« PoprzedniaDalej »
thors who exercise their genius upon American subjects. Imitations of foreign and classical literature, though equal to the originals, will not command success. The American author or artist who is ambitious of success must confine himself to the illustration of American subjects. Cooper made his first essay upon foreign ground and failed. He then came back to America, with no better talent than he carried abroad, and succeeded, having first secured a reputation by the use of a home subject, and then succeeded with foreign materials. But Irving always wrote as an American even when his theme was foreign. There is yet remaining an uncultivated but rich field for American genius. Our first novel of society has yet to be written. We are daily looking for the appearance of our native novelist who shall take his place by the side of Irving, of Cooper, of Melville, and Hawthorne, and Mrs. Stowe. Like the sister of Fatima, we can see a cloud in the distance, but we cannot make out the form of the approaching genius. There are steam-presses and paper-mills now erecting to welcome him. Dur aborigines, and sailors, and transcendentalists, and heroes, and slaves, have all had their Iliad, but our men and women of society are yet looking for their Fielding, their Bulwer, or their Thackeray.
Some of the foreign correspondents of our daily papers, in commenting on the popularity of Uncle Tom in Europe, account for it by saying that the English are glad of an opportunity to circulate a book which shows up our country to disadvantage. But we do not perceive the force of this argument. We do not think that any degree of hatred to our institutions could induce the people of Great Britain to read a dull book. Besides, there have been dozens of books published about slavery, which throw Uncle Tom's Cabin completely in the shade in their pictures of our domestic institutions. In fact, Mrs. Stowe's book gives a much more agreeable picture of Southern slavery than any of the works we have seen which profess to give the right side of the tapestry. A desire to degrade America surely cannot be the reason why the representation of dramatic scenes in Uncle Tom have proved so attractive in our own theatres. For our part, we think that the actual effect of Mírs. Stowe's romance will be to create a much more indulgent and forgiving spirit towards the people of the South than has prevailed in England heretofore. Our last presidential election certainly did not afford any reason to believe that the minds of our countrymen had been at all influenced by Mrs. Stowe's enchantments.
ERICSSON'S CALORIC SHIP.
The invention of few motors has always spread abroad and strengthen the ties of
fruitful ingenious and useful applications of mechanical force have been contrived for the one great object--the propulsion of vessels upon the ocean, and of carriages on the land, by means of a power,which, possessed of the force of Steam, should be at once more economical, less dangerous, and of more easy and general application. To effect this object, skilful mechanists have directed their attention to the development of those powers of nature by means of which man conquers the world to his will. There is much that is curious in the thought, that so simple an agent as water, when subjected to the action of heat, should create an instrument capable of revolutionizing commerce, and of bringing the ends of the earth together. There is something much more remarkable, if the idea can be carried to perfection, of which there seems now little doubt, in the employment of the air we breathe, and without which we cannot live, to feed the lungs of the iron monster, which conveys us rapidly from port to port, and serves to
The Caloric Ship of Captain ERICSSON marks a new era in the history of navigation. An experiment it can scarcely be termed, for it is the result of twenty-five years of research and experience. Its triumph or its defeat will settle a question which has attracted the attention of the world, and its final issue is to determine the future of ocean navigation.
In its outward appearance, the caloric ship does not so greatly differ from an ordinary steamship, as might be imagined, in consequence of the total change in its propelling power. The most perceptible alteration upon her decks is the presence of four handsome, symmetrical funnels, placed at nearly equal distances from each other, and occupying the place of the unsightly and smoke-begrimed pipe of our large steamers. Two of these chimneys are attached to the upper cylinders of the engines, and the remaining two serve at once for ornament and the escape of heated and impure air from the engine-room.
40 feet 26 ft. 6 in. 1903 tons
6 feet 137 in. 6 feet 30 in.
Each funnel is a perfect cylinder, thirty description; the wave-line is applied judiinches in diameter, rising only five feet ciously; the bow cuts the water smoothly above the paddle-boxes, and resting and rapidly; and the run is marked by a upon an octagonal pedestal, tastefully peculiarity of construction which gives the carved and ornamented. The whole is ship an easy rest upon the water. The painted white, with the exception of a flooring is entirely solid from stem to cast-iron ring, near the top of each of the stern. To give additional strength to the pipes, which is carefully gilded. The timbers, the entire frame is firmly braced general effect of the four white, plain by bars of iron placed diagonally, and seand cleanly pillars upon the deck is very curely bolted to each other and to the pleasant. Near each pair, the pipes stand- ship. With these advantages, and the ing two and two, is an air-shaft. This is tidy masts and rigging, unsoiled in the intended to supply a constant current of longest voyages by smoke or gases, the cold air to the engine-room, and descends ship always presents a clean and fresh to the very bottom of the vessel, carrying appearance, which places her in striking down a vast volume of fresh air to supply contrast with her rivals. The peculiarithe waste engendered by the consumption ties of build and finish we may not here of the furnaces. In consequence of this particularize more closely. They are happy arrangement, the fire-room is kept best judged by observation, and their adat nearly the same temperature as the vantages will be determined by experiupper or hurricane-deck. The difference between this and the similar apartment
The dimensions of the Ericsson are as of the ordinary steamships is very striking. follows: There is a manifest improvement in the application of this ventilating-shaft, in the Length between perpendiculars,
Breadth of beam, simple fact, that all danger of fire is obvi
Depth of hold, ated through the coolness of the spot Tonnage (Register measure), where the flame is generated. But the
Working cylinders, (diameter of each)
Length of stroke, shaft is not alone useful in this way. Being Supply cylinders, (diameter of each) so constructed as to form a continuous
Length of stroke,
Chimneys, two in number, (diameter) " well” from the top to the bottom of the Ventilating tubes, two in number, correspondvessel, the open space thereby afforded ing to the chimneys, (diaineter) is made available as a location for the
Paddle-wheels, (diameter) pumping apparatus. The brakes of the powerful force-pumps with which the ship The owners of the vessel are a company is supplied project from the side of the shaft of gentlemen of wealth and influence upon the deck, and may be there worked among whom is John B. Kitching, Esq., by the crew with the utmost possible con a prominent merchant of this city. Her venience. A large amount of pipe is, of builders were Messrs. PERRINE, PATTERcourse, required to draw the water that son and Stack, of Williamsburgh; the the ship may make, to so great a height, engines were constructed by Messrs. but the pumps are sufficiently powerful Hogg and DELAMATER of New York. to complete the work. The mouth of The principle involved in the construceach of these shafts is carefully covered tion of the Caloric Engine, it is already with oiled canvasthough light is admitted well known, is the application of air in a by means of a netting surrounding the state of expansion to the uses for which edge of the pit. The uses to which the steam has long been employed. To exshafts are put are remarkably appropriate plain the mode in which Capt. ERICSSON and simple. They are indispensable auxi accomplishes this undertaking is a comliaries of the system of ventilation, which paratively easy matter, but to make it this ship possesses in an eminent degree. thoroughly intelligible to all, is more diffiThe deck is perfectly free, fore and aft, cult. The account, however, may be and affords a pleasant place of promenade, given in the simplest manner. if the passenger possesses the requisite The engine-room is paved with corrustrength of nerve.
gated cast-iron bed-plates, extending over In her build, the Ericsson is a fine its whole area. The apprehensions of specimen of naval architecture. No ves leakage from bolt-holes through the botsel has gone out of the port of New tom of the ship, as in steam-ships, are York her superior in beauty, strength, not entertained here, in consequence of and, we may perhaps soon add, in speed. this improved method. The plates are The engines being situated in the centre cast with a corrugated surface, so that the of the ship, the midship section of the footing of the firemen and attendants may vessel is formed quite unlike the steam be secure, even when the ship careens. ships. The floor has a gradual rise, The danger of fire from casual falls of greater than is usual in vessels of this coals from the furnaces, or from a too
82 feet 10 ft. 6 in.
great temperature, is also obviated by valves provided for this purpose. Each this arrangement, for two reasons: 1. cylinder has a piston, fitting closely to it, That there is not à crevice in the iron but so contrived that both always work flooring through which fire may obtain together. As the air escapes from the access to the wood-work. 2. That there lower cylinder, the piston contained is no fire sufficiently furious to heat even within the cylinder descends by its own the iron that surrounds it to any dangerous gravity, drawing the upper one down degree.
with it. The upper piston, in its descent, The improvement of the new motor thus pulls open a series of valves, each some begins at the very foundation. The cylin two feet in diameter, placed in the top of ders composing the Caloric Engine are four each of the supply-cylinders. The openin number, placed in pairs, one above the ing of these valves causes the instantaneother. Their position is not side by side, ous admission of a volume of cold air. but lengthwise of the vessel. The largest As the piston ascends, these valves close, cylinder of each pair is termed the working and the confined air, now unable to escape cylinder; and the upper, or smaller, the in the way it entered, finds vent in another supply cylinder. The dimensions of these set of valves, through which it passes cylinders are immense. As already stated, into a receiver. From this receiver, it is each of the working cylinders is 168 inches, to pass into the working or lower cylinder, or fourteen feet, in diameter; and the sup to force up the working piston within it. ply cylinders have each a diameter of 137 In order to perform this duty, it is cominches, or eleven fect five inches. It was at pelled to pass through an apparatus first doubted whether cylinders of such a called the regenerator, which is nothing magnitude could be properly made, those of more than a series of wire-nettings placed the Collins steamships being only 90 inches close together to the thickness of twelve in diameter; but the experiment has suc inches. The meshes of this network of ceeded admirably. Persons are not want iron being fine, and the distance through ing who will now undertake to manufac the mass very considerable, the air, in its ture twenty feet cylinders, if need be. The passage from one side to the other, is disweight of this entire mass of iron is about tributed in an infinitude of small cells, four hundred tons. The workmanship is and is thus placed in intimate contact beautiful, and reflects credit upon Ameri with a metal surface which is peculiarly can skill and enterprise. The capacity sensible of appreciation or depreciation in of the cylinders is such that 34,272 cubic the amount of caloric that may exist in feet of atmospheric air per minute, are its vicinity. Upon this part of the appadrawn into the engine when only fourteen ratus is based the grand feature of the strokes per hour are made; so that in the Caloric Engine. The idea of the reiterated space of sixty minutes the aggregate employment of heated air was long the volume of air which passes through the subject of experiment by Capt. Ericsson. engine is not less than 2,056,320 cubic It was ascertained, by himself and others, feet. The weight of air is in the ratio of that atmospheric air and the permanent 134 cubic feet to the pound; so that, gases acquire or part with a given degree according to this calculation, the vast of heat, in passing through a given volume of sixty-eight tons of atmospheric extent of space; or, in other words, that air goes through the cylinders every hour, a volume of air, in passing through a effecting a wonderful ventilation. The fur
space of, say, six inches in the filtieth naces through which the requisite amount part of a second, is capable of acquiring or of heat is applied to set the machinery evolving about 400° of heat. The simin motion, are located at the base of the plest philosophical principles are therefore working cylinders. A comparatively small combined in the production of the caloric amount of fuel is required for consumption engine, namely, the radiating properties during long voyages, and it is confidently of heat, and the affinity of metals for asserted that the ship will be able to take caloric. The result of Captain Ericsson's on board a sufficient quantity of coal, - observations leads him to adopt the "reanthracite only being used, on account of generator," as the truest and simplest exits greater cleanliness,—to take the vessel ponent of these powers.
In its manner of to and return her from any European operation, the regenerator is speedy and port, and even to Canton. This is another certain. Its warmer surface is of course advantage, of which we shall come to nearest the fire below ; its cooler side is speak by and by. The engine, then, fanned by the current of air which enters works simply as follows: The furnaces from above. As the heated air leaves the having been lighted, the air contained in working-cylinder of the engine, it necesthe working or lower cylinder presently sarily enters the regenerator, by which it becomes heated, forces up the piston is deprived of its caloric, and is expelled within, and escapes through a series of with but thirty degrees of heat; whereas,
upon its entrance through the same chan As regards the conveyance of heavy nel, it received about four hundred and cargoes, the vessel is exceeded by none of fifty degrees. The remaining thirty de the best steamers. Her capacity for stowgrees necessary to produce the minimum age is about fourteen hundred tons. Her of expansive force (480°) are derived freight-deck is clear from fore to aft, sefrom the heat of the furnaces; and the cure, and easy of access.
In consequence volume of air is then doubled, the ma of the peculiarities of her build, there are chinery set in motion, and the action of no interruptions in the passages, and no the pistons is commenced. As the lower difficulty is experienced in the assortment, piston rises, it pushes up the crank of the arrangement, or the prompt delivery of connecting-rod which rests upon it-pro her cargo. Beneath the freight-deck is duces, thereby, a revolution of the shaft
, the coal-hold, which remains distinct from by which the paddle-wheels are turned, any other portion of the ship, and does and the ship is at once in motion.
not interfere with the residue of its apThe action of the cylinders, the regenera pointments. tor, the crank and rod, and the shaft and The minor details of the structure of wheels, continues without alteration so the vessel are not important, differing but long as it may be desirable. The fur slightly from the ordinary steamships. naces require the attendance of very few In this brief description of the peculiar men, in comparison with the host of engi- characteristics which mark the Caloric neers, firemen, feeders, and supernumera Ship, we have aimed merely at a general ries that peoples the hold of our common and popular exposition of a great idea, of steamships. Allusion has already been which the full development must be a made to the fact, that the vessel is enabled work of time. The efforts of the ingenito carry a sufficient supply of coal to ac ous inventor, with whose name the entercomplish both the outward and return prise is so closely allied, have been directvoyages. The shaft lies concealed be ed to the accomplishment of a mighty tween-decks. In this respect, the appli- undertaking. Whether the use of steam cation of the new power possesses a de is soon to be superseded by an invention cided advantage; as, in vessels propelled so much more simple and easy of access by steam, the passages fore-and-aft are as common air, is a problem of vast mointerrupted by the elevation of the shaft ment. The probabilities in favor of its into inconvenient proximity with the head ultimate success are certainly most flatof the passer-by. On the Ericsson, the tering. Confidence, energy and perseve decks are entirely clear from stem to rance have been assiduously brought into stern.
combination to effect an end at once so de The state-rooms and saloons of the ship sirable and important. The new ship is are fitted up in superb style. The furni receiving the finishing touches as this arture is of the newest pattern, the mirrors ticle is penned, and, by the advent of the of the richest, and the ornamental work new year, will probably have made her of the best. No expense has been spared debut before the public. Nothing is hazto render the vessel a worthy compeer of
arded in the remark that she will attract the noble ships which have gone forth to attention and regard, as a most perfect testify to the taste and enterprise of New specimen of mechanical skill and enterYork.
ANECDOTE OF JAMES SMITHSON. DR: jr
and then, rapidly calculating, surprised - The Theory of Probabilities,” de him by declaring the exact amount. livered, on the 24th of November, before Some time after, Smithson brought to the American Academy of Arts and M. Arago a table, in which he had apSciences, in Boston, illustrated a proposi- plied the principles of this previous calcution by narrating an occurrence in the lation, saying that the excitement of the life of James Smithson.
game was necessary to him, and that, by It is related of him that, when in Paris, the use of this table, he now obtained the being addicted to indulgence in “ Rouge greatest possible entertainment by the et Noir,” he at one time experienced al expenditure of a definite amount. most constant reverses, and narrated the To this fact of the existence of cercircumstance to his friend M. Arago, the tainty in uncertainty, as the lecturer reeminent Saran.
marked, are we indebted for the benefits M. Arago interrogated him as to the subsequently conferred on the interests number and the time of his losses, and of science by the establishment of the their proportion to the times of playing, Smithsonian Institution.
ous orators of Great Britain, with brief AMERICAN. — Dr. KRAITSIR's Gloss sketches of their lives, and excellent exology, a Treatise on the Nature of Lan planatory notes. We have made time to guage, and the Language of Nature, go over the greater part of the volume, amid its abundant merits, has the defect of and have derived no little refreshment being too learned. The author has crow and pleasure from the perusal. A collecded so much into a brief compass that his tion of American orators, made with equal remarks become obscure, or rather they fidelity and care, would be a valuable conmake such a demand upon the attention tribution to literature. that the effort to understand him becomes -If we Americans have only a scanty almost painful. If the same rich materials literature of our own. we have the mewere treated in a more familiar and ex rit at least of first publishing a great deal planatory way, they might do a great ser of the best literature of England. The vice in reforming the abuses of the noble collected writings of Bolingbroke. of MacEnglish tongue. As it is, and in spite of aulay, of Carlyle, of Wilson, of Talfourd, the petulance which occasionally escapes of Sydney Smith, of Jeffrey, of De Quinfrom the too-earnest writer, we commend cey, of Thackeray, were first issued on his instructions to all those who take an this side of the water, and now we have, interest in purifying our speech, or who added thereto, an excellent edition of the care to acquire foreign languages by a prose works of Procter, better known as thoroughly scientific method.
Barry Cornwall. They consist of a series told by those who have penetrated the of pleasantly conceived and gracefully depths of the Doctor's principles, that they written tales and essays. throw a wonderful light upon the whole -Mrs. Follen has done a good thing for subject of linguistic.
the juveniles in printing some of the - Miss CHEESBORO's new novel, The best stories and poems of her Child's Children of Light, is a worthy succes
Friend into a neat book form. Few sor to the " Isa, a Pilgrimage," which at persons know so well as she how to tracted no small share of admiration cater for the tastes of the young. last year.
It has much of the same vig - An edition of the Speeches of Maor and freshness, but, like that, it shows caulay is announced in this city. His a mind which had not yet worked itself spoken rhetoric is quite equal to his writinto perfect clearness of conception. Most ten, and we wonder, in the universal admiof the books written by women are said ration which his brilliant style merits, that to be deficient in that indescribable qual this task of compilation has not been before ity called Art, but Miss Cheesboro’ is undertaken. rapidly attaining the highest walks in - Mr. Hudreth, the historian, is about the department to which her talents are to publish A Theory of Politics, a work devoted.
which he has had for some years in - What a taking title is that of Mr. preparation. It will be a statement of KIMBALL, the Romance of Student Life the reasons why different governments Abroad, and how gracefully the author have prevailed in different nations, with has told his adventures ! But, on the historical parallels and illustrations. whole, his book is not equal to the “St. - The Appletons will publish, in the Leger," in which there is so much ro month of February, a volume, entitled mance and so much passion.
Prismatics, by RICHARD HAYWARDE, unKnick-knacks is the happy name der which disguise the modest author wherewith our venerable contemporary of
lies concealed. In the matter of tyThe KNICKERBOCKER has christened his pography, the publishers promise that bantling of a book. It is enough to say it will be something of which the Ameriof it that it contains all those funny can press will be proud, and to say that things which have made the “Editor's Ta the embellishments will be from the penble" of that Magazine the part to which cils of Elliot, Darley, Kensett, Hicks, and every reader of it first turns, and from Rossiter, will commend it to the lovers of which he gets up with a broad grin. We
art. know of no collection of American humor - Mr. BANCROFT's continuation of his similar to it, certainly none that contains History of the Rerolution, has appeared such a variety of original and racy matter. in England, and is favorably noticed by
--An admirable compilation is that of the reviews. The American edition is reThe British Orators, made by Dr. ceived as we go to press. It will have atGOODRICH.
It presents, in a portable tention in our next. form, the best speeches of the most illustri - The papers contributed to the Horti