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ving the Dutch people a pledge of the a half, compelled the garrison to surprinciples and conduct of his future render, and hoisted the Orange flag. government. Accordingly, on the 1st On the 3d of December, the Prince of December an address was distribu. of Orange, accompanied by the Engted, in which it was stated, that after lish embassy, made his entrance into nineteen years of absence, the prince Amsterdam. He was received with received, with the greatest joy, their unanimous applause by all classes, and unanimous invitation to return among proclaimed Sovereign Prince of the them. That he now hoped, by the bless- Netherlands. The next day an address ing of Providence, to be the instrument was published, in which the new title of restoring them to their former state of his serene highness was alluded to, of independence and prosperity. That and a determination was expressed to this was his only object, and he had establish a free constitution. the satisfaction of assuring them, that During the stay of his royal highthis was also the object of the combined ness at Amsterdam, intelligence was powers ; that it was particularly the received of the capture of Arnheim, wish of the Prince Regent, and of the which had been stormed with the greatBritish nation. That this great truth est bravery by the Prussian troops unwould be proved to them by the aid der the command of General Bulow. which that powerful and generous Thus all apprehensions from the army people would immediately afford them, of General Molitor, which was in full and which would restore those ancient retreat, and all fears of an attack from bonds of alliance and friendship, so the side of Utrecht, were dissipated. long a source of happiness and prospe- The French were still in force in the rity to both countries. That he had neighbourhood of Gorcum, but Gene. come among them determined to par- ral Bulow was preparing to advance don, and to forget all that was past, upon that place. The Fort du Quesne and that the spirit of party must be was surprised on the 4th by a band of banished for ever.

workmen, who were employed in the While these events were passing at fortifications. This event materially the Hague, a Russian force, consisting contributed to the subsequent surrenof 2400 men, and six pieces of cannon, der of Helvoetsluys. Some mariners under the command of General Ben- of Admiral Young's fleet, aided by a kendorf, arrived at Amsterdam. These body of Dutch troops, having advantroops had embarked on the Zuyder ced to the neighbourhood of HelvoetZee to avoid the French army at sluys, that town was evacuated in the Utrecht; and a Prussian corps was night of the 5th by the French ; and also at this time known to be advan- thus the communication with England, cing against the fortress. Nor was which had hitherto been exposed to this all; for on the same day the im- great hazard and delay, was rendered portant fortress of Brielle was taken. safe and expeditious. The next day This place was garrisoned by 500 men, 1700 of the English guards landed at the half of whom were Prussians and Scheveningen, an event which termiforeigners, who were disaffected to the nated all doubt as to the success of the French government, and daily desert- revolution. ed. The people of the town, profiting On the 6th, a proclamation was isby this circumstance, rose upon the sued by the Prince of Orange at the French, and, aided by the national Hague, in which it was stated, that guards, who were all

' Dutch, after when, in conformity with the general hghting in the streets for an hour and wish expressed by the people, he had

taken upon himself the sovereignty, department of the Ems to the right it was his desire to celebrate this event bank of the Maese. by some great solemnity; but the si- As the enemy, however, was still in tuation of the country, and the impor- possession of many of the principal tant occupations which resulted, had fortresses, and as a French garrison induced him to delay this ceremony, was at Naarden, within nine miles of till he should be able to present to the Amsterdam, measures were immediate. nation, a constitution which should in- ly adopted for the formation of an sure to the people of Holland their an- army, the levy of troops, and the recient liberties. The prince announced, gulation of the military force. But that in the meantime he had taken the the country was so completely drained management of affairs into his own of arms and ammunition, and of every hands, and dissolved the provisional thing necessary for the equipment of government, not without warm feelings the troops, that it was impossible at of gratitude for its efforts, to which once to organise the new levies ; yet, the liberation of Holland must be in the short space of four months, and chiedy ascribed, and without which out of a population of 1,800,000 souls, the deliverance of the country could 25,000 men were raised, armed, and have been the result only of the victo. equipped, in a country which had been rious arms of the allies. He absolved previously exhausted by the conscriphis subjects from their oath of alle. tion, and part of which was still in giance to Napoleon Buonaparte ; and the possession of the enemy. These concluded by stating, that his confi- measures, supported by the rapid prodence in the future was entirely found- gress of the allied armies, completed ed upon the affection of his countrythe triumph of Dutch patriotism ; men, the protection of Providence, and while the liberties of the people were the consciousness of the purity of his in- secured by a constitution, combining tentions.—This proclamation was fol. most of the advantages of that admi. lowed by the recognition of William the red frame of government, which seems First as sovereign prince in every part destined to form, at no very distant of Holland which was not occupied period, a model for all civilized naby the French, chat is to say, in all tions. the country and open towns, from the

REFLECTIONS

ON THE

INTRODUCTION OF TRIAL BY JURY,

IN CIVIL CAUSES, INTO SCOTLAND.

An impression prevailed for some with important consequences to the years, particularly among the commer- rights of individuals, and to the law of cial classes, that great defects exist. Scotland. To some, the measure will ed in the administration of justice be strongly recommended by the very in this part of the island. As the circumstance, that it is a great innova higher offices of the law in Scotland tion. Nothing could be more absurd, never were filled by men of greater in- of course, than to impute such notions tegrity and more extensive acquire to any of the grave and learned chaments than at this very period, the racters who have concurred in forward. evils of which litigants complained ing this important measure ; but it is were ascribed entirely to the defective pot impossible that they may have been system upon which our courts of jus- led, by the sophisms so current at tice had been constituted. Nor can it the present day, into the hasty appro. be denied, that before the recent divi. bation of an experiment, of which, if sion of the supreme civil court into unsuccessful, it may be difficult to two chambers, the complaints of the abandon the prosecution. litigants were but too well founded. The love of novelty, on its own acIt is not so obvious, however, that count, is but a childish propensity, there has of late existed any necessity contemptible in matters of slight mo, for resorting to an experiment so ha- ment, and pernicious in affairs of great. zardous as that on which the people er weight. It is a passion which can of Scotland are now about to venture, have no legitimate influence beyond the by introducing jury trial, in civil causes, regions of taste and sentiment, there, into this part of the kingdom. indeed, the principle of novelty forms

No one will dispute, that the inno- an essential element of our most refined ration which has recently obtained the pleasures. But as variety is required sanction of parliament, is of a very se- in our enjoyments, steadiness is no less rious character, and may be attended essential in the great business of life. A new play, or a new poem, may be portant changes in every department. read with excusable eagerness ; but a But where there are no complaints, new constitution will, by wise men, be there must be a great deal which is studied with distrust and suspicion. good ; yet the reasonings of innovators

Before any great change in our who desire to practise their experipublic institutions can be justified, some ments at random on the structure of evidence must be brought to prove society, would expose all that is good, that the existing evil is of a serious or indeed all that exists, to continual character; that by a less important perils. Their views, if they were sound, deviation from established usages a re- would place the whole fabric of society medy could not be obtained ; that no in their hands, to alter or new-model risk of incurring greater evils by the at their discretion ; for as abstract perproposed innovation can reasonably be fection never can be reached, much dreaded ; and that we shall be able to improvement must always be attaia. retrace our steps without difficulty if able in theory. But common sense, as the change be found prejudicial. These well as sound philosophy, rejects this conditions appear to be indispensable empirical interference : men in geneto every wise plan for effecting a re- ral set a value infinitely higher upon

form of our laws and institutions; what is good in possession, than what and if they have seldom been found to is plausible in speculation ; and thus concur, the reason is easily discovered it happens, that unless some serious evil why so few changes of magnitude have be endured, the class of projectors is been attempted on the civil and politi- commonly treated with very little cecal institutions of great nations. remony or regard

Where there are no complaints of a It is an axiom in philosophy, that serious nature, there can be no room we ought, in accounting for any effect, or apology for innovation. It may be to assign only such causes as are adesaid, indeed, that there is always occa. quate to its production ; and it is a sion for improvement, since all institu- maxim no less sound in politics, that tions are defective ; and defects, as in attempting reform, we should limit well as positive errors, are evils which ourselves as much as possible in the ought to be cured Neither is it extent of the change produced, and necessary, we are told, before pro. cautiously avoid any innovation which ceeding to reform errors and abuses, does not appear indispensable. Neglect to wait for the murmurs and complaints of the philosophical axiom leads to of the people ; because such complaints error and confusion in our speculations; are never extorted but by positive and a contempt of the political maxim wrongs, the want of great improve will surely conduct us to unprofitable ments, of which the benefits have ne and hazardous innovation. In so far ver been experienced, being insufficient as the change projected goes beyond a to provoke them.-Thus a wide, nay, remedy for the disorder, it is pure ema boundless field is opened in specula- piricism,-gratifying, indeed, to idle tion, which every empiric will be in and giddy brains, but offensive to every haste to occupy. But that reform, sound understanding. The same prinwhich has reference to no positive ciple which demands that, without any wrong, can have no limits; and the grievance at all, no innovation should same reason (a desire of further im- be attempted, prescribes, in language provement) which might justify a small not less imperative, that the evils of a change in one particular, would equally change should be encountered under serve as an argument for the most im- their mildest aspect, and reduced with

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