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even with the occurrences of the pre. upon the heights of Lobesson. He ceding campaign. Buonaparte had been was waiting the reports of General humbled, and the finest army he ever Tauentzein, when he received an accommanded had been annihilated, with- count from General Bulow, announcing out any aid from France ; and there that the whole French army was in fuii could be no reason to suppose, that march upon Juterbock. The Crown with similar means similar successes Prince ordered Bulow to attack immight not continue to crown the arms mediately the flank and rear of the eneof the allies. The only operation at my, before General Tauentzein, who which Moreau assisted, and which, if defended the approaches of the town, not planned by him, received his sanc- should be overwhelmed by numbers. tion, was the attack upon Dresden; The Swedish army, which had marchan operation which does not reflect ed upwards of two German miles, promuch credit on those with whom it ceeded towards Juterbock, which was originated.

yet at a considerable distance; it was The north of Germany, where the followed by the Russian army, with the Crown Prince commanded, became the exception of the advanced guard, under theatre of events of great importance. the orders of the Count Woronzoff, After the retreat of the French from and the corps of General Tchernicheff, Berlin, the Swedish and Prussian ar- which continued before Wittenberg. my pressed close upon them, and gain. The cannonade began immediately be. ed several partial advantages ; and the tween the Prussian troops and the Crown Prince finding that he was not army of the enemy. The Russian opposed by an equal force, determined and Swedish corps, after their forced to take advantage of his superiority. marches, were obliged to halt for a He moved towards Rosslau, intending moment in order to form in order of tocross

the Elbe, and march upon Leip- battle. The Prussian army, amountzig. He took with him the Swedish ing to 40,000 men, sustained in the and Russian troops, while General mean time, with a courage truly heTauentzein was left with 40,000 Prus. roic, the repeated efforts of 70,000 of sians at Juterbock, for the purpose of the enemy, supported by 200 pieces of covering Berlin. The allies having re- cannon. The struggle was unequal tired from before Dresden, Marshal and murderous. The Prussian troops, Ney returned to his army, -brought however, were not disconcerted; and with him the divisions which had been if some battalions were obliged to withdrawn from it, and, observing the yield the ground which they had gaintwo corps of the Crown Prince's army ed, they did not fail to re-occupy it detached from each other, he concei- the moment after. While these events ved the design of attacking them se- occurred, 70 battalions of Russians parately. That part of the French ar. and Swedes, 10,000 horse of both namy, therefore, which had been brought tions, and 150 pieces of artillery, to the left bank of the Elbe to oppose advanced in columns of attack, leathe enterprizes of the Crown Prince, ving intermediate spaces for deploying. suddenly re-passed the river at Witten- Four thousand Russian and Swedish berg, and marched towards Juterbock, cavalry advanced at full speed to supwhere Tauentzein was posted. The port some points on which the eneCrown Prince set out on the 6th of my principally directed his attacks.September, at three o'clock in the Their appearance checked him, and morning, from Rabenstein, and collect the arrival of the columns completed ed the Swedish and Russian armies his confusion. The fate of the battle was instantly decided. The enemy

lated to exist for ever in the annals of sounded a retreat ; the cavalry charged military fame, and to inspire all those him with a boldness resembling fury, who fight for the independence of Gerand carried disorder into his columns,

many.

The Russian and Swedish which retreated with great precipita- troops, who took part in the engagetion upon the route of Gahna. The ment, valiantly seconded the efforts of French force was composed of four their brethren in arms. General Bucorps d'armée, those of the Duke of low displayed the coolness and bravery Reggio,—of Generals Bertrand and of a warrior, who had no other object Regnier,—of the Duke of Padua, and than the glory of his king and the de. of from three to four thousand Polish fence of his country. The officers untroops; the whole under the command der his command imitated his honourof Marshal Ney. The result of this able example. The Prince of Hesse battle, which was fought near the vil. Homberg distinguished himself in the lage of Dennevitz, was in the first in- most brilliant manner. General the stance 5000 prisoners, three standards, Count de Tauentzein gave proofs of from 25 to 30 pieces of cannon, and his talents and sang-froid. During the upwards of 200 ammunition waggons. whole affair, he sustained most vigorThe field of battle, and the roads over ous and repeated attacks of the enewhich the enemy passed, were covered my, and was of great assistance to. with dead and wounded, and with the wards the successful result of the strugarms which had been abandoned. Vi. gle, by the boldness he discovered, gorously pursued, the enemy, who en- and by the

admirable choice of his podeavoured to retire towards Torgau, sition."--Every day brought fresh did not reach the Elbe before he suf. proofs that the consequences of the fered losses yet more considerable. battle of Dennevitz were greater than General Wobeser, who had been or. was at first expected. The light troops dered to proceed with 5000 men from did not desist from following the Luckau upon Gahna, attacked the French, and taking prisoners, ammu. French in that town, where the Prince nition

waggons,

and baggage. of Moskwa, and the Dukes of Reggio The Silesian army, under Blucher, and of Padua, had taken up their quar- was not less successful. This distinters with part of the defeated army, guished general paused not a moment and made 2500 prisoners. The half of after the victory over Macdonald which Marshal Ney's escort was killed. The has already been mentioned, he pur. loss of the Prussian troops was also sued the enemy, and again attacked him great, and amounted to between 4 and on the Bober. He gainedanother victo5000 men killed and wounded. “The

ry still more complete than the former. result of the battle, however,” said The heavy rains and the overflowing the Crown Prince, “ought to contri. of the rivers cut off all retreat. One bute to the consolation of every true division of French, which fought with patriot, who will find the triumph of its rear to the Bober, was entirely capthe cause of his country insured by the tured, and

most of the others were de. death of these brave men.” The loss stroyed. The wreck of Macdonald's of the Swedish and Russian troops was army fled through Lusatia. Blucher not great. '“ The different corps," successively crossed the Bober, the added the Crown Prince, “ vied with Reiss, and the Queiss, and arrived al. each other in courage and devotion. most at the gates of Dresden. The heroic conduct shewn on this oc. Nor was the grand army of Bohemia casion by the Prussian army, is calcu. inactive during these important operations. It re-advanced on the 5th of the Russian guards. The colonel, at September towards Dresden,-drove the head of 800 horse, pursued him to the enemy almost under the walls of Konigsberg, killed many men bethe city, and occupied Dohna and Pire longing to his rear, and took 1000 prina. On the 8th, Buonaparte left Dres- soners. Continuing without intermis. den,-attacked General Wittgenstein sion the pursuit of the enemy's rear, at Dohna, with a very superior force, this officer fell in with the baggage, and compelled the Russians to fall took the greater part of it, killed a back to Peterswalde. General Zie. great number of men, and carried off then's corps, which was attacked at with him 400 draught horses. Turn. Pirna, retired next day, and took posting upon this towards Grossenhayn, in the mountains on the Bohemian he put to the rout two squadrons of frontier. Buonaparte continued his ad- the enemy. Some spies, whom this vance till the 12th, when he reached officer had sent to Dresden, assured Nollendorff, and advanced towards him on their return that the city was Culm. The allies, meanwhile, called at this time provided with no more in the troops which had been sent to than a fortnight's necessaries for the Chemnitz and Freiberg on the left, army, and that bothing was left for and to Aussig and Leitmeritz on the the inhabitants. The Saxon court, forright ; and on the 12th, having col. merly so tranquil, thus saw its capital lected 100,000 men and 800 pieces of exposed to all the horrors of a siege. cannon, they offered battle to the ene- The king himself was a wretched witmy, which, however, was declined.- ness of the calamities which oppressed Buonaparte then began his retreat, his people, without the possibility of breaking up the roads towards Dres- alleviating them, without any other den in every direction, a circumstance prospect than that of seeing them still which rendered it impossible to pursue further aggravated. The Saxon nahim with advantage.

tion was sensible of its own and its so. The ardent desire of Buonaparte tovereign's degradation; it was desirous annihilate the combined army of the of resuming its rank among independnorth of Germany, occasioned him the ent states ; a patriotic spirit was alloss of much time and many men, in ready manifested; but it was restrainmarches and counter-marches. To sup- ed by circumstances from aiding effecport the operations of Marshal Ney, tually the great cause of Europe. A he sent the corps of the Duke of Ra. Saxon legion, however, was forming gusa to Hoyerswerda on the 7th of at the same time with that of Baden; September. This corps, about 25,000 and the Germans demonstrated that strong, had orders to proceed to Ber. they were not unworthy of their fathers. lin, and there effect a junction with It was expected that in a short time Ney. A strong detachment was at the all the nations from the coast of the same time sent upon the right flank of Baltic to the right bank of the Rhine, General Blucher, to force him to re. would rise in a mass to drive back the treat - The Duke of Ragusa arrived oppressors of the continent to the left early on the 8th at Hoyerswerda ; but bank of that river. Fear could not deon receiving intelligence of the battle ter them much longer,—for 400,000 of Dennevitz he hastily retreated, and victorious warriors were ready at all marched by way of Konigsberg to points to support and assist them. Dresden. In the retreat of the 8th, While events so unfavourable to the he was attacked at Hoyerswerda by French army took place around Dresthe detachment of Colonel Fignier of den, in Silesia, and in the north of Germany, their situation on the se- sults : all military combinations seemed condary theatre of war, on the Lower to guarantee that your majesty would Elbe, was less disadvantageous. At be a prisoner. You escaped that danthe breaking out of hostilities, Da- ger, sire ; but your army, the elite of voust marched from Hamburgh, France, of Germany, and of Italy, took possession of Schwerin, and exists no more! There lie, unburied, thence threatened Stralsund and Ber. the brave men who served France at lin. The disasters of the grand army, Fleurus-Frenchmen who conquered however, rendered this advanced posi. in Italy—who survived the burning tion no longer secure ; and Davoust clime of Egypt and who fixed victory fell back upon the line of the Steck- under your colours at Marengo, at nitz, which covered Holstein. His si. Austerlitz, at Jena, and Friedland !tuation, however, being on the whole May your soul, sire, be softened at better than that of his master, Buona- this heart-rending picture ; but should parte wished to draw from him some it be necessary to complete the effect, relief. With this view, General Pe. recollect also the death of more than dheux was dispatched with 5 or 6000 a million of Frenchmen, lying on the men, with orders to march up the Elbe field of honour, victims of the wars and reinforce the grand army. General which your majesty has undertaken. Walmoden, however, having received “ Your majesty invokes your right notice of this movement, suddenly cross. to the friendship of the King of Swe. ed the Elbe, and falling upon Pecheux, den. Permit me to remind you, sire, totally defeated him, made prisoners of of the little value your majesty attacha great part of his army, and compelled ed to it, at times when a reciprocity the remainder to fall back upon Ham- of sentiment would have been very use. burgh. The object of the expedition ful to Sweden. When the king, after was thus frustrated.

having lost Finland, wrote to your maBernadotte, who seems to have en. jesty to beg you to preserve for Swe. gaged with perfect sincerity and the ut- den the isles of Aland, you replied to most zeal in the cause of the allies, and him, “ apply to the Emperor Alex. who was anxious to assist it by his pen ander,—he is great and generous ;" as well as his sword, about this time ad. and, to fill up the measure of your indressed to Buonaparte a very singular difference, you caused it to be asserted letter of remonstrance. His treachery to in the official journal (Moniteur of the the Spanish royal family, his measureless 21st of September, 1810,) at the moambition, his disregard of the lives of ment of my departure for Sweden, that his soldiers, his extreme concern for his there had been an interregnum in tha personal safety, his singular conduct in kingdom, during which the English abandoning his army, his want of fore- were carrying on their commerce with sight as a general, the frantic folly of impunity his continental system, his attempt to “ Your system, sire, would interdict change the order of nature, his igno- to nations the exercise of that right rance of

history, were all touched up. which they have received from nature, on. “ From the moment,” said Ber. -that of trading with each other, of nadotte, “ when your majesty plunged mutually assisting each other, of corinto the interior of Russia, the issue responding and living in peace; and was no longer doubtful. The Empe- yet the very existence of Sweden deror Alexander already, in the month pends upon an extension of commer. of August, foresaw the termination of cial relations, without which she would ihe campaign, and its prodigious re- be insufficient for her own subsistence, Sire, the lessons of history repel the of the nation, and the fidelity of its idea of an universal monarchy ; and the allies." sentiment of independence may be Buonaparte's situation had become deadened, but cannot be effaced from critical ; and he felt the necessity of the heart of nations. May your ma resorting to the most decided measures jesty weigh all these considerations, for increasing his force. It is neand at last really think of that general cessary that numerous battalions should peace, the profaned name of which arise in the bosom of France,” said he has caused so much blood to flow.- to his minister, Maret, at Dresden ; In politics, sire, neither friendship nor and at Paris the Empress Queen and hatred has place, there are only du. Regent quickly explained the nature ties to fulfil towards the nations whom and amount of this demand. She pro. Providence has summoned us to go. ceeded to the senate, and announced vern. Their laws and their privileges the commands of Buonaparte for a are the blessings which are dear to fresh tribute of blood from the French them ; and if, in order to preserve people. In 1812, he demanded half them, one is compelled to renounce a million ; in 1813, he began with a old connections, the prince, who wishes requisition of nearly as many; and now to perform his duty, can never hesitate he demanded no less than 280,000.which course to adopt. Was it not The speech of the empress formed a your majesty, who 'interrupted our most important document indeed, it commercial relations, by ordering the contained the confession of Buonacapture of Swedish vessels in the bo- parte, that he was unable to make head som of peace? Was it not the rigour against his opponents, that he no of your orders which forbade us every longer hoped to make a successful kind of communication with the con. stand beyond the Rhine! He knew tinent for three years, and which, since the war upon his principles and views that period, caused more than 50 Swe- to be odious in France; and, degraded dish vessels to be detained at Wismar, and humbled as she was by submission Rostock, and other ports of the Baltic? to his authority, he scarcely expected The Duke of Bassano observed, that fresh sacrifices from her, unless he your majesty will never change your could persuade her of their absolute nesystem, and will consider this as a ci- cessity to prevent invasion. In the vil war; which indicates that you short speech of the empress, more than mean to retain Swedish Pomerania, in any other document, the altered for. and will not renounce the hope of gi- tunes of the French ruler were indica. ving laws to Sweden, and thus degra- ted. A year before he thought he had ding, without running any risk, the but one step to take to render himself Swedish name and character. By the the uncontrouled master of the contiphrase civil war, you doubtless mean nent. He despised the experience of a war between allies; but we know all former times, he disdained the the fate to which you destine them. warning voice of history, he forgot, Asto my personal ambition, I acknow- to use the language of the Crown ledge it to be lofty ; it has for its ob. Prince, that “ the lessons of history ject to serve the cause of humanity, reject the idea of universal monarchy, and to secure the independence of the and that the sentiment of independ Scandinavian peninsula. To attain that ence, though it may be deadened in end, I confide in the justice of that the hearts of nations, can never be decause which the king has commanded stroyed.” What was the consequence ime to defend, upon the perseverance of his presumptuous ambition ? A mil.

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