Obrazy na stronie

ries but a small trunk on his journeys. great broad-brimmed hats and flowing The perfection of travelling is to travel dresses, than the men and boys. We without baggage. After considerable re afterward saw them doing various other flection and experience, I have concluded, kinds of work; indeed, I thought that we that the best bag for the foot traveller saw more women at work out of doors is made with a handkerchief, or, if he than men. On our return, we observed in study appearances, a piece of stiff brown this town a girl with Indian boots, nearly paper, well tied up, with a fresh piece two feet high, taking the harness off a within to put outside when the first is dog. The purity and transparency of the torn. That is good for both town and atmosphere were wonderful. When we country, and none will know but you are had been walking an hour, we were surcarrying home the silk for a new gown prised, on turning round, to see how near for your wife, when it may be a dirty the city, with its glittering tin roofs, still shirt. A bundle which you can carry looked. A village ten miles off did not literally under your arm, and which will appear to be more than three or four. I shrink and swell with its contents. I was convinced that you could see objects never found the carpet-bag of equal capa distinctly there much farther than here. city, which was not a bundle of itself. It is true, the villages are of a dazzling We styled ourselves the knights of the white, but the dazzle is to be referred, umbrella and the bundle ; for wherever perhaps, to the transparency of the atwe went, whether to Notre Dame or Mount mosphere, as much as to the whitewash. Royal, or the Champ-de-Mars, to the We were now fairly in the village of Town Major's or the Bishop's Palace, to Beauport, though there was still but one the Citadel, with a bare-legged Highland road, the houses stood close upon this, er for our escort, or to the Plains of Abra without any front-yards, and at any angle ham, to dinner or to bed, the umbrella with it, as if they had dropped down. and the bundle went with us; for we wish being set with more reference to the road ed to be ready to digress at any moment. which the sun travels. It being about sunWe made it our home nowhere in particu- down, and the Falls not far off, we began lar, but everywhere where our umbrella to look round for a lodging. for we preferand bundle were. It would have been an red to put up at a private house, that we amusing circumstance, if the Mayor of might see more of the inhabitants. We one of those cities had politely inquired inquired first at the most promising lookwhere we were staying. We could only ing houses, if indeed any were promising. have answered, that we were staying with When we knocked, they shouted some his honor for the time being. I was French word for come in, perhaps entrez, amused when, after our return, some green

and we asked for a lodging in English; ones inquired we found it easy to get but we found, unexpectedly, that they accommodated ; as if we went abroad to spoke French only. Then we went along get accommodated, when we can get that and tried another house, being geneat home.

rally saluted by a rush of two or three We met with many charettes, bringing little curs, which readily distinguished a wood and stone to the city. The most ordi foreigner, and which we were prepared nary-looking horses travelled faster than now to hear bark in French. Our first ours, or, perhaps they were ordinary-look- question would be, Parlez-vous Anglais ? ing, because, as I am told, the Canadians do but the invariable answer was, Non, monnot use the.curry-comb. Moreover, it is sieur; and we soon found that the inhasaid, that on the approach of winter, their bitants were exclusively French Canahorses acquire an increased quantity of dians, and nobody spoke English at all, hair, to protect them from the cold. If any more than in France; that, in fact, we this be true, some of our horses would were in a foreign country, where the inhamake you think winter were approaching, bitants uttered not one familiar sound to even in mid-summer. We soon began to us. Then we tried by turns to talk French see women and girls at work in the fields, with them, in which we succeeded somedigging potatoes alone, or bundling up the times pretty well, but for the most part, grain which the men cut. They appeared pretty ill. Pouvez-vous nous donner un in rude health, with a great deal of color lit cette nuit? we would ask, and then in their cheeks, and, if their occupation they would answer with French volubihad made them coarse, it impressed me lity, so that we could catch only a word as better in its effects than making shirts here and there. We could understand at fourpence a piece, or doing nothing at the women and children generally better all; unless it be chewing slate pencils, than the men, and they us; and thus, with still smaller results. They were after a while, we would learn that they much more agreeable objects, with their had no more beds than they used.

(To be continued.)


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THE day is breaking, and we

are in the Gulf of Mexico, with the Moro Castle and Lighthouse looming through the ruddy dimness of the dawn, and casting its heavy, irregular shadow upon the deep blue waters which lie between us and it. There is not a breath of air. Not a ray of sunlight has gilded even the tops of those low, heavily undulating hills which bound the horizon landward, and which are all that we see of Cuba, and yet the dewy chillness with which the northern Aurora shivers across the sky is not here. Already the air is dry and warm, and sultriness sinks heavily upon us. In nautical phrase, we made the Moro light last evening about nine o'clock; but since

Atares then we have been “laying off andon” with just enough steam up to keep the paddles lazily plashing through the placid water, and steerage way upon the steamer; for the port is closed between sundown and sunrise ; and any vessel, Spanish or foreign, which should attempt the passage of that narrow inlet which runs up between the Moro and that little low fort with the round towers, would be fired upon by the sentinel who did not wish to occupy a very small apartment on the lowest floor of one of those buildings.

We approach the ramparts; and while we are yet within their shadow there is a sudden lightening behind them; and all at once, the sun, in full glory, blazes upon us. The Spanish flag appears as if by magic upon one staff on the castle walls, and immediately afterward, from one of three others grouped together at a little distance, float signals which tell the Habaneros that an American steamer is off the harbor. The revolution of our paddles is quickened, our bows are turned towards the little inlet, and as we come abreast of the light-house we see that a small boat issues from its shadow to meet us. It contains our pilot. We stop to take him on board, for he is not so quick and so wide awake as the last man who left our deck when we were in sight of


Sandy Hook, and does not care to board us while we are under way. He ascends the side with gravity, and as he passes deliberately up to the wheel-house gives us time to remark that he is a solemn looking Spaniard, with close cut gray hair, and face shaved as clean as if he had just come from the hands of the factotum of Seville. He wears a low-crowned jipijapa hat, which we call a Panama, the rim of which is so narrow and so much curled, that it presents to our Northern eyes a ludicrous contrast to his solemn visage and ponderous manner. He stands with serious aspect in the wheelhouse, not deigning to touch the wheel, and directs the steersman with a grave and peremptory motion of the hand, sometimes accompanied by a sonorous word. He may truly be at his ease, for his task is a sinecure. The entrance to the harbor of Havana is the plainest possible sailing; and were it an American or an English port, the offer to pilot a vessel into it would be regarded as a patent swindle. But a corps of pilots has been established by the Spanish government, and a neglect to employ one is sure to be

We yield to custom, and use the corrupt form Havana, instead of the correct, “ Habana" The substitution of o for b is common with the uneducated Spaniards themselves, and is one of those degradations of language which are the tombstones of the vigor which has died out of a nation. Thus the modern Greeks say veta for the beta, and thelta (th as in this) for the delta of their ancestors of Marathon and Thermopylæ.

VOL. 1.-13

resented as a slight offered to the authorities. The Captain of the Port, an officer of dignity and influence, has absolute power over every vessel which enters it ; which he exerts even to the assigning of a place where she shall lie at anchor. The vessel, therefore, which should enter the harbor unpiloted would be pretty sure to find herself ordered into the most inconvenient position which his ingneuity could possibly discover. If a steamer, for instance, she would be placed a mile away from the coal yards, which are all in one spot, and would be put to great expense in procuring the necessary fuel. Hence the superfluous services of a pilot are always accepted from motives of interest and economy.

The Moro, of which we have heard so much, towers above us upon a bluff, rocky promontory. It is a large work, of which we can but see two sides; one facing the Gulf, and one the narrow en

trance to the harbor; and at the angle of these stands the light-house. The castle is built of the straw-colored, calcareous atone, which abounds upon the island, and its sunny color somewhat softens the frown with which it looks down from its precipitous post. The light-house, which shoots up fifty or sixty feet above the ramparts, is built of the same material, and much after the model of the Eddystone. The light, which told us last night that we were near our haven, is one of the best in the world. It is a revolver, and in a clear night can be seen from the maintopmast head of a vessel thirty miles at sea. It was built not many years ago by a Frenchman, and is served by Frenchmen; for, as we shall have occasion to notice hereafter, Spaniards have not the mechanical skill to master such a mystery as the working, much more the contrivance and erection of even so simple a machine as a revolving light.



The position of the castle gives it ab posite the Moro is the small fort which solute control of the passage to the har attracted our eye when we first looked bor, which we now discover is but a few landward. It is the Punta (Castillo Punhundred yards wide, while, from the ta, or Castle on the Point), which is only walls which look towards the Gulf, a less famous in Cuban annals than the strong arm could throw a stone into water Moro. Indeed in antiquity and the astoo deep for anchorage. A gale of wind sociation of Spain's better days, it posdashes huge ocean waves against the sesses much greater interest than its more rocky base of the fort, flinging the spray powerful neighbor. It is the second forup to the lantern of the light-house ; yet tress built by the Spaniards at Havana ; and so completely is the harbor locked within at the time of its construction controlled the land, that even at such times but a the harbor, as the Moro does now. It is, gentle rolling swell is felt within a cable's of course, built upon principles which length of the entrance.

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any bombshell ever sent from or against near the Palace. This building, quite a its gray, time-worn walls. Now, it is small

one, has been unfinished for nearly used only as a garrison or state prison. twenty years; the work never having Its pepper-box turrets, antiquated form, been abandoned. Two or three men and crumbling walls, are the first intima- have, during that time, daily cut a while, tion which the visitor of Havana receives not with chisels, but with broad, thin that he is approaching a city whose build bladed axes, at the stone which has crept ings are not of yesterday and have a his into its walls. It is not uncommon in tory.

Havana to see men at work at small We pass the Punta and the Moro, and buildings commenced so long ago that the on our left, just behind the latter, is the stones yet to be built up have lain upon Cabaños, an enormous work, to garrison the ground until they have become green which properly requires a small army. and mossy by exposure to the weather. General Concha, when Viceroy, said to There can be no doubt that there are now, an American, that to take it, was the work and, should the tripartite treaty be made, of forty thousand men. The American will be twenty years hence, two sallow inwas courteous and prudent enough not to dividuals in greasy jipijapa hats chipping reply, that that depended on who were away at two pieces of yellow stone for the the besiegers, and who the besieged. unfinished building behind the IntendenLike the Moro, the Cabaños is built of cia. Opposite to the Cabaños, upon our the pale yellow stone of the place; and right, is the carcel, or principal prison of so precipitous is its site, and so identical the place. It is a white building, between is its material with that of the spot upon four and five hundred feet in length. From which it stands, that it is almost impossi it Lopez was led into the wide square, of ble to discover where the rock ends, and which it forms one side, to suffer death the masonry begins. The huge fort by the garote vil. We catch a glimpse seems to have been a natural formation ; of the Paseo Isabel II., and some large an inevitable and fitting termination of factories as we pass on, and in a few rock, which, from its inherent tendencies, minutes are in the open harbor of Hahas shot up into walls, bastions and vana. It is of irregular shape; widening escarpments. This work commands the suddenly after its narrow entrance is Moro and the city; and it must be re passed, and being about two miles and duced before any force, however great, a quarter in length, and a mile and could hold either of those places for half three quarters across at its widest part. an hour. The best view of the Cabaños Into it the city curves in a semicircle of is to be obtained on the city side of the wharves, and public walks and buildings. harbor, from an unfinished building in It has no other communication with course of erection behind the Intendencia, the Gulf than its entrance; and as the

tides will hardly turn a cock-boat, its wait until their passports have been exwaters are almost stagnant. Into them amined, and a special permit is made out the drainage with the refuse of the city, for each one like the following: and the alluvial wash of the surrounding WARRANT OF DISEMBARKATION in favor of country, constantly pour ; and there they

Don William Smith, a native of New-York, by remain, decomposing in the sluggish reser profession a purser, who has arrived at this voir. Even the surface is so undisturbed port this day, in the American steamer Chethat the rain which falls upon it does rokee, from New York." not mingle thoroughly with the salt On the back of this are the following water below; so that in the wet season “Regulations":there is a stratum over the harbor, which “It is necessary to present this warrant at is little more than brackish. Countless

the Custom House to take out baggage or efnumbers of those slow-moving, jellies,

fects, and to the landlord of the house or esknown to boys as stinging-galls, float

tablishment to which the bearer may go to lazily about it; and so filled is it with

dwell, that notice may be taken of it. To vegetable and animal matter, decomposed

leave the city, a pass or travelling license is

necessary. The pass may be obtained during to a phosphorescent state, that at night

the first month by mere exhibition of this the boatmen seem to be propelling their warrant. The license, which is good for clumsy barks by flaming swords; so twelve months may be obtained by applying bright and continuous is the gleam of the to the Commissary of Barriers, and the Capoar as it passes through the water. And tain of the District, and afterward to the this is more than the phosphorescence of Government office. These licenses will be tropical climes; for a few minutes' vigor given gratis to declared paupers, to lads unous pulling will take us into the Gulf, der 16 who may come from Spain in search where a fitful flash breaks but now and then,

of work, to the shipwrecked, and to military like a smile upon the solemn azure of its

men, or other functionaries sent by governsurface. All through the glowing sum

mert upon some transient mission.

“Any person who arrives without a passmer, pestilence broods upon the surface of this huge cesspool. Its vapor en

port, or who neglects to comply with the

above instructions, will be liable to a fine of shrouds the form of Death to those who

at least ten dollars. were not born to breathe it, or who have No stranger can reside in the island not once fought and conquered the grim more than three months without obtaining a monarch in this guise. It is forbidden on letter of domicil, which he will apply for by all the national vessels stationed here, memorial through the Consul of his nation. except those of Spain, to use the water of "No position excuses any person, whatthe harbor to wash the decks. Save in ever may be his rank or nation, from the obextreme necessity, no boat leaves them

servance of the laws of the government or for the shore, or returns, after sundown;

the existing police regulations." and when debilitating sickness makes This document bears the signatures of its appearance among officers and crew, three officials, or it may be of none; for the first remedy sought, and the most either may attach to it merely his rubrica, effectual, is a cruise of two or three days which an American school boy would in the open Gulf. So it must ever be, call a flourish, and which is so important until another communication is opened a matter among the Spaniards that it is a with the Gulf, which might be easily legal signature without a name, while a done ; and feeble as is the tide, its flow name without a rubrica would be looked would then do much to purify the waters at with suspicion, to say the least. For of what is now, under the summer's sun, this permit the Spaniard pays one dollar; but a foul and seething caldron, from the foreigner two. We gladly pay the which mortality steams up.

fee, and in our thankfulness to get on We at length come to anchor. A boat shore press a double gratuity upon our with the Spanish flag comes alongside, chamber-man, who with alacrity leans and our captain descends, and asks the over the side and shouts " botero." privilege of landing his mails and passen Ere the permit had reached us, the sun gers; giving to the deputy of the Captain was high in the heavens, and as we look of the Port, the passports of all whose down upon the boats which now swarm destiny is Havana, or who wish to go on around the steamer, the water seems to shore. A Spanish officer makes his ap glow and sear the eyeballs like molten pearance upon the deck, a pair of puny iron. Every object looks yellow, and is sentinels is placed at each companion way, surrounded by a quivering halo of heat. and no communication is allowed with The stunted verdure upon the hills which the shore, until the permission of the Cap shut in the harbor, has a jaundiced hue. tain of the Port is received. Our captain It is not parched; for it is of the vegetable and certain privileged persons can then salamander species, and would not wilt leave the boat; but the passengers must were it transplanted to the well-known

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