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zig are immense and decisive. He sage of 100,000 men and 8000 bagdid not quit Leipzig in person until gage waggons. Every one asks, Is ten o'clock in the morning of the 19th. this the great captain who has hitherto Finding that a fire of musketry had made Europe tremble ?” already commenced at the Ranstabt Such was the termination of this gate, towards Lutzen, he was obliged succession of combats; the annals of to depart by the Pegau gate. The al. Europe, ensanguined as they are, had lied armies had taken 15 generals, and never yet presented any thing on so amongst them Generals Regnier and grand a scale. Famine and pestilence, Lauriston, commanding corps d'armée. which follow in the train of war, did Prince Poniatowsky was drowned in their part, and co-operated with the attempting to pass the Elster. The sword in the work of death. The re. body of General Dumorestier, chief treat of Buonaparte was such as might of the staff of the 11th corps, was have been expected ; a powerful army found in the river, and more than 1000 was behind, and clouds of light troops men were drowned in it. The Duke were far advanced before him. A daily of Bassano escaped on foot. Marshal loss of artillery, baggage, and prisonNey is supposed to have been wound. ers, marked his course from the Saale ed. More than 250 pieces of cannon, to the Maine. 900 caissons, and above 15,000 pri. All hope of making head against the soners, have fallen into the hands of allies in Germany, on the Rhine, or the allies, besides several eagles and even on the French side of the Rhine, colours. The enemy has abandoned seemed chimerical. Buonaparte had more than 23,000 sick and wounded, never before been in a dilemma like the with the whole of the hospital esta present. When he witnessed the deblishment.

struction of his feet at the battle of the “ The total loss of the French army Nile, his retreat, indeed, was cut off must exceed 60,000 men. According from a field of ambition, on which to every calculation, the Emperor Na. he had rashly entered; when he was poleon has been able to save from the beaten before the walls of Jaffa, his general disaster not more than 75,000 to Egypt was still open, and he escaped or 80,000 men. The allied armies are without interruption ; when he slept in motion to pursue him, and every amid the ashes of Moscow, although moment are brought in prisoners, bag. the vision of glory which led him thi. gage, and artillery. The German and ther deserted his pillow, he dreamt not Polish troops desert from the French of the withering blasts which were to standards in crowds; and every thing cut off his army on its return. Amid announces that the liberty of Germany all these calamities his spirit never for. has been conquered at Leipzig. sook him ; but the perils of his present

« It is inconceivable how a man, who situation were manifest in all their apcommanded in thirty pitched battles, palling aggravations. A victorious and who had exalted himself by mili. army was already in the south of his tary glory, in appropriating to himself no longer “ sacred France ;” his army that of all the old French generals, in Germany was nearly annihilated; should have been capable of concen- and the conquerors were ready on all trating his army in so unfavourable a sides to bear him down. position as that in which he had pla- The retreat of Buonaparte was beced it. The Elster and the Pleisse in set with difficulties.' The Bavarian his rear, a marshy ground to traverse, troops, 35,000 strong, had taken post and only a single bridge for the pas- at Hannau to impede his movements.


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Had Blucher followed by the same were in preparation for the ruler of route which the French army had taken, France. Holland, by a great moveits destruction would have been inevi. ment, emancipated herself from the table ; but the Prussian general, by an French yoke; and, by a bloodless unfortunate, though very natural, cal- counter-revolution, asserted her anculation, supposed that, as the Bava. cient rights, and proved her undimirian army was on the Maine, Buona- nished attachment to the house of parte would not retire by that route, Orange. Commissioners, deputed by but would cross the Rhine at Coblentz. the provisional government, repaired l'pon this place Blucher accordingly to England, to invite the return of the directed his march. Buonaparte, there- Prince of Orange, and to renew the fore, on approaching Hannau, could friendship and alliance of the Dutch turn his whole remaining force, amount. with Great Britain. Nothing was ever ing to 70 or 80,000 men, against the effected with more wisdom than this Bavarian army, which did not exceed counter-revolution. The Dutch, in30,000. Wrede, however, with the stead of revenging upon the engines of most gallant determination, resolved to French tyranny the insults and opstand the unequal contest ; and for two pressions of twenty years, contented days this army maintained itself glori. themselves with dismissing them, and ously, with severe loss indeed, but establishing a provisional government without any signal defeat. Wrede him- until the arrival of the Prince of self received a wound, which, at first, Orange. The inhabitants of the difthreatened to prove mortal, but from ferent towns formed themselves into which he fortunately recovered. It municipal guards, to preserve the pubwas impossible, however, with forces lic tranquillity, and to prevent the peoso far inferior, to avoid being pushed ple from breaking out into excesses aside ; and Buonaparte was thus en- against the enemy.—But the interestabled to proceed on the road to Frank. ing events which occurred in Holland fort. He did not stop in that city, will demand a separate chapter. but continued his march ; and on the By the movements of the army of 7th of November he crossed the Rhine the north of Germany, the regency of with his whole army, leaving behind the electorate of Hanover was re-estahim all his conquests, and all his tow. blished, and the enemy now occupied ering hopes of universal dominion, on the Lower Elbe only Harburg,

He returned to Paris on the 9th, Stade, and the small fort of Hasse. having sent before him twenty stands The inhabitants of all classes displayof colours taken by his victorious ar. ed at Hanover, and at other places of mies in the battles of Weissen, Leip- the electorate, proofs of the most zig, and Hannau! These trophies touching affection for their sovereign. were presented with much solemnity to Bernadotte, whose fortune it formerly Her Imperial Majesty. Cardinal Mau. was to command them as an enemy's ry pronounced an appropriate oration general, had the happiness to receive over them, in which he proved that testimonies of their gratitude for the Buonaparte's late resolution to retire manner in which he had then acted upon the Rhine was a proof of his towards them. wisdom and genius, no less signal than The head-quarters of the grand al. his former plan to maintain the line of lied army were removed to Frankfort. the Elbe !

Thus, then, the great efforts of France In the midst of these solemn and in 1813, had the same results as those interesting proceedings, new disasters she made in 1812. « The French le

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gions," said Bernadotte, “ which cau- The victorious troops of the Marquis sed the world to tremble, are retiring of Wellington are now upon French and seeking safety behind the Rhine, ground; it is for having attacked the the natural frontier of France, and Spaniards in the bosom of peace,

that which would be still a barrier of iron the peaceful inhabitants of the Adour had not Napoleon wished to subjugate behold an enemy's army upon its all nations, and to ravish from them banks. The Emperor of Russia's, che their liberties. Although these limits Emperor of Austria's, the King of appear fixed by nature, the Russian Prussia's, and other formidable armies, army presents itself before them, be.

the banks of the Rhine. One cause Napoleon went to seek the Rus- single object directs these massesma sians at Moscow; the Prussian army general peace, founded upon natural appears before them, because in breach limits, the sole guarantee of its solidi. of his sworn faith Napoleon still re- ty. Amid the miseries which have so tains the fortresses of that monarchy; long desolated the continent, the inthe army of Austria appears before struments have been as much to be them because she has insults to revenge, pitied as the victims; and it is the hapand because she recollects that after the piness of Frenchmen, as well as that of peace of Presburg, the title of Em. their own nations, that the allied so. peror of Germany was torn from her vereigns desire. War can have but one supreme chief. If the Swedes are there honourable object-a conquest which also, it is because, amid profound peace, alone is desirable and just-peace. and in violation of the most solemn Millions of voices demand it of the treaties, Napoleon treacherously sur- French people. Will they be deaf to prised them at Stralsund, and insult, the voice of humanity, of reason, and ed them at Stockholm. The allies re- of their dearest interests? Where is gret the misfortunes of the French; the Frenchman who has not been prothey lament the calamities which the foundly affected in reading the reply war brings in its train ; and, far from of Napoleon to the senate? The prebeing dazzled, like Napoleon, by the sident of that assembly, in the name success with which Providence has fa- of France, demands

peace voured their arms, they are ardently peror ; and this sovereign, who for two desirous of peace. Aú nations sigh years has been the witness of the death for that boon of Heaven, and Napo- of 600,000 men, replies coldly, and leon alone has hitherto placed himself merely says, 'that posterity shall acin opposition to the happiness of the knowledge that the existing circumworld. Hence all the princes, lately stances were not above him. Thus his allies, hastened to abjure the ties the Emperor Napoleon does not wish which connected him with them; even for

peace ; and as Europe desires it, those whose states had been aggran she ought to prepare to obtain it by dised in consequence of his

means of arms. Let us hope that the influence, renounced the aggrandise- wishes of the French will unite with ment which they owed to his pretend- those of Europe." ed friendship. In pursuing the noble The grand allied army, consisting of object of all its efforts, that of a gene. the Austrian, Bavarian, and part of ral peace, the army of the north of the Russian and Prussian armies, was Germany could not permit an enemy's now on the Maine, the respective soforce to be cantoned upon its com- vereigns being at Frankfort Dresmunications.-- Pamplona," continued den, with its garrison of 16,000 men, this spirited writer," has capitulated. 'under St Cyr and Count Lobau, sur

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rendered to the Russians. The French the end of the year. Many of them were not allowed termsof capitulation; had already offered to surrender, on the whole of their troops became pri- condition that the garrisons should be soners of war; and the Russian force, allowed to return to France. But the which had been employed before this consequence of such an arrangement capital, was now at liberty to undertake would have been to give Buonaparte other operations.—The rown Prince, an army of above 50,000 men ; the with about 40.000 Russian and Prus- garrisons of Magdeburg, Dantzic, sian troops, had left Bremen for Hol. Torgau, and Wittenberg, amounted to land, where General Winzengerode's that number. They might have pro. corps had already arrived ; General mised, indeed, not to serve against the Bulow was between Munster and Arn. allies for a certain time, or until they heim; Benningsen and Walmoden, with had been regularly exchanged; but the Hanoverians, and General Alder- the allies were too well acquainted with crantz with the Swedes, were march- the character of the French governing against Davoust and the Danes. ment to place confidence in such en

The town of Arnheim, important gagements. Before the armistice exon account of its position, was taken pired in the month of August, the al. by General Bulow on the 30th of No. lies had offered, through the medium of vember ; the garrison was put to the Austria, to treat for the evacuation of sword. This severity was inflicted as the Prussian fortresses, but Buonaparte some retaliation for the cruelties com- rejected these offers with indignation. mitted by the French at the little town Now that he was beyond the Rhine, of Woerden in Holland. The annals however, he was willing to negociate of the revolution, sanguinary as they for their surrender. are, record nothing more atrocious It was generally supposed, that this than the conduct of the enemy at this offer to negociate concerning the for. place. The town was taken by a small tresses had a reference to other objects. detachment of Dutch national guards In the Austrian manifesto, certain exon the 23d, and the French garrison pressions occurred, from which Buowas permitted to retire without injury naparte might have been induced to or molestation. The next day they believe that negociation was still pracreturned, reinforced by troops from ticable, if he chose to accede to reaUtrecht, and retook the town by storm. sonable terms. This belief probably Then was acted a scene the most re. led him to risk the hostile operations * volting to humanity. The old and the which terminated so fatally for him. young were indiscriminately massa- Perhaps he said to himself, “ I will at cred; three generations were at once least try the chances of war. I may swept away. The heart sickens at the be victorious, and then I shall be able contemplation of such a scene ; but to negociate' on better terms ; but if the recollection of it, as it nerved the beaten, I shall be able, at all events, to arms of the Prussians for vengeance, treat upon the same terms which I now so it may serve to justify their inexo. reject.” He appears to have been but rable determination.

imperfectly aware of the great changes Buonaparte now proposed to treat for which recent events had produced. the surrender of all the fortresses on His retreat had been a fight after one the Elbe, the Oder, and the Vistula : of the most signal defeats experienced his proposal was rejected, as the for. by any general—a flight, in which the tresses were in the last stage of resist. conqueror was so close upon him, that ance, and might be expected to fall by his escape was a matter of the greatest

difficulty. He had on the Elbe 220,000 memorable declaration of their views men; he carried to the Rnine not and policy. The French government, more than 50,000. While he remained they remarked, had ordered a new levy on the Elbe, many of the German of 300,000 conscripts. The motives princes were his allies ; when on the of the senatus consultum to that efRhine, not a single German ally was fect, contained an appeal to the allied left to him. While he was on the powers. They, therefore, føụnd themElbe, Hanover, Westphalia, and Hol. selves called upon to promulgate anew, land, were still under his yoke ; he was in the face of the world, the views now on the Rhine, with Hanover, which guided them in the war ; the Westphalia, all Germany, and all Holprinciples which formed the basis of land against him. The people of the their conduct, their wishes, and their Netherlands were ready to throw off determinations. They did not make his authority; and the combined ar- war upon France, but against that premies, in tremendous force, were ready ponderance which, to the misfortune of to pass the Rhine. In such circum- Europe and of France itself, the Emstances did the allies reject his insidi. peror Napoleon had too long exercised ous offer for the abandonment of the beyond the limitsof his dominions. Vicfortresses.—The evacuation of the im- tory had conducted them to the banks portant fortresses of Breda, Wilhelm of the Rhine. The first use which they stadt, and Helvoetsluys, in Holland, had made of victory had been to of without the slightest resistance, pro- fer peace to the French emperor. An ved that the necessities of Buonaparte attitude strengthened by the accession were now $0 great, as to induce him of all the sovereigns and princes of to relinquish his former policy of keep- Germany had no influence on the coning strong garrisons, in every place of ditions of that peace. These condiimportance, occupied by his armies. tions were formed on the independence Some of these fortresses were capable of the French empire, as well as on of making a vigorous resistance, and the independence of the other states of standing a long siege. Buonaparte, of Europe. The views of the powers however, fought no longer forconquest, were just in their object, generous and but for safety-not with the hope of re- liberal in their application, giving secuestablishing his former power and re- rity to all, and honourable to each. The putation, but for existence. Fortresses sovereigns desired that France might were comparatively of little import. be great, powerful, and happy; because ance to him ; his great object was to the French power, in a state of greatcollect and concentrate an army, to er- ness and strength, is one of the foun. able him to oppose a barrier to the dations of the social edifice of Europe. torrent which threatened to overwhelm They wished that France might be him. The allies, therefore, did not happy—that French commerce might pause in their career to besiege for revive that the arts might again flou. tresses; they marched on against the rish; because a great people can only enemy's main force, aware that if they be tranquil in proportion as it is happy. could beat down the grand army, the They offered to confirm to the French fortresses must afterwards fall of them- empire an extent of territory which selves.

France under her kings never knew ; The combined armies had now ad- because a valiant nation does not fall vanced to the Rhine ; and on the first from its rank, by having in its turn of December, the sovereigns issued the experienced reverses in an obstinate

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