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And in a transition stage of society like he leaves off serving society, or the finite, ours, the commercial class exercises the and is ready to serve only God, or the inmost universal function, because now the finite. While man has been sunk in deep problem of humanity is to destroy exist sleep, or a profound unconsciousness of ing nationalities, or those things which his essential nature and attributes, woman divide the brotherhood of man, and fuse has been steadfastly garnering it up, and mankind into one grand unitary family. illustrating it under all the forms of her And commerce is effectually promoting characteristic activity. this end. Hence the commercial class is The theory of all our distinctively masnow chiefly in honor. No matter how culine activity is, that it obeys a purely soulless a clod the individual merchant outward stimulus, and hence is convertimay be, and however impracticable a sub ble with mere toil. Man always works ject he may prove to your mere pedantic under some constraint of necessity or duand dilletante uses, still his function is ty ; works with a view to achieve or mainsuperb, and both state and church, ac tain some purely outward end, such as cordingly, by an infallible instinct, lavish wealth, or an eminent social position for upon him their tenderest caresses. They himself and family, or distinguished progive the merchant the best home of any fessional success. Society bounds his as man in the community, and celebrate his piration. The demands of society are births, marriages and deaths with a gusto primarily imperative upon him, and hence, that somewhat affronts the uninstructed even at his best estate, he has not the seunderstanding
rene and disengaged air of a son of the Now the meaning of this home is free house, but rather the abject and tired and dom, is independence of foreign constraint, spiritless demeanor of a hired servant. is the ability to obey one's own inspira He is not working from life, but to it. tions exclusively, or fulfil one's own plea He is not bringing forth, as yet, from the sure. At home one can wear the old coat, depths of divinity within him, the miraor no coat at all; can lie on the floor and cles of art and of beautiful fellowship, play with the children all day ; can dance, which shall one day make life an enand whistle and sing out of tune, can ride chantment; he is serving the needs of his on the ballusters, can talk bad grammar, purely natural and social life, protecting or indulge the most revolutionary ex his body against the inclemency of napressions, without any one having the ture, and winning his upward way to the right to complain, which every one would recognition of his fellow-men. Of course have if he did these things in public or on we speak here of the rule and not the exthe street. Home is thus the sanctuary ception. The privileged members of soof the private man, the sphere of one's ciety, they who are already secure of her true or characteristic development, the favor, have time undoubtedly to prosecute place in which he acts for himself, and not all the arts by which life is refined of its from the inspiration of society. But, no primal grossness.
And occasionally, toriously, man very sparingly enjoys this moreover, divinity, as if tired of waiting refuge of home. He is out in the tent, in for the slow obedience of nature and som the field, in the workshop, the factory, the ciety, flings forth some brilliant specimen, study, the office, the desk, wholly intent whom we name genius or inspired person, upon extending the dominion of society because he anticipates the general destiover nature. Society claims all his ener ny, and is seen to work and act from an gies to enlarge her own borders, and he ideal force, from an inward life, which has no time, comparatively, to build up uses nature simply as a ministering serthis immortal sanctuary of home. Now vant. But these are the exceptions. The it is woman who has here stood him in rule runs as we have read it, that man's stead. She has been the divine menstruum, activity in the general has always obeyed or solvent, to turn all the crude ore of his the spurs of necessity and duty. enterprise into most fine gold. Man has Now we all know that woman's activibeen so much the creature of society, so ty has not been of this sort. Her temmuch the slave of necessity and duty, so per has never been one of progress, but much the mere statesman, lawyer, clergy of enjoyment. What she aspires to has man, shopkeeper, tradesman, ploughman, never been the conquest of new territosoldier, sailor, that he would have utterly ries, but rather the improvement of those forgotten his original manhood, his true already possessed. She ha not found spontaneous life, had not woman bliss her happiness in the pursuits of wealth, fully enshrined it for him. She has ever learning, or political power, but only in been the casket of his privacy, the shield developing the household humanities, or of his true individuality, the guardian of brightening the best bliss hitherto known his essential humanity, keeping it bright to the human heart, that namely, which and unsullied for him until such time as is sheltered within the four walls of home.
In a word, she has found both her truest differences from other men, it is of no happiness and her truest dignity in ful consequence to you whether the literal filling the part of wife, or ministering an facts be as he alleges or not; the man gel to man. For woman is woman only
himself strikes you as an unparalleled in order that she may be wife, only in or donkey, whom it were good instantly to der that she may be the true helper and cudgel out of that conceit. We repeat inspirer of man: and this is the theme it: no matter whether a man's superiorito which we have hitherto been simply ties be actually true or not to our convicpreluding.
tion, we instinctively revolt at his being Woman is by nature inferior to man. aware of them in any such sense as to She is his inferior in passion, his inferior take credit to himself on account of them. in intellect, and his inferior in physical And the only reason of this instinctive strength. It is easy to quarrel with the revolt is, that our natural endowments, fact, but it is quite impossible to dispute however comparatively great they are, it. It is easy to pronounce it a very are not the just sources of our pride, bescandalous and flagitious fact if you please, cause they are not the true sources of our but there the fact stands nevertheless, life. Nature furnishes an admirable platfull of a quiet contempt of your petulance. form for the rev tion of our life, but it For the fact is wholly unborn of human by no means constitutes the life. God legislation. No man's wit ever fashioned alone, or infinite goodness, truth and it. It took place by no votes, but by the beauty, is our life, and this surprising absolute decree of nature. Gravitation pomp and affluence of Nature furnish onis not a whit more undeniable. Electri ly the mould or matrix of its perfect decity is not a whit more respectable. And velopment. Hence our natural endowfacts of this natural pith and reality must ments, if we identify ourselves with them, necessarily smile at quarrelsome persons. only obscure our essential infinitude. They are facts utterly above the sphere And only in proportion as we disclaim of will, denying the power of will even to their subjection, or what is the same modify them, and like all such facts, are thing, reduce them to our subjection, and inwardly replete with a goodness and become ourselves obedient to divine ideas, wisdom which always mean laughter and the ideas of a supersensuous goodness ridicule to unreasonable or fussy people. and truth, do we put on an immortal con
This foolish quarrel with woman's na sciousness, and ally ourselves with Life. tural inferiority to man, proceeds upon an Hence in ascribing to woman a natural exaggerated notion of nature, or what is inferiority to man, we by no means seek the same thing, a defective estimate of to depress her in the scale of being, but on spiritual existence. Our modern ama the contrary to exalt her. It is this nazons suppose, when you speak of woman's tural inequality of the sexes besides, natural inferiority to man; when you say which constitutes the true ground of their that she has less passion, less intellect, union, and enables woman to be the foun and less physical force, that you depress tain of unmixed blessing she is to man. her in the scale of being, that you rob If she had been equal to man in passion, her of so much absolute life. But this in intellect, and physical strength, her is the gravest of mistakes. The truth is own distinctive attributes would have exactly otherwise. Our passions, our in been overlaid. She must inevitably have tellect, and our physical force are precise lacked in that case, all those delicious ly the things which finite us, and in pro
weaknesses and softnesses which are the portion as we are identified with them, in outward badge of her inward sweetness, proportion as we feel ourselves included and which constitute the arms of her omin them, is this finiting influence felt. In nipotence to the imagination of man. In this fact we find the reason of the instinc short she must have ceased to attract tive shame a man feels when he is praised man, have ceased to open the fountains for his natural endowments, and of the of the ideal within him, and consequently aniversal contempt he encounters when all that divine poetry of the heart which ever he sets himself to boast of these now blossoms in the beautiful relation of things. When you praise a man for his husband and wife, and bears such exquigreat goodness of heart, or the power of site fruit in that of parent and child, and his intellect, or for any merely physical
the other social relations contingent upon perfection, you fill him with an inward that one, would have been for ever un discomfort proportionate to his true man
known. liness; you drive all his good angels away Suppose for a moment that woman had from him, and leave him stripped of the been naturally equal to man. Suppose sheltering garments of modesty. And if that she exhibited his devouring passions, a man himself come to you glorying in his grasping intellect, his rude physical his emotional, or intellectual, or physical might, which is competent to rend the
oak, and bring the wild bull to his knee. her degree, but they do not make up her Suppose in fact that she were another womanhood. They are what she has in man in temper and genius, another man common with man. But she is some in all the voluntary attributes of man. thing vastly beyond these things, someWhat sort of a courtship must she have thing which he is not, and which, there provoked from him ? He would have at fore, claims his boundless homage. She tacked her as he now attacks a rival pow is above all things else, a form of perer, with sword and pistol by his side, sonal affection. Man aspires to the inamidst the blowing of trumpets, and all finite, woman loves the infinite in the the other fanfaronade of righteous war. finite. Her genius is not passional, is not He would have besieged her like a for intellectual, is not mechanical; it is purely tress, mining her foundations, sapping her personal. Her aim in life is not to graoutworks, leaping her trenches, scaling tify her passions, is not to enlarge her inher ramparts, slaying her garrison, and tellect, is not to perform great actions, subjugating her to his compulsory servi though, of course, all these issues také tude, not as now exalting her to his social place incidentally; but simply to love equality. And then imagine the children and bless man. Her mission, as it is of such a courtship, Alack! alack! what called, is not to promote the spread of litany would be long enough to recite science and art, is not to do battle with their abominations! A sprinkling of ignorance and superstition, is not to wrest girls-what could be called girls, perhaps, the great field of nature from the dominion great muscular jades as agile as wild-cats, of savage beasts; it is all simply to reand yet more mischievous and fierce fine and elevate man. Her passions, her might slip into the first generation, but intellect, and her activity, unlike man's, every successive one, as an Irishman do not carry her abroad over all the might say, would be boys alone, boys of earth, to devour, and consume, and lay both sexes.
waste; they are all concentrated in this What is it that man likes in woman? one most definite pursuit, the culture It is the exact opposite of himself. Con of man himself. This it is which makes trast or opposition is the secret of their her so eminently practical, which keeps union. She is adorable to him precisely her from ennui and dyspepsia, and every in the degree that she is unlike him. form of spiritual fidget. This it is which Thus you often observe that where the makes her so complete and self-contained man is a huge powerful creature, with a a person, so serene and beautiful a power ; great shaggy head and mane, and limbs this is the true secret of her charm, the like leviathan, suggesting only thoughts sure argument of man's deathless worof violence and war, he is sure to aspire ship. How she penetrates his inmost only after the daintiest and delicatest of being with the subtle aroma of her prewomen, as feeling that so rude a soil sence, and awakens long echoes of delight needed the ornament and apology of such which seem to stretch onward to ina flower. Or if on the other hand, he finity! A something quite infinite athimself approach the borders of woman taches to her. Enchantment waits upon hood in his physical structure, being a all her steps. She adds splendor even to small, delicate, subtle organization, sug the day, she lends color and fragrance gesting thoughts of pure and refined de even to flowers, and turns the innumerlights, then he will aspire only to his na able stars of heaven into similitudes of tural parallel in the other sex, and will her matchless perfection. Her looks are blissfully woo and win and wear the stur- nectar, and all her words ambrosia upon diest and most sinewy of dames. It is which the gods are nourished. She is simply an illustration of the law of the so self-centred, her aim is so single and contact of extremes, which binds a mas definite, that all her action and motion culine minus to seek his complement in a are instinct with faultless grace. How feminine plus: and vice versa.
dear to the heart of man is this exquisite This precisely then is what man finds self-contentment, in which he himself is in woman, the satisfaction of his own so deficient! How can he help worship want, the supply of his own lack. And ping the charming creature at his side! in order to be thus much to him, she See how sweetly unperturbed, how calmly must first of all be intrinsically distinct self-possessed she is! How modest and from him. Man does not want what unconscious of observation, as if her busihe already is. Excessive supply in any ness was not to be blessed, but only to sphere produces a deficient demand. Ac bless, or rather to be blessed only in bless cordingly man being already full of pas ing!' “I lack,” he says, “this serene sion, intellect, and physical strength, force, this spontaneous life that wells up so does not covet those things in woman. miraculously in this fair neighbor, and I She has all these things to be sure in would forsake all things, would gladly
forswear both passion and intellect to call we have our own early ages stereotyped it henceforth mine. What a contrast we to sight, children were reckoned an honor exhibit, to be sure! I wander up and to woman, and barrenness a discredit down the earth incessantly, beseeching The power of producing offspring-of every god to take compassion on me, or bringing forth life-that is the ineffaceable soliciting the votes of my fellow-men, or badge of woman, that has been in all ages laying up treasures against some possible her crown of honor. Such was the first season of calamity. But she, delicious and rudest recognition of the true poetry vision! is already radiant with the divine of her nature, such the first grand charın smile, is quite indifferent to the votes of she exhibited to the imagination of man. all mankind, and finds an exhaustless oc But this original and coarse appreciation cupation in the sweet womanly tastes and has been refining all along the stream of activities which have their home in her history, until we now reverence in woown bosom."
man not merely the mother of our chilHence and hence only it is that woman dren, but the fountain of the purest and becomes the wife, becomes raised to the best life known to society; the fountain of fellowship or equality of man, and entitled joy, of sweet contentment, of all that is to his tenderest homage. Not because of refined in thought, of all that is generous any claim based upon her natural equality and disinterested in affection, of all that is with him, but purely because of a claim graceful and spontaneous and irresistible based upon her natural inequality with in manners. She is Eve, or living still, but him. Her natural equality would have with how much diviner a life than she ever formed no claim to his spiritual regard; knew before! She daily puts on a more on the contrary it would have disclaimed expressive grace,
and man's love and worit. Every man knows this experimentally. ship grow ever more tender and true. Every man knows that any great develop His heart fully confesses the truth which ment of passion or intellect in woman is his intellect is all too slow to discover. sure to prejudice his devotion. Daniel For woman is only the outward presenta Webster was a man of great passions and tion of whatsoever is profoundest and great intellect. Would any man fancy a divinest in himself, and of whatsoever woman after the pattern of Daniel Web therefore is most unsuspected by his own ster? Madame de Stael was a woman lumbering intelligence; and his passionate exactly after that pattern, with equal adoration is only the instinctual or blind force of passion, and even greater variety acknowledgment of the fact. She is the of intellectual endowment. But Madame embodiment of his own ideal selfhood. de Stael attracted the love of no man of She is his own better nature visibly inwoman born, except M. Rocca her second carnated. She is the expressive type or husband, who was a woman. She in symbol of that lustrous life which shall variably repelled it. Schiller, after one one day redeem him from earth, and ally or two interviews with her, was so im him with divinity. Because man himself pressed with her essential masculinity, so is destined for union with God, because outraged by her unwomanly intrusion into man himself is bound one day to love and his mind and conscience, that he express serve God alone, and to exhibit a selfed a dread of having committed the un hood accordingly instinct with divine pardonable sin, even in talking with her. power and beauty, therefore it is that No, the charm of woman is personal and woman symbolically unites herself with infinite: it does not reside in her having him, loves and serves him as he will one the same passions, or the same intellect day love and serve God, and exhibits a with man, but rather in her having such person instinct to his eyes with grace and an inequality with him, in these respects, enchantment. She is not passion, she is es enables her to exhibit her own dis not intellect, she is not strength. He is tinctive endowments, and so fascinate his all these things, and they do not satisfy regard. And these distinctive endow him. On the contrary they consume and ments are all summed up, as we have said fatigue him. The more he has of them, before, in her being primarily a form of anless he himself still be above them, the personal affection, in the fact that she more restless and unhappy they make finds her life only in ministering to man. him. Unless I be superior to my passion, Thus her life is always a present one. She superior to my intellect, and superior to does not wait for better circumstances, for my brute strength, I must be their tool, a heaven beyond the grave, in order to be and he that is the tool of these things, has gin to live. She lives now, and brings not begun as yet to be man. To be the forth the proper fruits of life. Hence the slave of passion, of knowledge, or of mere first woman was named Eve, that is, physical activity, what is it but an endless
And thus in early ages, and toil, what is it but an endless headache and even now in barbarous countries where hearthreak? Accordingly, from his pro
foundest soul man aspires to be something then by garlanding it with every grace of more than these things, aspires after a self her own melodious nature.
What a hood which is not bounded by these cate worker she is, to be sure! How every gories, and which cannot be exhausted stroke tells from that fairy hand! How by their demands. He aspires, in short, every thing she touches suddenly buds after union with God, aspires to realize and blossoms with beauty! The common a self hood which shall be divine. Now air grows tonic with her presence, and this self hood stands naturally imaged to the music of her cheerful feet is like the his sight in the sweet alluring form of tinkling of bells which the traveller hears
Woman is nature's revelation upon the necks of the kine descending into to man of his own God-given and inde secluded Alpine valleys. feasible self. In that shrine of dazzling God makes man out of the dust of the innocence, God has transfigured all that ground, and his highest virtue therefore is inmost and ineffable in human destiny. is humility. But he makes woman out Therefore it is that man naturally wor of man, and the virtue of humility in him, ships woman with deathless devotion, accordingly, becomes in her refined into because she reveals him, as he will one the peerless grace of modesty. Humility day be, to himself. And therefore it is is the true badge of the manly nature, that when he aspires to her favor, it is modesty of the feminine. Woman is a not with a view to transient enjoyment, refinement of God's original handiwork. but permanent possession rather. Ho Man stands between her and the bare does not ask her to become his mistress, earth. She is a plant that springs excluor the companion of his pleasures merely, sively out of a human soil, and she will but his wife, or the partner of his cares as therefore be precisely what that soil, by well; and hence the inseparable bone of its own richness, permits her to be. If his bone and flesh of his flesh.
the soil be unimproved and wild, as in For this reason, says the grand old book, savage humanity or in early periods of man shall leave father and mother, and history, she will be visibly degraded, the cleave only to his wife. That is the law mere abject vassal and drudge of man. of the union. The husband cleaves to If the soil be enriched by culture, as in the wife, not the wife to the husband. civilized humanity, she will flower more He was not created a help to her, but she and more resplendently in all the attrito him. And what a help has she prov butes of wife, until finally, when man ed! How she has softened this rugged himself shall have become fully developed world to him by turning it into a deli by the beneficent advance of science and cious home, by peopling it in the first art, she will put on the panoply of her place, and so connecting him in sympathy accomplishments, and bring forth a fruit with the remotest regions of space, and that is divine.
HOW THEY LIVE IN HAVANA.
ALMOST every one in Havana imitates Americans who wish to talk Spanish and
eat Spanish, may go to one of the last, hired house:" still, there are houses there La Noblesa Vascagonda, for instance; which are called hotels. In these, how but the probabilities are, that after a day's ever, the stranger must not expect to find experience of garlic and oil, they will even the faintest likeness to Mivart's, or complete their Castilian accomplishments the Hotel Meurice, or the Astor House. by 'walking Spanish' into new quarters. The hotel of Havana has not the slight In any house in Havana, public or priest trait in common with the French hotel, vate, Spanish, French, German, or Ameeither as it exists upon its native soil, or rican, enough vernacular conversation and as modified by English frigidity and re cookery to satisfy any reasonable taste, serve, or American gregariousness; or with may be had for the asking; and as the the English inn, or the American tavern, habits and character of the people can be or the Eastern caravansera. It is nothing closely observed without sharing ther more or less than an ordinary boarding bed and board—the bed being in fact a house, though differing widely in its ha board—the traveller will find the equibits and aspect from its counterparts in librium of his mind and body preserved, New-York. The number of hotels is ve and no advantage lost by committing himry small. There are three only which self to the care of an American hosto are kept by Americans: there may be When in our last number the reader four or five kept by Spaniards. Those and the writer stopped in their walk