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export trade, with our tonnage, increases, The canals of the United States are the subjoined comparison, of two separate 5,000 miles in length; the electric telegraph dates, will convey some instructing hints: wires, 16,000; and the rivers actually
navigated, 47,355 miles by the shore line. 1812, 100, 162,087 104,691,534 2,092,391 It is worth while to remark, that these 1851, 223,405,272 217,523,201 3,772,439
successes refer only to the developments Or, in other words, our exports im
of the past, and insufficiently indicate the ports have more than doubled in value in
more accelerated and prodigious strides ten years, and our tonnage nearly doubled.
we shall make in the future. They have The steam marine of Great Britain was
been achieved in the midst of difficulties reckoned in 1850, at 1200 vessels, includ of every kind-difficulties incident to the ing ferry boats and coal barges ; that of
want of wealth, of machinery, of skill, the United States, in 1851, was 1489,
and of a knowledge of the best industrial which were divided as follows:-Ocean
methods. But in the future these defects steamers 95, tonnage 91,475; propellers 119, tonnage 27,974; ferry boats 130, practical art will quicken the passage to
will be repaired; every new discovery in tonnage 22,744; first-class river steamers
others, and the attainment of accumulated 1,145, tonnage, 275,000. Other computa
capital will put within our command retions make the number of steamers 1800,
sources that are now utterly beyond our but I prefer the lowest statement. At reach. Our people have already spread the same time, I forbear any comparison themselves over the long extent of the of the respective merits, as to speed and Pacific coast, and are opening new springs beauty, between the different descriptions
and channels of trade in those vast and of vessels in the two nations.
fertile regions. They will soon enter into But the growth of our internal commu the competition for the opulent trade of nications, in other respects, are quite as the East. A ship canal across the Isthmus worthy of note. On the first of January, of Panama, or a railroad to California 1853, there were, in the United States,
from the Mississippi Valley-projects now 13,219 miles of completed railroad, 12,928
vehemently agitated—will bring us nearly miles of railroad in various stages of pro two thousand miles nearer to China and gress, and about 7,000 miles in the hands
the East Indies, than any of the nations of the engineers, which will be built within
which have heretofore possessed the lucrathe next three or four years, --making a tive trade of Asia. What the result must total of 33,155 miles of railroad which
be, as well upon the reduction of the comwill soon traverse the country, and merce of other nations as upon the growth which, at an average cost of $30,000 (a
of our own, no one who comprehends the well ascertained average) for each mile increasing and indomitable enterprise of of road, including equipments, &c., will the Americans need be told. have consumed a capital amounting to It behooves England especially to take $994,650,000, as follows:
this suggestion into profound considera13,227 miles completed
$896,810,000 tion. With an ambition on the part of 12,929 miles in progress
887,840,000 7,000 miles under survey.
Russia, to extend her possessions down to 210,000,000
the Mediterranean, so as to form a com33,155 Total
$994,650,000 plete barrier to European trade in Asia, or in round numbers—$1,000,000,000
she has a vital interest in this movement. one billion of dollars: a sum which, at Should the despotic powers of the continent six per cent., would yield $60,000,000 an cut off or interrupt the possibility of her nually, or more than sufficient to cover all overland communication with the prolific the expenses of the United States govern magazines of Southern and Eastern Asia, ment and of the governments of every
England will have none but the old routes State composing the United States—if ad of travel left her, in which event, the ministered with republican economy.
route across America would soon absorb Now compare with the foregoing, what the entire trade of the East. As the Argohas been done in the railroad line abroad. sies of the East once passed from Venice and Here is a statement from late received the Italian Republics into her own hands, authorities :
so they may hereafter pass from hers into Aggregate. Cost per Mile,
those of the western world. But this is Great Britain and Ireiar:
anticipating! $6,800 $1,218,000,000 $177,000 German States, in
You are a sensible man, John; no man cluding Prussia 5,832 825,875,000 61,000 more so; and will appreciate these facts, and Austria
which I italicize, to impress them on your France
2,518 339,905,000 254.000
mind. Our annual product surpasses
35,000,000 75,000 that of Great Britain; our domestic comItaly
merce also surpasses yours; our foreign 16,142 $2,159,068,00
tonnage is almost equal to yours, and
in five years will be greater than yours; colleges, and the theological and medical our means of internal communication institutes, in all just 100,000, and the by railroad equal yours, with the Con number of pupils will reach 4,000,000; tinent thrown in; our telegraphic lines which you will see, according to the usual erceed you, by nearly the same measure; proportion of persons under twenty years and in every other physical element of of age, comprises nine-tenths of our adonational superiority we cannot well con lescence, or one out of every five persent to hold the candle to you.
I have seen it stated that less than Let your neighbors the despots know 2,000,000 of your youths go to any this, will you ? and tell them, too, not to school, and that the amount of your be so shallow as to try to account for this government grants in aid of primary invast and increasing prosperity, as they struction falls short of £100,000, while hare hitherto done, by ascribing it to the ex- only half your men and one-third of your tent of our landed possessions. Russia has women can read ! Why, the State of land enough in all conscience; is a young New-York alone, with only 3,000,000 of nation, moreover ; yet Russia cannot inhabitants has a school-fund of 6,641,930 compare with us, in solid and swift de dollars, and spends $2,249,814 annually, velopment. Your Colony of Lower Can on 11,537 different free schools, in which ada has plenty of land ; but how far it 862,507 children are recipients of their lags behind the States, which are only bounties, besides 36,183 at the private separated by a river! There is a whole academies. Thus, more than one quarter continent of fertile land in South America, of the whole population of the State rebut where is the population, the trade, the · ceives education in the district schools. It thrift, the peace ? No! this land theory is true, that Mr. Combe says that much will not suffice ; it cannot hold water; and of the instruction in these common it were better for your aforesaid neighbors schools is exceedingly defective; and to concede at once, that we are what we certainly it is not equal to that of the are, because of those free institutions, colleges; but it is better than none; it which give the reins without a curb, to begets the habit of learning, and lays the the native enterprise of the people. We foundation for future superior attainments. are prosperous because we are free, as That it is not wholly inefficient is evievery nation is prosperous just to the ex dent, in that so many of our children tent of its freedom, which is so abundant grow up to be readers. Here is a little ly evinced by your own history.
statement, for instance, of the issues of It must be confessed, however, that a our periodical and newspaper press,
which nation's, like a man's life, “ consisteth not speaks much : in the abundance of the things that it possesses.” All the wealth of the world would do us no good, if it were unaccom
75,000 panied by the richer treasures of intelli
80,000 8,320,000 gence, virtue, and religion. It is a part Weeklies . 2,000 2,875,000 140.500.000
7,800,000 of my task, therefore, to show the effects
10,500,000 which democracy has had upon these; Quarterlies
80,000 and, I think, in pursuance of it, I shall be
2,800 5,000,000 422,600,000 able to make it clear that we are about as well-educated, moral and orderly a people
That is, nearly seventeen copies a year, as you can find; or in other words, that of some publication or other, to every our intellectual, social, and religious pro man, woman, and child in the nation ; or, gress has kept pace with our physical de excluding infants, aged and diseased pervelopment.
sons, and those who can't read, at least a Reading and writing is a fair test of newspaper each week to every family. popular intelligence, or, which amounts to Accordingly I do not believe that there is the same thing, the number of children an American family in the land which who go to school, and the number of does not take in some newspaper or magaadults who take newspapers, periodicals, zine. I am not now arguing as to the and books. Now, the people of this re character of these publications, which, by public esteem it one of their first duties the way, are as good generally as those to make ample provision for the gratuitous of other nations, but only as to the fact instruction of youth. Their public schools of their almost universal circulation. In are open every day, except Sundays, to the United Kingdom there is not a daily every class of citizens, are furnished with paper printed out of London: of those competent teachers and libraries, and have that are printed in London, all are too an immense average attendance of pupils. costly to be taken by the poorer classes ; Adding to these the private and grammar which is true also of the quarterlies and schools, the young ladies' seminaries and monthlies; and of the weekly or local
No. of Copies printed annually.
50 100 25
prints, only a few obtain any considerable and Wales, from 1840 to 1848, was circulation.
1,649,178 per annum, and the total expenThe statistics of the book-trade unfor diture for the poor in England and Ireland, tunately are not at hand, but I have no during the year 1818, amounted to doubt that the circulation of books is on $42,750,000. The whole number of pera level with that of periodicals. No sons convicted of crime in the United really valuable work is published in States for the year ending June 1, 1850, England which is not reprinted here: the was about 27,000. Of these, 13,000 were works of our own authors are widely native and 14,000 foreign born. The whole read; the trade of book-making is lucra number in prison on the first day of June tive, and that of book publishing more so. was about 6,700, of whom 4,300 were One publishing house, the Harpers', issue native, and 2,460 foreign. These are ason the average a book a day, the sales of tonishingly small figures! Minor ofwhich vary from five to fifty thousand fences, of which we have no returns, are copies. It is also a happy sign which I undoubtedly more numerous, especially get from the publishers, that the best personal assaults, --seeing that an Ameribooks generally sell best, -by which I can does not allow himself to be smitten mean, solid, well-written, instructive more than a dozen times before he smites books, -not your Reynolds' and Ains back; and yet Lord Carlisle says, that in worth's romances, but the works of all his travels in America he never saw an Macaulay, Carlyle, De Quincey, Alison, affront given, and Mr. Fidler, Mr. Stuart, Bulwer, Dickens, Thackeray, Bancroft, Mr. Buckingham, Mr. Power, and Miss Prescott, Irving &c. Mind, I say not Martineau, in the midst of much that disthat we are a learned, but only an intelli- pleases them, declare that our laboring gent people; we read variously, and people are the most orderly, peaceable, inmuch ; for as every man is thrown by dustrious, good-natured fellows that could the peculiar structure of our society on be conceived. Certainly!
For why his own energies, one of the first wants should they kick up a row, or fall to, that he perceives and supplies is that of a upon society or their neighbors. They respectable degree of knowledge. Pro have enough to eat and drink, and wherefundity and learning will come by and by, withal to be clothed; they have no to such as have need of them, when we unjust taxes to despoil them of their have more leisure.
earnings ; no insolent officials to goad them Then, as to our moral and religious ac into insurrection; in a word, they are quirements,-ah! what visions of lynch satisfied with themselves and their governlaw, bowie-knives, filibusterers, and the ment, and have no occasion for tumult. " half-horse, half-alligator" species, must It is therefore only in the larger cities, float before your after-dinner sleep! receptacles of outcasts, and among the What shrieks of poor tortured Africans, foreigners on the canals, that we know of with chains on their wrists, supplicating Astor-Place riots, or Corkonian shindies. piteously “ Am I not a man and a bro Consider, too, the amount of religious ther," startle you into indignant wake teaching vouchsafed in every year. Heafulness? What streams of tobacco-juice ven knows there is enough of it; no nation roll like another muddy Mississippi across in the world gets so much, and if we do your cleanly sensibilities, while you stand not profit by it, we inust be hard sinners aghast to survey us as a nation of black indeed! There are, according to the last legs, sharpers and bullies? It is a strong census returns, in the United States, 8,791 case against us; one you think scarcely Baptist churches, 812 Christian, 1,674 Conadmitting a defence; and yet look at gregational, 324 Dutch Reformed, 1,422 some curious facts on the other side. Episcopal, 361 Free, 714 Friends, 327 Ger
Nearly every man among us is occupied man Reformed, 31 Jewish, 1,208 Luthein some useful pursuit: the statisticians say ran, 110 Mennonist, 12,467 Methodist, 335 out of a thousand, which, rejecting in 331 Moravian, 4,584 Presbyterian, 1,112 fants, minors and women, is nearly all Roman Catholic, 15 Swedenborgian, 52 the consequence is that there is little Tunker, 619 Union, 243 Unitarian, 490 pauperism, the prolific source of vice, and Universalist, and 325 of minor sects; not much crime. The whole number of making a total of 49,011, furnishing acpoor in the several States was, at the commodation for 13,849,896 persons, or time of taking the last census, 134,972, of one church for every 600 inhabitants, and whom 68,538, or more than half, were of covering church property to the amount foreign birth-(friends mostly that you of $86,416,636. have sent us, honest cousin): and the entire Now, these are not State establishcost of their support, during the year, was ments,-churches forced upon us by the $2,954,806.
government whether we will or no, and The number of paupers in England which we attend only because the law
compels us. They are the voluntary out turbed the mercury of society sufficiently growths of the piety that is in the commu to produce a fall in the stock barometer! nity; and the number of them, and their There have been changes of administration prosperity, are both significant, because with us, but not the beginning of an atthey measure our willing homage to re tempt to overturn or even resist the govligious principle. With inconsiderable ernment. The doctrine of nullification, or exceptions they hold to the vital tenets of the right of a State to withdraw from the Christianity, are every where largely at confederacy, though it has managed to tended, and exert a prodigious influence make a great noise, is, thus far at least, on conduct and social life. In fact, your an exceedingly harmless affair, and my aslooser foreigners say that we are altogether surance is, that the good sense, the justice, too religious, that the power of the clergy the spirit of concession which reigns in is almost tyrannical, and that the univer our councils, will render it unnecessary or sal observance of religious duties inter- impotent in the future. feres with the freedom and sprightliness It fortunately a characteristic of deof our manners.
mocratic legislation, that it is perpetually Be this as it may, it is certain, that removing from the shoulders of the people there is more public order in the United the burden of bad laws, and of unjust and States, than any where else; I mean by oppressive institutions. All that wretched this, more willing obedience to the funda trumpery of absurd forms and iniquitous mental laws of the State. In your des- precedents, for instance, which we inherita potisms abroad, there is an enforced sub ed from you as a part of the common law, jection to law, a sullen, surly, discontented we have long since sent to the dogs, and submission, effected by rigid police sys we rejoice now in simple codes, which we tems, and at the point of the bayonet. But are glad to see, that your wiser statesmen with us men acquiesce, because, having are beginning to commend and adopt. In made their laws for themselves, they take the same way, whatever evil may lurk in pleasure in submitting to them, and so our political relations; whatever practical doing homage to the supremacy of the inequality or injustice may be developed people. The securities of the public peace in the working of our system, will be graare their own embodied will ; every indi dually eliminated and destroyed. Thus vidual feels interested in maintaining them, our civil dangers decrease with the years, and when they are threatened, would and our prospects of peace and union, algladly lay down his life in their defence, ready bright, grow brighter with the adbecause they are the shield and panoply vancing day. of what is dearer to him than his life-his What, then, do you make of slavery? I liberty. Oh, John, if there was ever a hear you exclaim: Why have not your humbug more enormous than all its tribe, democratic influences extinguished that? it is that doctrine which teaches that li How is a despotism of one race over berty is akin to anarchy. No! no ! liberty another allowed to expand in the very is the only order; the single source of so shelter of your boasted progress? These cial tranquillity and stable government. are consistent questions, John, and when Look how the European nations have been I have more space, I shall give them a full rocking and tossing, since this century and explicit answer. But let me ask, began, in the throes of almost incessant whether it never occurred to you that revolutions! Scarcely a year has passed this inheritance of some of our States-2 without a violent outbreak in some one or thing not of their own seeking, which has other of the monarchies. At three several grown about them as the Old Man clasped times, the whole continent has been enve Sinbad, -—which is inwrought into the fibre loped in the flames of civil war. Have of their society, and involves tremendous not you, even, had infinite trouble with
commercial and social interests,--whether Ireland ; with the working people; with it was so much a matter for the moral the chartists? while we, in the midst of wrath of exquisite fine ladies at Stafford intense political discussions, with vast in House, as for the cautious, wise, anxious, terests depending on every Presidential prayerful consideration of the best heads election; with States widely separated in and noblest hearts of their own people. position and feeling ; with large ' annual Do you not think that they who have to accessions of unacclimated foreigners, but struggle with the evil, who live in the without a standing army, and with scarce midst of it, and know it, must find the ly any need of a police, have not so much remedy? And not those far away who as dreamed of civil combustion and blood have evils enough of their own to satisfy shed. The politicians have sometimes any moderate philanthropic ambition? croaked loudly of the dangers of disunion, More especially should it not be left to .but all their lowering looks, and all their the persons, who alone are now responsible muttering thunders, have never yet dis- for it, when, as I sincerely believe, the
Area, sq. miles.
In West Indies
agencies are at work, which will gradually Danish and Spanish Colonies, and of Rus remove it from their care? Here is what sia, where it exists in a thousandfold more I mean: Once slavery existed in all these aggravated form than in the Southern States, it is now confined to only half of States. Try it, beloved cousin ! thera ; in five of the latter, it is not re As for our filibusterism, and alleged tained by the strongest tenure-in the rapacity for land, there is somewhat to be States bordering on the free States I mean said. First, however, what a droll hypo-and as the black race grows less rapidly crite you are, John, standing there so than the white race here, while the com meekly, and rolling up your pious eyes ! Is mercial interests involved in slavery, are it that there is such a magnificence in becoming comparatively less strong than your style of roguery, that, like Robert other interests, there is a hope opened up Macaire, you feel a right to cuff and snub that slavery will pass away. It will pass, the meaner spirit of our poor Jaques however, not by dint of moral objurgation, Strops? It appears, that since the year which never yet drove out any evil, much 1800, you have made, in addition to your less one so rooted—not by any single sub already enormous possessions, the followlime and impossible act of national self ing territorial acquisitions: sacrifice, but it will be driven off by ad
Population, vancing civilization-nowhere more rapid In Europe (10 islands)
850,000 than here, -it will be crushed by that
300,000 physical progress which is so expansive and
8,000,000 800,000 irresistible. Agriculture is the only form
In India, besides the Pun
228,700 of labor compatible with a thriving condi
jaub and Scinde
100,000,000 tion of slavery; introduce commerce and Hong-Kong, in China, has been annexed the manufacturing arts where slavery ex to the British dominions by the sword; a ists, and it retires ; it is forced inevitably to new Gibraltar has been formed and fortiabandon its old fields for fresher ones, or fied in Aden; Rajah Brook has displayed to allow itself to be converted into his adventurous spirit at Sarawak ; you the apprenticeship and wages state. are fast retrieving any concessions you Slaves as such, have no capacity for com might have inadvertently made in the plicated kinds of business; they cannot splendid gem of the South Pacific New navigate ships or railroads, which run Zealand; you are striving to retain your away with them; they cannot keep store, foothold in Central America, and Heaven for they are dishonest; while in manufac only knows, where you have not looked, tories, being less skilful, they are on the or are not looking, for a few inches more. average less profitable than free laborers. There is really an impressive and awful The only chance for their lucrative employ- grandeur in your spirit of appropriation. ment, is in mining and the simpler sorts Now, if we, in humble and distant imiof husbandry. Considering, therefore, tation of this stupendous ancestral examwith what velocity commerce and the ple, have taken the lands of Uncas and his mechanic arts are spreading over those copper-colored brethren, we have paid regions here in which the institution re handsomely for them—some say, twice as mains, we have a ground for hope that we much as they were worth, besides exershall see it withdrawing more and more cising a better care of their owners, than to the South, where it will finally be con such incorrigible savages deserved; we centrated in a few localities, and then have acquired Florida, but paid honorably lose its power. The process may be a for it, and the same is true of Louisiana; slow one, but the end will come. It will and, though we bullied Mexico in the out come, too, as I believe-if benevolence, set, we settled the account finally with a and not fanaticism has the management of good round sum. The independence of affairs—without violence, and with the con Texas was recognized by nearly all civisent of all. But your handsome luscious lized nations, before it was incorporated indaughters, John, -bless their dear souls, to the Union. Not one rood of ground then and your obese, fat-headed, oleaginous have we stolen or forced from its unwilExeter-Hall-men, help the movement best ling inhabitants by the sword.* Yet, we by letting it alone. Meanwhile, if you do confess, that we are not unwilling that must have a stuffed Paddy for your pugi our people, and their institutions, should listic charities, let me recommend you to spread over neighboring lands.
We are pommel your atrocious aristrocratic sys not, because we are convinced that demotem, or your treatment of Ireland, or the cratic government is the best government; tourniquet company, which squeezes the the wisest, the justest, the most humane. blood out of India, or the slavery of the Moreover, the system of constitutional fe
* I should perhaps except the cases of a few wild tribes whose expulsion was a matter of absoluto state necessity, and who were amply compensated for their removal