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rishing of her provinces to its own whole proposition rather as a play of state ; a suggestion which shewed dis- the imagination, than as a serious intinctly enough, that no means could vitation to the adoption of a great po. properly he neglected to save that litical measure. power. If this great object could not Perfectly acquainted with all the be obtained by a just peace, it was ne. obstacles to a general peace, Austria cessary to support Russia and Prussia had long considered whether this disby a powerful co-operation. From tant and difficult object was not rather this natural view of things, upon which to be obtained progressively; and in cven France could no longer deceive this opinion, had expressed herself herself, his majesty continued his pre- both to France, and to Russia and parations with unwearied activity. 'He Prussia, upon the subject of a contiquitted, in the early part of July, his nental peace. Not that the Austrian residence, and proceeded to the vicini. court had misconceived, even for a moty of the scene of action, in order the ment, the necessity and importance of more effectually to labour at the ne- an universal peace among all the great gociation for peace, which still conti- powers of Europe, and without

which nued to be the object of his most ar. there was no hope of either safety or dent desires; and partly to be able the happiness, or had imagined that the more effectually to conduct the prepa. continent could exist, if the separation rations for war, if no other choice of England were not invariably consi. should remain for Austria.

dered as a most deadly evil! The neA short time before, the Emperor gociation which Austria proposed, af. Napoleon had declared, “ that he had ter the alarming declaration of France proposed a congress, to be held at had nearly destroyed all hopes of Eng. Prague, where plenipotentiaries from land uniting her endeavours in the atFrance, the United States of North tempt to procure a general peace, was America, Denmark, the King of Spain, an essential part of the great approach. and the other allied princes on the one ing negociation, for a general and efhand; and on the other, plenipotenti. fective congress for peace : it was inaries of England, Russia, Prussia, the tended as preparatory to this, to draw Spanish insurgents, and the other als up the preliminary articles of the fu. lies of this hostilė mass, should meet, ture treaty, to pave the way by a long and lay the ground-work of a durable continental armistice to a more ex. peace.” To whom this proposition tended and durable negociation. Had was addressed, in what manner, in what the principle upon which Austria ad diplomatic form, through whose organ vanced been other than this, neither it could have been done, was perfectly Russia nor Prussia, bound by the unknown to the Austrian cabinet, strongest ties to England, would cer. which only was made acquainted with tainly ever have listened to the propothe circumstance through the medium sals of the Austrian cabinet. of the public prints. How, too, such After the Russian and Prussian a project could be brought to bear - courts, animated by a confidence in his how, from the combination of such majesty highly flattering to the empedissimilar elements, without any géne- ror, had already declared their concurrally acknowledged principle, without rence in the proposed congress under any previously regulated plan, a nego. the mediation of Austria, it became ciation for peace was to be set on foot, necessary to obtain the formal assent was so little to be comprehended, that of the Emperor Napoleon, and to deit was very allowable to consider the termine upon what principles the ne

gociations for peace were to be carried the convulsions of the political world, on. For this purpose, his imperial had also resolved upon a new attempt majesty resolved towards the end of with the British government.

The the month of June, to send his minis. Emperor Napoleon not only received ter for foreign affairs to Dresden.- the proposal with apparent approba

The result of the mission was, a con. tion, but even voluntarily offered to vention concluded upon the 30th of expedite the business by allowing the June, accepting the mediation of his persons to be dispatched for that pur. imperial majesty in the negociation of pose to England, a passage through a general, and if that could not be ef. France. When it was to be carried in. fected, of a preliminary continental to effect, unexpected difficulties arose, peace. The city of Prague was fixed the passports were delayed from time upon for the meeting of the congress, to time, under trilling pretexts, and at and the 5th of July for its opening. length entirely refused. This pro. In order to obtain a sufficient time for ceeding afforded a fresh and important the negociation, it was determined by ground for entertaining just doubts as the same convention that the Emperor to the sincerity of the assurances which Napoleon should not give notice of the the Emperor Napoleon had more than rupture of thë armistice which was to once publicly expressed of his disposi. termináte on the 20th of July, at that tion to peace, although several of his time existing between himself and Rus. expressions at that particular period sia, till the 10th of August ; and his afforded just reason to believe ihrat a majesty the emperor took upon himself maritime peace was the object of his to obtain a similar declaration from the most anxious solicitude. Russian and Prussian courts.

During that interval, their majes The points which had been deter. ties the Emperor of Russia and the mined in Dresden, were hereupon im. King of Prussia had nominated their parted to the two courts. Although plenipotentiaries to the congress, and the continuation of the 'armistice was had furnished them with


decisive attended with many objections, and instructions. On the 12th of July with much serious inconvenience to they both arrived at Prague, as well as them, the desire of giving to his impe- his 'majesty's minister, charged with rial majesty another proof of their con. the concerns of the mediation. fidence, and at the same time to satisfy The negociations were not to be the world that they would not reject protracted beyond the 10th of Au. any prospect

however con-

gust, except in the event of their assu. fined it might be, that they would not ming such a character as to induce a refuse any attempt which might pre. confident hope of a favourable result. pare the way to it, overcame every To that day the armistice had been corsideration. The only alteration extended through the mediation of made in the convention of the 30th of Austria: the political and military siJune was, that the term of the opening tuation of the allied sovereigns, the the congress, since the final regula- condition of the countries they occutions could not so soon be determined, pied, and their anxious wish to termishould be deferred until the 12th of nate an irksome period of uncertainty, July.

prevented any further extension of it. In the mean time his majesty, who With all these circumstances the Em would not as yet abandon all hopes of peror Napoleon was acquainted : he completely terminating, by a general well knew that the period of the 'negopeace, the sufferings of mankind, and ciations was necessarily defined by that

of the armistice ; and he could not, was it until the 6th of August that the moreover, conceal from himself how minister gave in a new declaration, by much his own determinations would which the difficulties with respect to influence the happy abridgment and forms were by no means removed, nor successful result of the pending nego- the negociation by one step brought ciations.

nearer to its object. After an useIt was therefore with real sorrow less exchange of notes upon every pre that his majesty soon perceived, not liminary question, the 10th of August only that no serious step was taken by arrived. The Prussian and Russian France to accelerate this great work; negociators could not exceed this term: but, on the contrary, it appeared as if the congress was at an end, and the rea procrastination of the negociations, solution which Austria had to form and evasion of a favourable issue, had was previously determined by the probeen decidedly intended. There was, gress of this negociation by the actual indeed, a French minister at the place conviction of the impossibility of peace, of congress, but without any orders to by the no longer doubtful point of proceed to business, until the appear view in which his majesty examined ance of the first plenipotentiary. the great question in dispute, by the

The arrival of that plenipotentiary principles and intentions of the allies, was in vain expected from day to day. wherein the emperor recognised his Nor was it until the 21st of July that own, and, finally, by the former posiit was ascertained, that a demur which tive declarations, which left no roon took place on settling the renewal of for misconception. the armistice between the French and Not without sincere affliction, and Russian and Prussian commissioners ; alone consoled by the certainty that an obstruction of very subordinate im- every means to avoid the war had been portance, having no influence whatever exhausted, does the emperor now find upon the congress, and which might himself compelled to action. For three have been very easily and speedily re- years has his majesty laboured with moved by the interference of Austria, unceasing perseverance to effect, by - was made use of as the justification mild and conciliatory measures, reál of this extraordinary delay. And and durable peace for Austria and for when this last pretext was removed, it Europe. All his endeavours have fail. was not until the 28th of July, sixteen ed : there is now no remedy, no te days after that appointed for the open- course to be had but to arms. The ing of the congress, that the first emperor takes them up without any French plenipotentiary arrived. personal animosity, from a painful ne

Even in the very first days after this cessity, from an irresistible duty, upon minister's arrival, no doubt remained grounds which any faithful citizen of as to the fate of the congress. The his realm, which the world, which the form in which the full powers were to Emperor Napoleon himself, in a mobe delivered, and the mutual explana- ment of tranquillity and reason, will tions should be conducted, a point acknowledge and justify. The neces: which had already been treated by all sity of the war is engraven in the heart parties, became the object of a discus- of every Austrian, of every European, sion which rendered all the endeavours under whatsoever dominion he may of the mediating power abortive. The live, in such legible characters, that no apparent insufficiency of the powers art is necessary to distinguish them. intrusted to the French negociator oc- The nation and the army will do their casioned a silence of several days. Nor duty. An union established by com

of peace.


mon necessity, and by the mutual in. rope, and to secure its future repose terest of every power that is in arms by the establishment of a just equilifor its independence, will give due brium between the powers, have resolweight to our exertions, and the re- ved to prosecute the war in which sult, with the assistance of Heaven, they are engaged for that salutary obwill be such as must fulfil the just ex. ject, with the whole of the forces pectations of every friend of order and which Providence has placed at their

disposal. Wishing, at the same time, to extend the effects of a concert so

beneficial, to the period when the preTreaty of Amity, and of Defensive sent war, having obtained its full suc

Alliance, between the Courts of Vien- cess, their mutual interest shall impena and St Petersburgh, concluded riously require the maintenance of the at Toeplitz, the 9th of Sept. (August order of things which shall be the hap28), 1813.

py result thereof, they have appointed

to draw up the articles of a treaty of We, Francis I. by Divine Clemency, amity and defensive alliance, the folEmperor of Austria ; King of Jeru- lowing plenipotentiaries furnished with salem, Hungary, Bohemia, Dalmatia, `their instructions Croatia, Sclavonia, Gallicia, and Lo. His majesty the Emperor of Ausdomiria ; Archduke of Austria; Duke tria, King of Hungary and Bohemia, of Lorraine, Wurtzburg, and Fran- the Sieur Clement Wenceslas Lothaire, conia; Great Prince of Transylvania ; Count de Metternich Winnebourg, Margrave of Moravia ; Duke of Sty: Ochsenhansen, Knight of the Golden ria, Carinthia, Upper and Lower Si. Fleece, Grand Cross of the Royal lesia ; Count of Hapsburg, &c. Order of St Stephen, Grand Eagle of

Make known to all and singular the Legion of Honour, Grand Cross who are interrested therein, by these of the Order of St Joseph of Wurtzpresents ;

burg, Knight of St John of JerusaThat since nothing is more anxious. lew, Chancellor of the Military Order ly desired by us, and the most Serene of Maria Theresa, Curator of the Imand Potent Emperor of all the Rus- perial Academy of Fine Arts ; Cham. sias, than to promote by a stable peace berlain, Privy Counsellor, Minister of the welfare of Europe, so long over- State, of Conferences, and of Foreign whelmed by the calamities of war, and Affairs, of his Imperial, Royal, and towards that object have mutually Apostolic Majesty : joined our counsels to provide for that And his Majesty the Emperor of wished-for order of things, which, we all the Russias, the Sieur Charles Rofirmly trust, will arise from our reci. bert, Count de Nesselrode, Privy procal efforts to attain the end ; a Counsellor, Secretary of State, Chamtreaty, of which the following is the berlain, and Knight of the Order of tenour, has been entered into by each St Wolodimir of the Third Class ; of the contracting parties :

who, having exchanged their full In the name of the most holy and powers, found to be in good and due undivided trinity

form, have agreed upon the following His majesty the Emperor of Austria, articles :King of Hungary and Bohemia, and Art. I.-There shall be amity, sina his majesty the Emperor of all the cere and constant union, between his Russias, equally animated by a desire majesty the Emperor of Austria, to put an end to the calamities of Eu. King of Hungary and Bohemia, and bis majesty the Emperor of all the sions, two months at the farthest after Russias, their heirs and successors. the requisition has been made. The high contracting parties shall, in Art. VI.-The auxiliary army shall consequence, pay the greatest atten. be under the immediate command of tion to the maintaining between them the general-in.chief of the army of reciprocal amity and correspondence, the power requiring it; it shall be by avoiding every thing that might conducted by a general of its own, subvert the union and good under and employed in all the military opestanding happily subsisting between rations according to the rules of war. them.

The pay of the auxiliary army shall Art. II.-His majesty the Empe- be at the charge of the power required; ror of Austria guarantees to his ma- the rations and portions of provisions, jesty the Emperor of all the Russias forage, &c. as well as the quarters, the possession of all his states, provin- shall be furnished by the

power ces, and dominions.

quiring, as soon as the auxiliary army On the other hand, his imperial shall have passed its own frontiers, majesty of all the Russias, guarantees and that on the same footing as the to his Majesty the Emperor of Aus. latter supplies or shall supply its own tria, the possession of the states, pro. troops in the field and in quarters

. vinces, and dominions, belonging to Art. VII.-The order and internal his imperial, royal, and apostolic ma- military economy of these troops shall jesty.

solely depend on their own proper Árt. III.--As a consequence of chief. The trophies and the booty this reciprocal guarantee, the high which shall be taken from the enemy, contracting parties will constantly la- shall belong to the troops which shall bour in concert on the measures which have taken them. shall appear to them most proper for Art. VIII.-In the event that the the maintenance of peace in Europe ; stipulated succour shall be insufficient and in case the states of either of them for that one of the two high contractshall be menaced by an invasion, they ing parties who shall have been attack will employ their most effectual good ed, his majesty the Emperor of Aw offices for the prevention thereof. tria, King of Hungary and Bohemia

, Art. IV.-Asthe good offices, how. and his majesty the Emperor of all the ever, which they promise each other, Russias, reserve to themselves, to come may not have the desired effect, their

to a mutual understanding, without imperiał majesties bind themselves loss of time, on the furnishing of more henceforward to assist each other with considerable aids, according to the exa corps of 60,000 men, in the event of igency of the case. either of them being attacked.

Art. IX.-The high contracting Art. V.-This army shall be com- parties reciprocally promise each other

, posed of 50,000 infantry, and 10,000 that in the event that either of the cavalry. It shall be provided with a two shall be compelled to take up corps of field-artillery, with ammuni- arms, he will not conclude either peace tion, and every other necessary; the or truce, without therein including his whole proportioned to the number of ally, in order that the latter may not troops above stipulated. The auxiliary himself be attacked in resentment of army shall arrive at the frontiers of the succour which he shall have fur. the power who shall be attacked or pished. menaced by an invasion of his posses. Art. X.-Orders shall be trapsont

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