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would be comparatively little felt. to answer two objects,—the support of For the country had until recently the sinking fund, and to make good been so much excluded from foreign the defalcation caused by the abandontrade, that all foreign articles had ment last year of the auction duty:come to our markets, what with the Although he had thought proper difficulty of transmission, the charge to propose a substitute for the auction ** of freights, &c. under an augmenta. duty, he by no means lost sight of it. tion of expence, greatly exceeding the He did not think it would be satisfacproposed rate of duty Many circum- tory to take it for the purpose stances had, however, recently com- contributing to the immediate supply ; bined to render those articles at the but he reserved to himself the liberty present moment cheaper to the con. of proposing means to prevent fraud, sumer, even with the increased tax, and to regulate the duty, if he should than they were last year without it. findit necessary so to do. —Those which ** He would estimate the amount of the he had mentioned were permanent increase of the custom duties at from taxes. He should next propose to lay jį 8501 to 900,0001.-In addition to some further taxes under the head of this, however, he meant to propose a

war taxes, for the general purpose of I slight augmentation of the excise du- assisting the supplies for the year, and to ties in a particular branch. He pro- for the particular object of providing posed that this should take place on for the one per cent. sinking fund, or French wines, an article of mere luxury, exchequer bills outstanding on the 5th entirely confined to the higher orders, January of each year, to be granted and if checked in the importation, or

to the commissioners for the reduction wholly shut out, he should consider of the national debt. These war taxes the exclusion to be a national advan. he wished to class under the head of tage. On French wines he proposed imports and exports. The first that to lay an additional excise duty of 13d. he should propose would be a general a bottle, which would be about 18d. to increase of duty on the importation of the consumer; a tax that could not be all goods and merchandise the manu. considered very burdensome to the facture of the French empire, and of country. The produce he estimated all the countries dependent on France. at 30,0001, no very great sum, and It wastrue, that trade licences to France one indeed which it would hardly be and her dependencies were not now worth while so to raise, were not the granted by government, but it was subject itself one so proper for taxa. obvious that circumstances might rention, that even were the import likely der it politic to renew them; and we to produce less, or were the cousump. had an undoubted right to retaliate on tion to be so diminished as to impair the enemy all the oppression in which the existing produce of the duty upon he had persevered against our comit, he should still feel it to be incum. merce. It was proposed to double the bent upon him to make his present war-duty on such articles. Those proposition. The estimated produce, war-duties were at present equal to Therefore, of the permanent taxes one-third of the consolidated duties. would be -50,0001.-- from the general He proposed to add to them the increase in the consolidated duties of amount of the other two-thirds, thus customs,—100,0001. from the duty on making the whole of the duties in tobacco,--and 30,0001. from the duty war double the duties in peace on on French wines, making in the whole French goods. It was extremely difa sum somewhat short of a million, ficult to estimate the probable produce

of this increase. It would vary with ment had declared their principal ports the state of our intercourse with to be in a state of blockade, extend. France. If he took the average of ing from Rhode Island southward ; the last three years, he would say that thus endeavouring to deprive our mait might amount to 200,0001.-Some nufacturers of that important raw maarticles were wholly prohibited; of terial. He had every reason to believe, others the difficulty of importation that if proper encouragement were was great ; but by taking the various given to the importation of cotton articles, and allowing one as it were wool from our own colonies, this stopto support the other, he was confident page on the part of the Americans the produce would not fall short of would be wholly innoxious to this that which he had just stated. With country. It was obvious, however, respect to the exports, the trade about that to create this encouragement it to open would in all probability be would be necessary to secure the merso great, that no material inconve- chant bringing cotton wool from such bience could, in his opinion, arise from a distance against losing by his spe, adding a half percent. to the presentex. culation. If the merchant incurred port duties. In peace, such a proposi- the danger of having the sale of his tion would be impolitic-not so at the cotton injured in our market by the present moment. He calculated that it American cotton, he would be in a might produce about 150,000l. and state of little promise and great unon this branch of increased revenue he certainty. Unfortunately such an octhought he might confidently rely. currence had lately taken place :

The increased import duties would when the American government im. be on goods coming from all coun- posed the embargo on their ports, tries dependent on France. It would which occasioned a temporary stop, give him great pleasure to see those page of the importation of cotton-wool duties lessened by the diminution of from the United States, encouragethe number of those countries. They ment was given by government (in were not to attach to the exports of order to prevent injury to the British any countries in amity with his ma- manufacturer) to the importation of jesty, and the declaration of that a- large quantities from our own colomity would immediately cause the ces. nies. But unluckily they came too late sation of those duties. The only other the Americans had taken off their additional duty on the exports which embargo ; and, unprotected by such a he meant to propose, was a duty of a countervailing duty as that which he penny a pound on the exportation of was about to propose, the British foreiga hides, which would operate merchant sustained very considerable very advantageously on our leather loss. It was to prevent the occurmanufactures in foreign markets, and rence of similar events that he was it would have been proper perhaps induced to make his proposition. that ere now this measure should have The object which he had in view was been adopted, as hides might be con- to procure the fine article from the sidered as in some measure a military East Indies, by affording a sufficient store.-The only remaining article of encouragement to the importers. There proposed taxation, was one which he was at present a sufficient quantity on was induced to adopt on political as hand of every kind ; and it was the well as on financial principles-it was object of his measure (intended to a duty on importation of American promote the importation of the finer cotton wool. The American govern. kind,) to prevent the ruin which would fall on the importer, by any sudden circumstances which might arise at competition. With this view, he pro- this important crisis to make it expeposed to lay a protecting duty of three dient so to do. He hoped he had halfpence per pound on all American provided for the charges required by cotton imported in British ships, and the public service in the least objeca duty of sixpence per pound on all tionable manner. It was difficult in such cotton imported in foreign bot. these cases to calculate exactly, but toms. The whole consumption of he thought he had here made ample cotton in our own manufactures was provision for all reverses, as the taxes 80 millions of pounds, of which 30 in question would, in the ordinary millions came from America. The state of trade, produce three times deficiency, even if more were now im. as much as he had calculated. Any ported from America, would be made surplus in the present case would go up by that imported from the West into the war.taxes, in aid of the other Indies and Brazil. There was only resources of the country.—The reso. one objection to this measure, which lutions arising out of these proposals was, that it would raise the price of were carried after a short debate. the raw material on the manufac- On the 11th June, the Chancellor turers in the first instance, and even of the Exchequer for Ireland laid tually on the consumer. With respect before the House his plan for meet. to the home consumer, he thought, ing the extraordinary and additional however, that it could be hardly felt, expenditure of this year, which he and with regard to the export trade, stated as amounting in round numbers he was of opinion there was no rea- to 600,0001. “ He was aware,” he son to apprehend any rivalry on the said, “ that it was the opinion of some continent of Europe, and America gentlemen, that the system recently was at present out of the question. introduced into this country, might He apprehended that no fear could be apply, in a certain degree, to Ireentertained of any competition in land; and that recourse might be had France, where the duty on cotton now to the sinking fund. But, however existing was five shillings per pound, this might be demanded, by the hope whereas the duty in contemplation of avoiding fresh burdens, yet, the here would only amount to nine-pence arguments applied to the state of this entirely, which threw at present a sort country could not be applied to Ireof monopoly of this article into our land in an equal extent. it had been hands. As to the other nations of his principal object, in the taxes which the continent, some of whose territo. he had already the honour to propose, ries were the seat of war, and whose several of which had met with the apgeneral internal insecurity was adverse probation of the House and the sancto commercial enterprise, but little tion of parliament, to press as little as could be apprehended from their com- possible on the lower classes of the petition. He conceived, at the same community, and avoid bearing on time, that it would be desirable that those great sources of prosperity which government should have the means of were absolutely necessary to the well varying this measure according to cir- being of a rising country. To purcumstances, and with this view he had sue a different policy in a country it in contemplation to propose that a deficient in resources, and possess. power should be given to his majesty ing no great capital, would be the in council to suspend or reduce any of means of defeating her prosperity, and those war-duties, according to any rendering ineffectual those burdens which were imposed on her.-He sessed taxes; this augmentation was had already stated, that the charge on the whole of their amount estimated for the loans of the present year was at 25 per cent.

It did not however 595,8391. He would now proceed to operate generally as a duty of 25 per explain the means by which it was in- cent. because persons in the lower tended to meet this charge. He had ranks of life, and who might be supalready submitted to the House a pro- posed unable to bear it, did not come position for the further increasing the within its scope to that extent. The rate of the custom-duties in Ireland ; principal produce was expected from that increase was 25 per cent. which the rich ; taking, therefore, the whole was estimated to produce 77,3261. tax, he estimated that it would proThe increased duty of 123. 9d. per duce 100,0001. The alteration in the 100lbs. on tobacco, was estimated at postage dutics, which had been agreed 43,722. The additional duty on cof- to by the legislature, he calculated to fee, 1,9001. The increase of one-third produce 15,0001. and a regulation of of the difference between the British the excise duty on leather would take and Irish duties on foreign wines, place, which was estimated at only 40,5651. These, with one or two 5,0001. The whole amount of these alterations in existing taxes, formed duties would be 610,000, being 15,000 an aggregate of 265,0001. The next more than the charges created by the duty was that which had already been loans." sanctioned by the House, the ad. After having thus stated the varidition of 3s. per barrel on malt; the ous sources of taxation, by means of produce of which was estimated at which the Irish government proposed 115,0001.

The next duty he had to to meet the additional expenditure, notice, was one to which, if he could the Chancellor of the Exchequer for judge from the general sentiments of Ireland made some interesting remarks the House, he could expect no op- on the state of that country, with position; he alluded to an additional which we shall close the present duty of sixpence on each gallon of spi. chapter. rits. It had been justly argued that “The general amelioration of the 3s. having been imposed on each barrel country," he observed, “was evident of malt, there should be a correspond. from the state of the exchange being duty laid on spirits. He did not tween Great Britain and Ireland, think that the addition of sixpence which, not withstanding the sum anper gallon could materially affect the nually transmitted to absentees, was interests of the distiller; at the same now much improved. The rate of time, he felt confident, that an in. exchange was formerly as high as 17; crease of duty on the distilleries was but in the present year it fell to five a measure which parliament ought not, and one-half. Many objections had and would not, in the present posture been made in former years, when the of affairs, be anxious to oppose. The Irish budget was brought forward ; amount of this additional duty on one of these was the high charge on spirits, calculated on 4,400,000 gal. the collection and management of the lons, a less quantity than was ever

He was happy to announce, known to have been distilled in any that a very great improvement had one year, would be 110,0001.--The taken place in that respect.” He then next duty he had to state was one to entered into a statement to shew the which parliament had already acceded, saving which had taken place in the that was the augmentation of the as. collection of the revenue since 1811;


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from which it appeared, that the gross. per annum, on the importation of arrevenue was now collected five per ticles, most of them of prime necessicent. under the rate of that

year ;

and ty, none of which were liable to any the net revenue eight per cent. In internal duty in Great Britain. It the post office department in particu. would scarcely be contended by the lar, the revenue was now collected at warmest advocate for what was called a much more moderate rate, and with rigorous taxation, that if the financial much greater ease, than formerly; the system of the two countries were to rate at which the net revenue of that be in other respects assimilated, the department had been collected, being Irish people were still to be subjected 20 per cent less than in the preceding to duties such as these ; to preserve year.

them, as protecting duties, would be He then observed, " that Ireland in his mind the most puerile policy ; could not bear, in addition to the since it must have the effect of comtaxation already imposed upon her, pelling every consumer in Ireland to those heavy direct taxes in the con. pay more than the article of his con. templation of some gentlemen, with- sumption was worth, or than he ought out trenching on those resources

for it. which were the foundation of her " Here then there would be a loss of prosperity. He was favourable to an 300,0001. per annum in our customs, union of the financial departments of which the new system of finance must the two countries, from which he con- supply. But there was much more. ceived most beneficial results would The property.tax payable on the inbe derived. He was aware that a terest of the Irish debt received in this more efficient controul of the depart- country would surely be considered ments would be one of the first conse. applicable to the Irish supply, and quences; and this would be followed ought to be carried to the account of by a diminution of expenditure. He that country, which provided with went, however, no farther than to de- much difficulty for its charge. The sire to unite the treasuries, and to same result would arise respecting the consolidate the debts. For if gentle. property of Irish absentees; at least men supposed that Ireland would af- in equity he was sure it ought, and ford a contribution on the same prin. the deduction on these two last-menciples as England, even in the propor. tioned grounds be at least half a miltion which her growing means and in- lion from the general resources of the creasing population might induce them empire. On this he only estimated the to reckon on, they would find them remittances to absentees at two mil. selves greatly mistaken indeed ; even lions, which was the amount presumed those who calculated on a great in. in the year 1804, when a committee crease of general receipt by the impo. of the House of Commons enquired sition of those taxes which Great Bri. into the state of the exchanges between tain paid, were deceiving the country Great Britain and Ireland--At the and themselves. Ireland now paid same time he had little doubt that the taxes on her consumption, from which proportion of absentees was greatly in. great Britain was exempted—the prin.creased—the number who had followcipal articles of that consumption were ed the seat of legislation and of goof British manufacture, and of British vernment was necessarily great, and he produce,mand besides those articles

was sorry to say that many who had which were charged with heavier im. not the same excuse daily added to pasts, Ireland paid nearly 300,0001. those, who drew the sole resources of

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