Obrazy na stronie

engravings, and seventeen large, and some important results of the expedition sent sixty small wood ones. The cost of the out in 1842 by the Prussian Governbook in this country will be some ten dol ment, with Lepsius at its head, are given lars.

in the great work called Monuments from -Carl Ritter, the Geographer, has Egypt and Ethiopia. That book is de published Ein Blick auf Palaestina voted, however, mainly to the hieroglyphund seine christliche Bevölkerung (A ics, architecture, and topography of the Glance at Palestine and its Christian Pop- countries; the present one gives the perulation). It is valuable for biblical stu sonal history and adventures of the expe dents especially, though interesting to oth dition, narrates the circumstances under ers. It contains the most recent investi which the various studies and observations gations on the geography and physical were made, and describes the treasures of structure of the country, and a thorough art which it brought home; and at the history of the various Christian sects that same time abounds in suggestions and exinhabit it, showing that of them all, the planations of high value to whoever de Armenians have alone maintained them sires thoroughly to study the antiquities, selves.

the history, and even the present condi- A book which we cannot too highly tion of these remarkable countries. The commend, is Grimm's Deutsches Wör volume contains thirty-nine letters, and an terbuch (German Dictionary), of which appendix of annotations and explanatory the first parts have made their appear remarks. It will be followed by a seo ance, and which is continued with lau ond, containing a variety of treatises on dable regularity and promptitude. No points of Egyptian art and history, either dictionary was ever the fruit of profound written during the expedition, or from er study or more comprehensive learning: studies made by the author on the spot. It is almost as valuable to the student of -Dr. ALBRECHT Weber has published the English as of the German language; for a volume of academical lectures on the in revealing the occult sources of the one,

it History of Indian Literature, of interest casts the truest light upon the other. to students of the Vedas and of Sanscrit,

- Die Wissenschaft des Staates, oder but not to the general scholar, for whose die Lehre vom Lebensorganismus (The use mere translations are all that is re Science of the State, or the Doctrine of quired. Such a translation has been pub Living Organization), by P. C. PLANTA, a lished at Paris by M. THEODORE PAVIE. It Swiss gentleman, is an attempt to deduce is of the tenth book of the Bhagavat Pourathe true laws of society from those of exter na, relating the history of Krichna, and nal nature, not to show that they are identi the substance of his doctrine. cal, but rather that they are harmonious, —A book replete with German erudiand that from one the other may be in tion, patience, and scholastic enthusiasm, is ferred. The first part treats of Man and Dr. K. B. STARK's Gaza und di Philistäthe Cosmos, the second of Society and the ische Kiste (Gaza and the Philistine State. Polarity is the fundamental prin Coast). We confess that we have turned ciple of all material and spiritual life. The over its learned pages with new astonishdifference between human and animal life ment at the devotion with which the human consists in the fact, that man represents mind can pursue the most difficult topic, every form of animal organization, and is and the most remote from all immediate indevoid of instinct, and must learn to act terests, through the labyrinths of obscure for himself. The family is a product of antiquity, and the misrepresentations of the polarity of male and female; the state centuries of ignorance, in order to estabof the same principle expressed psychologi- lish some fact apparently of little importcally in the idea of right, and physiologi ance to the world at large. But scholars cally in that of economy. The author op know how to appreciate such achieveposes the Hegelian metaphysics. His book ments, and to such we cordially commend is full of talent, and will be found inter this work. To students who seek to unesting by those who have time and taste derstand the inmost penetralia of classifor such exceedingly abstract speculations. cal and Biblical history it has a great

-Interesting and valuable in every value. point of view, to the antiquary, the stu -General Von Radowitz has pubdent of Biblical history, the geographer, lished, under the title of Gesammelten and the reader of travels, are the Briefe Schriften (Collected Writings), two volaus Aegypten, Aethiopien, und der Häl umes, containing his speeches in the Parbinsel des Sinai (Letters from Egypt, liament of Frankfort, with a disquisition Ethiopia, and the Peninsula of Sinai), entitled Iconography of the Saints, and by RICHARD LEPSIUS. The whole is con another upon the Devices of Chivalry. tained in a single volume, dedicated to We always read Mr. Radowitz with a sort Alexander von Humboldt.

The more

of unpleasant suspicion that he is a char

latan, which his undeniable ability, and the affluence of learning which he manifests, cannot entirely remove. In this book the best part is the speeches, for they are clear and plausible at least. The Iconography of the Saints shows the mystical and queer side of the General's mind, the misfortune of which is, that if the author understands it himself, his readers must often be doubtful what he is driving at.

-Since 1830, FREDERIC VON RauMER has published an annual of historical and political essays, by various authors, under the title of Historisches Taschenbuch (Historical Pocket-Book). The issue for 1853 contains five articles, none of them by the editor. The first is an account of Count Christopher von Dohna ; the second, by Dr. Barthold, continues a curious history, begun last year, of the religious movement of the Erweckten (the Awaked), or pietists in Germany, during the close of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century. These religionists taught that learning was comparatively useless, that regeneration was an active process of repentance, despair, and final hope in the divine grace, and otherwise rebelled against the usages and organization of the dogmatic, scholastic, formal Protestantism which had grown up after the death of Luther. Dr. Barthold's essay is written with great detail, and is valuable rather for the professional student than the general reader. Dr. Weber, of Heidelberg, also continues the discussion of Milton's prose writings. Justice is done to the manly heart and the noble head of that glorious old champion of human rights. A curious chapter of German aristocratic history is the biography of Caroline, the great Landgravine of Hesse, by Bopp, of Darmstadt. Moriz Carriere contributes an article on the History of Christian Art, which none but a German could have written, and few but Germans will read ; it is one of those vast applications' of philosophic formulas which the Teutonic mind delights in, but which require a translation into language less abstract and general, in order to be useful to the more practical students of other nations. Mr. Carriere distinguishes the history of Christian art into three periods, viz.: that of Myth, or Ecclesiasticality, that of World-actuality, and that of Divine (gottinnig) Humanity; and then proceeds to demonstrate the truth of this classification in a very rapid and comprehensive review of architecture, painting, music, sculpture, and poetry.

- Die Volksvertretungen in Deutschland's Zukunft (Popular Representation in Future Germany), is the title of a very

VOL. 1.-8.

stupid book by Mr. August Winter. It is an attempt to construct a State on pretty much the same method that the German artist painted his famous camel, that is, from his own moral consciousness and original ideas. The various trades and professions are to be organized in separate guilds, and their head men are to form legislative assemblies, rising from those of the simple parish, through various hierarchical degrees, up to an imperial parliament, while counts and princes fill the aristocratic scale, and the king stands at the summit of the whole. Democracy Mr. Winter regards as proper in a very primitive and savage state of society.

- A book akin to the Episodes of Insect Life, which last year gained such popularity in this country and England, is the Skizzen aus der Pflanzen- und Thierwelt, by Dr. HERMANN Masius. With exact scientific knowledge, as the foundation, Dr. Masius has built up a structure in which persons of every age and class can take delight as well as find instruction. He is at once a savan, a lover of healthy, happy nature, and an artist. The chapters on Birds are especially attractive. A book in English should be made not exactly of it-for the parts which apply to German birds and trees are not well adapted to translation-but after it.

-Historical and ethnographic scholars will find Dr. Wuttke's Geschichte des Heidenthums (History of Heathendom) worthy their attention. The first volume, which has alone been published, opens with a survey of the first beginnings of history, and of the development of savage nations, and treats of the Huns, the Mongols of the middle ages, the Mexicans, and Peruvi

With a great deal of learning and of excellent sense, Dr. Wuttke fails not to combine a due proportion of fleshless and fantastic German speculation, quite remote from the severity of true science. His style is, however, a model of clearness and elegance.

– The attempt has often been made to reproduce antique life in modern romances, and thus to give us an immediate conception of Greek or Roman society. No effort of this sort has ever been more successful than FREDERIC JACOB's Horaz und seine Freunde (Ilorace and his Friends). We heartily commend it to all who like to take the results of almost boundless learning in the most agreeable way. It is at once an interesting story, and a genuine representation of the time it undertakes to revive.

-KARL GUtzkow, one of the most considerable romance writers now living in Germany, has just published a volume of autobiography, called Aus der Knaben


loss to English letters in the death of Eliot Warburton. The scene is laid in the Mexican war of independence, and Morelos, the famous patriot chieftain in that war, plays a prominent part. The hero of the book is an Indian of the Sierra Madre, and the life of the time and country is depicted with a vigorous air of fidelity, which we confide in the more readily that M. Ferry is known as the author of other trustworthy sketches of Spanish American society and manners.

-Under the title of Le Pays Latin (The Latin Region), M. HENRI MURGER has published at Paris a touching story, which first appeared some year ago in the Revue des Deux Mondes. It is an episode in the life of a student at Paris, wrought out by the author with a great deal of feeling and artistic skill. Told of any other persons than a Parisian student and his mistress, the incidents would be impossible, but here we have no doubt of their truth to nature. Amid the dreary desert of recent French novels, this one is worth reading.

zeit (From my Boyhood), which has some charming passages, but generally has no interest for American readers.

-WILLIBALD ALEXIS, the writer of sundry readable romances in the German tongue, has lately completed a historical novel, which he has for some time had upon the anvil, by the publication of the third, fourth, and fifth volumes. Its title is Ruhe die erste Birgerpflicht (Tranquillity the Citizen's First Buty). A just critic says of it, that it is too historical for a romance, and too romantic for a history. It is very good in parts, but poor as a whole.

- A book full of life and spirit, and worthy of a translation, is Julius Von WICKEDE'S Aus dem Leben ines Touristen (From the Life of a Tourist). The writer, à soldier hy profession, has been pitched about in France, Algiers, Schleswig-Holstein, every where meets with adventures, that he recounts in a lively, witty, daredevil strain, and with a turn for picturesque description that render him a most agreeable companion.

- Die Brüder aus Ungarn (The Hungarian Brothers), by A. WIDMANN, is a historical novel, ostensibly of the time of the Reformation and the Peasants' War, but really intended to expound the events of the years 1848 and '49 in Germany, and to enforce certain political doctrines in that connection. Of course, the book is a failure, though there are some charming little episodes woven into the story.

-A book which translators might find their advantage in looking up, is EDMUND HÖFER's Geschichten (Tales), a volume containing eight stories of popular life in Germany, done with great truth to nature, felicity of invention, and poetic interest.

Å volume of Scenes Americaines has just been issued for the benefit of the French nation, by M. CHARLES OLIFFE, a traveller, who last year honored the United States by his explorations. He does not go very much into the great philosophical, political, and economical questions which MM. Tocqueville and Chevalier so elaborately discuss in connection with the western republic, but devotes himself rather to observations upon the daily life and ordinary affairs of the Yankees. M. Oliffe is not a very great man, to judge by his book, and we advise no one to give way to sorrow if by chance he is unable to get a sight at the Scenes Americaines.

--A novel of Mexican life has lately appeared at Paris, in one volume under the title of Costal l’Indien (Costal the Indian), by M. G. Ferry. The author perished in the conflagration of the steamer Amazon, which caused so melancholy a

SCIENTIFIC INTELLIGENCE. ELEGANT organisms in the Animal and Vegetable kingdoms are constantly developed under the careful research of scientific inquirers. A new genus of the family of Volvocineæ is described by Dr. FREDERICK Conx of Breslau. It was observed by Dr. Von FRANTZIUS, during his journey to the Tyrol in 1850, that a green mucilaginous coloring of rain-water collected in the hollow of a grave-stone at Salzburg: the color being caused by the presence of innumerable vesicles moving about like Infusoria, each containing eight small green globules arranged around the periphery at regular distances, in other words, the rare wheel-animalcule in a living state. Acting upon this hint, Dr. Coun instituted a series of examinations in the highlands of Silesia, with the view of ascertaining the true nature of the organism. He arrives at the conclusion, that all analogy of structure and indications of natural relationship point to the fact that the Volvocineæ belong, not to the Animal kingdom, but to the Vegetable, and that they should be placed in the class of the Algæ. The formation of this genus is stated to be very beautiful.

-A new Hemipterous insect, forming the type of a new genus, is described by Mr. DALLAS. It is from Sylhet, forming part of the collection made in that country by Messrs. COLTON and TURNER.

-A report from Dr. Gray and Mr. WATERHOUSE makes complaint of the restricted accommodations of the Zoolo

gical department of the British Museum. phere and the soil, is comparatively great, The Osteological collection is large and and hence there is an absence of goitre important, and contains valuable speci and cretinism. In the zone corresponding mens which have not yet been described. to that of the Valleys of the Alps, the

- The British Museum of Practical amount of iodine has diminished to oneGeology has commenced its second session, tenth of that found in the Paris zone ; under very favorable auspices. The inau and accordingly, -according to this hypogural lecture was delivered by Dr. LYON thesis,—the diseases named are there PlayFair, who made some striking com found to be endemic. Mr. Macadam, in ments upon the state of industrial instruc order to test the truth of these speculation on the Continent. The British Gov tions, has recently undertaken a series of ernment has established, in this Museum, analyses in reference to the general distria School of Mining and of education in bution of iodine. His investigations were the application of Science to the Arts, prosecuted in Edinburgh, and, though not which cannot fail to exercise a beneficial determinate as to the results indicated by influence in popularizing scientific prob Chatin, pointed out these important lems, and elevating the standard of public facts:-1. That the quantity of Iodine in sentiment in regard to the pursuit of sci the atmosphere is frequently too minute entific investigations. The Course of for detection by the ordinary methods of Lectures for the present season will com testing. 2. That Iodine is more generally prise forty-eight discourses on Chemistry, distributed in the Vegetable Kingdom by Dr. PLAYFAIR; forty-eight on Metal than has formerly been supposed ; as is lurgy, by Dr. Percy; thirty-six on Me proved by its presence in potashes and by chanical Science, by Mr. R. HUNT; forty the discovery of distinct traces in the on Geology, by Mr. A. C. RAMSAY ; forty lixivium of charcoal. 3. That traces of eight on Natural History, by Mr. E. bromine are to be found in crude potashes. FORBES ; and seventy-six on Mineralogy -The relation between the Height of and Mining, by Mr. W. W. SMYTH. Waves and their Distance from the Wind

– An interesting paper on the mode of ward Shore, has been made the subject of vegetation of European and North Ameri inquiry by Mr. Tuos. STEVENSON, C. E. can trees transported to Madeira, has ap Mr. STEVENSON, in designing a sea-work, prared from the pen of Prof. Oswald HEER experienced the usual difficulty of engiof Zurich. Prof. HEER is distinguished for neers in discovering the line of maximum his valuable observations on the Botanical exposure to the force of the waves, and Geography of the Swiss mountains. Com was led to make a course of observations, pelled by ill health to reside for a time at extending through two years, upon the Madeira, he employed his leisure in inves Frith of Forth and the Moray Frith. His tigations of the growth of plants in that results are not yet satisfactorily establishequable climate. It was found that the ed, but he directs attention to the prosePlatanus occidentalis, a native of the cution of inquiries which can be perfected United States, loses its leaves very slowly only by multiplied trials. So far as the after the middle of October, and that the observations have extended, the plain reApple and Pear begin to be leafless in sult is indicated, that the waves seem to December. Both these latter come into increase in height most nearly in the ratio flower at Funchal by the 7th of April, of the square root of their distance from and their fruit is collected in August. the windward shore. The subject is an There are, however, varieties of apple and important one. pear trees which flower and produce fruit --The coloring of the Green Teas of comtwice during the year; and one variety of merce is a topic which has been very geneapple is perpetually in flower and fruit. rally discussed, but with little good. A Peach trees continue blooming in abun new series of microscopical and chemical dance during December and January. investigations has lately been instituted by

- Mr. MACADAM communicates some ob Mr. ROBERT WARRINGTON. Specimens servations regarding the General Distri submitted to examination were found to be bution of Iodine, resulting from statements colored with indigo mixed with porcelainmade by M. CHATIN before the French clay, the indigo being of very inferior qualiAcademy of Sciences. M. Chatin is of ty and leaving a large proportion of inorgaopinion that there is an appreciable quan nic matter by calcination. A method for tity of Iodine in rain water, in the atmos removing the coloring matter from the phere, and in soils; and that the relative surface of green teas, for the purpose of amount present in any one locality deter microscopical investigation, attended with mines to a great extent the presence or

little trouble, is to take a piece of creamabsence of certain diseases. In what he colored woven paper, free from blue styles the Paris zone, the quantity of coloring material, rendering the surface iodine present in the water, the atmos slightly damp, and to place a small ian

tity of the tea upon it. The coloring substance will adhere to the paper in small quantities, and may then be placed under the microscope, or submitted to the action of chemical tests.

-The return of two of the Arctic Expeditions to England has given rise to renewed speculations regarding the fate of Sir JOHN FRANKLIN. At the last meeting of the Royal Geographical Society, Capt. KENNEDY and Capt. PENNY were present, the former of whom gave a succinct and interesting description of the route he pursued and the results he had obtained. The Prince Albert, under the command of Capt. KENNEDY, sailed from Aberdeen on the 22d of May, 1851, and penetrated to Leopold Island, on the northeast extremity of North Somerset on the 4th of September. From Leopold Island to the northern shore, a continuous line of densely-packed ice was seen barring Barrows' Straits from side to side. The original intention of exploring to Cape Riley and the entrance of Lancaster Sound was frustrated by the continuance of the ice in compact fields; but Capt. KENNEDY, with a few men, finally succeeded in reaching Whaler Point, on which were placed the stores deposited at Port Leopold by Sir JAMES Ross. The party were detained at this point until the 27th of May. Their absence from the ship continued for ninety-six consecutive days, during which time they travelled a distance of 1100 miles. The results of this exploration, though not satisfactory as regards indications of the route of the missing navigator, are important as proof that he could not have visited the localities described by Capt. KENNEDY. Capt. INGLEFIELD, commander of the Isabel, the vessel fitted out mainly from the resources of Lady FRANKLIN, has had no better fortune. The labors of Capt. KENNEDY have served one useful purpose, in the discovery of a passage from Regent Inlet into the Victoria Channel of Rae, proving the existence of a northwest passage along the coast of North America, actually effected by modern navigators. It is noticeable that the British public regard with evident satisfaction the efforts which have been put forth in the same direction by American enterprise. The Geographical Society recommends a Government Expedition to the Arctic Seas in conjunction with vessels belonging to the United States.

-M. ELIE DE BEAUMONT, in his first Memoir on the Mountain Systems of Europe, read before the Paris Academy in June, 1829, indicated the existence of four systems. Soon after, he increased the number to nine; then to

twelve; and, latterly, to twenty-one. In a recent communication, he considers the probabilities of a still further extension. and expresses the belief that if the study of this department of Geology is continued. the number of systems will exceed one hundred. The subject has been investigated with much care by Agassiz, Guyot, and others beside M. DE BEAUMONT, so that new developments will be likely to bring out important considerations.

-A Meteorological Society has been formed at the Mauritius, under the auspices of the Government. It proposes to collect all possible information in regard to that colony and its surrounding waters.

-Sir CHARLES LYELL has completed his visit to this country, and returned home. The object of this second visit from the distinguished geologist is understood to be, beside the delivery of lect ires on his favorite science, the examination of the Geology of some extensive tracts in the United States and Canada, of which we may expect soon to see accounts from his popular pen.

- The preparation of the American Nautical Almanac, to be issued under the sanction of the Navy Department, has been so far advanced as to warrant the speedy publication of the first number of that work. The calculations are made for the year 1855. The Almanac is prepared under the superintendence of Lieut. C. H. DAVIS, U.S. N., who is assisted by Lieut. MAURY of the National Observatory, and other gentlemen of scientific knowledge and high reputation. A number of improvements over the English publication of the same character are introduced.

- The Sixth Annual Report of the Smithsonian Institution, just issued from the press, shows a liberal encouragement of scientific explorations and researches by the Government. The Institution has recently established a very complete system of Meteorological observations, the results of which will be valuable additions to the stock of our knowledge on that important subject.

—M. Brown LEQUARD, a Member of the French Academy, and at present lecturing in Boston, has succeeded in reexciting the irritability, or restoring life to the muscles of the human subject, by injections of blood. The circumstances which favor the transfusion are, that the blood be freshly drawn (although it is capable of producing the effect when an hour old), and that the injections be repeated every two or three hours. The effect is produced even when the blood used has been deprived of its fibrine. When the substance of a muscle is removed from the body and injected

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