rail. This bridge was Canada speak, I am not competent to rotten as well as small and slippery, being say; I only know that it is not made im stripped of bark, and I was obliged to pure by being mixed with English. I do seize a moment to pass when the falling not know why it should not be as good as water did not surge over it, and mid-way, is spoken in Normandy. Charlevoix, who though at the expense of wet feet, I lookwas here a hundred years ago, observes, ed down probably more than a hundred
the French language is nowhere spoken feet, into the mist and foam below. This with greater purity, there being no accent gave me the freedom of an island of preperceptible ;" and Potherie said “they had cipitous rock, by which I descended as by no dialect, which, indeed, is generally lost giant steps, the rock being composed of in a colony."
large cubical masses, clothed with delicate, The falls, which we were in search of, close-hugging lichens of various colors, are three miles up the St. Anne. We fol kept fresh and bright by the moisture, lowed for a short distance a foot-path up till I viewed the first fall from the front, the east bank of this river, through hand and looked down still deeper to where the some sugar-maple and arbor-vitæ groves. second and third channels fell into a reHaving lost the path which led to a house markably large circular basin worn in the where we were to get further directions, stone. The falling water seemed to jar we dashed at once into the woods, steer the very rocks, and the noise to be ever ing by guess and by compass, climbing increasing. The vista down stream was directly through woods, a steep hill, or through a narrow and deep cleft in the mountain, five or six hundred feet high, mountain, all white suds at the bottom;
but a sudden angle in this gorge prevent
of the river which we were crossing, but ed my seeing through to the bottom of for a long time I could not make out what the fall. Returning to the shore, I made he said, for he was one of the more uninmy way down stream through the forest telligible Jacques Cartier men. At last it to see how far the fall extended, and how flashed upon me that it was La Rivière the river came out of that adventure. It au Chien, or the Dog River, which my was to clamber along the side of a precip eyes beheld, which brought to my mind itous mountain of loose mossy rocks, cov
the life of the Canadian voyageur and ered with a damp primitive forest, and coureur de bois, a more western and terminating at the bottom in an abrupt wilder Arcadia, methinks, than the world precipice over the stream. This was the has ever seen; for the Greeks, with all east side of the fall. At length, after a their wood and river gods, were not so quarter of a mile, I got down to still wa qualified to name the natural features of ter, and on looking up through the wind a country, as the ancestors of these French ing gorge, I could just see to the foot of Canadians; and if any people had a right the fall which I had before examined; to substitute their own for the Indian while from the opposite side of the stream, names, it was they. They have preceded here much contracted, rose a perpen the pioneer on our own frontiers, and dicular wall, I will not venture to say named the prairie for us. La Rivière au how many hundred feet, but only that Chien cannot, by any license of language, it was the highest perpendicular wall be translated into Dog River, for that is of bare rock that I ever saw. In front not such a giving it to the dogs, and reof me tumbles in from the summit of cognizing their place in creation as the the cliff a tributary stream, making a French implies. One of the tributaries of beautiful cascade, which was a remarka the St. Anne is named, La Rivière de la ble fall in itself, and there was a cleft in Rose ; and further east are, La Rivière this precipice, apparently four or five feet de la Blondelle, and La Rivière de la wide, perfectly straight up and down from Friponne. Their very rivière meanders top to bottom, which from its cavernous more than our river. depth and darkness, appeared merely as Yet the impression which this country a black streak. This precipice is not made on me, was commonly different sloped, nor is the material soft and crumb from this. To a traveller from the Old ling slate as at Montmorenci, but it rises World, Canada East may appear like a perfectly perpendicular, like the side of a new country, and its inhabitants like comountain fortress, and is cracked into lonists, but to me, coming from New vast cubical masses of gray and black England, and being a very green traveller rock shining with moisture, as if it were withal-notwithstanding what I have said the ruin of an ancient wall built by Ti about Hudson's Bay,-it appeared as old tans. Birches, spruces, mountain-ashes as Normandy itself, and realized much with their bright red berries, arbor-vites, that I had heard of Europe and the Midwhite pines, alders, &c., overhung this dle Ages. Even the names of humble chasm on the very verge of the cliff and Canadian villages, affected me as if they in the crevices, and here and there were had been those of the renowned cities of buttresses of rock supporting trees part antiquity. To be told by a habitan, way down, yet so as to enhance, not in when I asked the name of a village in jure, the effect of the bare rock. Take it sight, that it is St. Fercole or St. Anne, the altogether, it was a most wild and rugged Guardian Angel or the Holy Joseph's, or and stupendous chasm, so deep and nar of a mountain, that it was Bélangé, or row where a river had worn itself a pas St. Hyacinthe! As soon as you leave the sage through a mountain of rock, and all States, these saintly names begin. St. around was the comparatively untrodden John is the first town you stop at (forwilderness.
tunately we did not see it), and thenceThis was the limit of our walk down for the names of the mountains and the St. Lawrence. Early in the afternoon streams, and villages, reel, if I may so we began to retrace our steps, not being speak, with the intoxication of poetry ;able to cross the north channel and return Chambly, Longueil, Pointe aux Tremby the Isle of Orleans, on account of the bles, Bartholomy, &c., &c.; as if it needed trop grand vent, or too great wind. only a little foreign accent, a few more liThough the waves did run pretty high, it quids and vowels perchance in the lanwas evident that the inhabitants of Mont guage, to make us locate our ideals at morenci County were no sailors, and made
I began to dream of Provence and but little use of the river. When we the Troubadours, and of places and things reached the bridge, between St. Anne which have no existence on the earth. and Chateau Richer, I ran back a little They veiled the Indian and the primitive way to ask a man in the field the name forest, and the woods toward Hudson's,
Bay, were only as the forests of France a merry crew of short black-eyed fellows, and Germany. I could not at once bring and the wife a thin-faced, sharp-featured myself to believe that the inhabitants who French Canadian woman. Our host's pronounced daily those beautiful, and to English staggered us rather more than me, significant names, lead as prosaic any French we had heard yet ; indeed, we lives as we of New England. In short, found that even we spoke better French the Canada which I saw, was not merely than he did English, and we concluded a place for railroads to terminate in, and that a less crime would be committed on for criminals to run to.
the whole, if we spoke French with him, When I asked the man to whom I have and in no respect aided or abetted his atreferred, if there were any falls on the Ri tempts to speak English. We had a long vière au Chien, for I saw that it came over and merry chat with the family this Sunthe same high bank with the Montmorenci day evening in their spacious kitchen. and St. Anne; he answered that there While my companion smoked a pipe and were. How far? I inquired; Trois quatres parlez-vous'd with one party, I parleyed lieue. How high ? Je pense, quatre and gesticulated to another. The whole ringt-dix pieds; that is, ninety feet. We family was enlisted, and I kept a little turned aside to look at the falls of the Ri girl writing what was otherwise unintelvière du Sault à la Puce, half a mile ligible. The geography getting obscure, from the road, which before we had passed we called for chalk, and the greasy oiled in our haste and ignorance, and we pro table-cloth having been wiped, for it nounced them as beautiful as any that we needed no French, but only a sentence saw ; yet they seemed to make no account from the universal language of looks on of them there, and when first we inquired my part, to indicate that it needed it,the way to the Falls, directed us to Mont we drew the St. Lawrence with its parishes morenci, seven miles distant.
thereon, and thenceforward went on evident that this was the country for swimmingly, by turns handling the chalk waterfalls; that every stream that empties and committing to the table cloth what into the St. Lawrence, for some hundreds would otherwise have been left in a limbo of miles, must have a great fall or cascade of unintelligibility. This was greatly to on it, and in its passage through the moun the entertainment of all parties. I was tains, was, for a short distance, a small amused to hear how much use they made Saguenay, with its upright walls. This of the word oui in conversation with one fall of La Puce, the least remarkable of another. After repeated single insertions the four which we visited in this vicinity, of it one would suddenly throw back his we had never heard of till we came to head at the same time with his chair, and Canada, and yet, so far as I know, there exclaim rapidly, oui ! oui ! oui ! oui ! is nothing of the kind in New England to like a Yankee driving pigs. Our host told be compared with it.
us that the farms thereabouts were geAt a house near the western boundary nerally two acres, or three hundred and of Chateau Richer, whose master was sixty French feet wide, by one and a half said to speak a very little English, having leagues (?) or a little more than four and recently lived at Quebec, we got lodging a half of our miles deep. This use of the for the night. As usual, we had to go word acre as long measure, arises from down a lane to get round to the south the fact that the French acre or arpent, side of the house where the door was, the arpent of Paris, makes a square of ten away from the road. For these Canadian perches of eighteen feet each on a side, a houses have no front door, properly speak Paris foot being equal to 1.06575 English ing. Every part is for the use of the oc feet. He said that the wood was cut off cupant exclusively, and no part has re about one mile from the river. The rest ference to the traveller or to travel. Every was “bush," and beyond that the “Queen's New England house, on the contrary, has bush.” Old as the country is, each landa front and principal door opening to the holder bounds on the primitive forest, and great world, though it may be on the cold fuel bears no price. As I had forgotten side, for it stands on the highway of na the French for sickle, they went out in tions, and the road which runs by it, the evening to the barn and got one, comes from the Old World and goes to and so clenched the certainty of our unthe Far West; but the Canadian's door derstanding one another. Then, wishing opens into his back yard and farın alone, to learn if they used the cradle, and not and the road which runs behind his house knowing any French word for this instruleads only from the church of one saint to ment, I set up the knives and forks on that of another. We found a large fa the blade of the sickle to represent one; mily, hired men, wife, and children, just at which they all exclaimed that they eating their supper. They prepared some knew and had used it. When snells were for us afterwards. The hired men were mentioned they went out in the dark and