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appear extremely advantageous. Their they laboured, from affecting the final whole force was divided into three issue of the campaign. corps, acting separately, at a distance

The crisis now approaching profrom each other, and maintaining only mised great events. Military talents a circuitous and imperfect communica- of the highest order were to be exerted, tion. The French army was in the armies formed on the most gigantic centre, completely united, and ready to scale were to be put in motion; and direct its entire force against any of operations, in comparison of which the allied divisions. Such a position many of the most renowned battles was very unfavourable for offensive which fill the pages of history were movements, which yet were evidently mere skirmishes, were about to be uncontemplated. To have brought the dertaken. Great Britain, Russia, Pruswhole mass of the allied armies into sia, Austria, Sweden, Portugal, and Bohemia, whence offensive operations Spain, were ranged on the one side ; could best be undertaken, would ap- France, Holland, Denmark, Italy, Bapear to have been more eligible. Silesia varia, Saxony, and the other states of and Brandenburgh might have been Germany, on the other; and whether covered by small detached corps, quite we reflect upon the vast tract of country adequate to such a purpose, since the over which the desolations of war were French army, with so large a force to sweep, the wide waste of human behind it, could not have sent any lise, or the vast issue at stake,--the considerable bodies of troops against prolongation of a system of oppression them. Such appear, in a military point and violence which had filled all Eu. of view, decidedly the best arrange rope with woes, or the emancipation ments.-.Othercircumstances, however, of millions of our fellow men from a may have influenced the conduct of rapacious and restless ambition,-no the allied chiefs. The force of the preceding period, since the political Prussian states, consisting in a great formation of modern Europe, had measure of militia, may have been un. borne interests so mighty, and occur. willing to march into a remote and fo.

so pregnant with curses or reign district ; and may also, to render blessings suspended in the uncertain it efficient, have required the addition balance of military fortune. The allies of regular troops. There may have were strong in the justice of their been advantages in point of supply and cause. The right, it is true, does not subsistence also, in the arrangements always prosper; but violent aggression, which were actually adopted.--The al. by a law of Providence and nature, lied generals understood and obviated which tyrants have in vain endeavoured the disadvantages of their position. to abolish, creates a power of re-action They were always careful, when theene- against itself, which seldom fails ultimy approached in superior force, to re. mately to over-power it. Buonaparte tire and watch the favourable moment had already felt this without profiting for attack, when that force had with by his experience. He had felt it in drawn to another point. This plan, Spain; he felt it in Russia ; and the which depended for success upon accu. mighty preparations now organised racy of information, was greatly aided against him, were but the effects of by their possessing in the cossacks the that re-action which his attempts upon best light cavalry in the world; and, the sovereignty of the continent had by a happy combination of skill, cau- provoked. "If ever nations could aption, and valour, they were enabled to peal to the equitable decisions of that prevent the difficulties under which power which controls the universe, the allied nations could make that appeal. tle good, after all, could be expected, If the justice of a cause can inspire was soon interrupted by a melancholy vigour into the breasts of those who event, which closed the career of the support it, then the allied armies must unfortunate Moreau. have been roused by the force of this The first movements of any importmotive to deeds of the greatest heroism. ance made by the French army after

rences

And here it is proper to mention, the denunciation of the armistice, were that the cause of the allies was now in the direction of Berlin, the headto have the assistance of a man distin- quarters of the Crown Prince of Sweguished as one of the greatest soldiers den. All the reports of the secret of modern times. General Moreau ha- agents having announced, on the evenving acceded to the wishes of the Em. ing of the 21st of August, that the peror Alexander, that he should give French were concentrating the corps his aid on this great occasion, an ap- of the Dukes of Reggio, Belluno, and plication was made to the British ad. Padua, and of Generals Bertrand and miral, Cockburn, for a licence to ena. Regnier, amounting to more than ble an American ship to proceed to 80,000 men, in the environs of BaEurope. The licence was granted; reuth, and every thing announcing, on and on the 21st of June, Moreau em. the

part of these troops, a rapid march barked and sailed from America. He upon Berlin; the Crown Prince plalanded at Gottenburgh on the 26th of ced two divisions of the third Russian July, and on the 4th of August he corps, commanded by Bulow, between again embarked at Ystadt, in a Swe. Kernersdorf and Klein Berin. One didish brig of war, for Stralsund. The vision already occupied Mittenwalde, Prince Royal of Sweden, who was then and another Trebbin, in order to mask at Berlin, set off to give his early friend the whole movement. The fourth Rusa meeting, and to concert with him a sian corps, under Tauentzen, united at plan of military operations. It was Blakenfelde. The Swedish army left determined by these two experienced Potsdam on the 22d, proceeded upon officers, that they should organize a Saarm, passed the defiles, and took separate corps d'armee, to be compo- post at Ruhlesdorf. The Russian corps sed of French prisoners, and called followed the Swedish, and took post “ Moreau's Legion.” This body was at Gutergatze. General Tchernicheff to be decorated with the white or na. guarded Beletz, and Treunbritzen, tional cockade, to bear the motto pro with 3000 cossacks and a brigade of patria, to fight for the deliverance of light infantry.-Affairs were in this Europe, and in particular for the eman- state when the enemy attacked Genecipation of Frenchmen. A part of the ral Thumen, at Trebbin, on the 22d in plan agreed upon was, that General the morning. The superiority of the Willot, who was expected from Ame. French determined the general to eva. rica, and General Rewbel, (the com- cuate that post. The enemy advanced mander in chief of the Westphalian successively, and occupied the interarmy when the Duke of Brunswick val between Mittenwalde and the Saare, escaped, and who was disgraced by covered by woods and flanked by Buonaparte on account of that event) marshes. The advanced posts of the should organize such of the French Crown Prince's army fell back slowprisoners as they could raise in Eng- ly, and covered the front of the line. land, and disembark with them in the On the 23d, in the morning, the north of France. The execution of corps of General Bertrand attacked this plan, however, from which lite General Tauenzein; the latter repul.

sed him, and made some prisoners.- many was thus employed, General The village of Gross Beren, against Blucher, who commanded the army of which the 7th French corps and a Silesia, advanced, passed the Bober, the strong reserve was directed, was taken. boundary of Lusatia, and drove in all The Duke of Reggio's corps pro- the French corps by which that river ceeded upon Ahrendorff. By the oc- was defended.

On the arrival, howcupation of Gross Beren, the enemy ever, of a great reinforcement, headed was at the distance of 1000 teises only by Buonaparte himself, he immediatefrom the centre of the camp of the ly measured back his steps. Buona. combined army. General Bulow re- parte then crossed the Bober at Lowceived orders to attack the village; enberg, and pushed forward into Sihe executed it with the decision of a lesia. "Blucher took up a strong posi. skilful general. The cannonade was tion near Lignitz, on the Katzbach, warm for some hours. The troops ad. a river rendered famous by a signal vanced under the protection of the ar- victory gained by Frederick on its tillery, and fell with the bayonet upon banks. Here he was attacked by Buothe 7th Frenchcorps, which had deploy naparte, and fought with his wonted ed in the plain, and which marched upon intrepidity. He made 18,000 prisonthe camp. The Russian and Swedish ers, including a general of division, armies were also in battle, and waited two brigadier generals, and a number the deploying of the other enemy's of colonels. He took also 103 pieces columns, to attack them at the same of cannon, 250 waggons, and two eatime. General Winzengerode was at gles. The enemy did not immedithe head of 10,000 horse, and the ately renew the combat, but retreated Count de Woronzow at the head of over the Bober and the Queiss, purthe Russian infantry. Marshal Count sued by the allies. “ Silesia is deliverStedinck, in front of the Swedish line, ed from the enemy,” said the old gehad his cavalry in reserve. The village neral, “ let us prostrate ourselves beof Ruhelsdorff

, situated in front of the fore the Lord of Hosts for the glori. Swedish camp, was furnished with in. ous victory he has gained us.” fantry to keep open the communica- When General Blucher moved from tion with General Bulow. The other Silesia upon Lusatia, threatening the corps of the enemy's army not having enemy in front, Buonaparte conceived moved from the woods, the Russian that he had discovered the grand plan army could not engage. The enemy, of the allies, and he immediately rehowever, having menaced the village paired in person to meet and repeltheir of Ruhelsdorff, and having already main attack. But Blucher's orders pushed his tirailleurs against the light were to avoid any general engagement, Swedish troops placed in front of that and retire before superior numbers.-village, the Crown Prince ordered some On learning, after the sharp conflict battalions, supported by artillery, to which has been described, that powerreinforce the advanced posts, and to ful reinforcements were advancing to push on with a battalion of Aying ar. support the enemy, who prepared to tillery to take the enemy in flank'; in renew the attack, Blucher withdrew this movement they succeeded. The without disorder behind the Katzbach. French, after having sustained a severe Buonaparte thought he thus defeated loss, retired without attempting to the designs of the allies in Silesia. But bring on a general engagement, and their views were otherwise directed. fell back in the direction of Dresden. The advance of Blucher was intended

While the army of the north of Ger- to mask their movements in another

upon

quarter ; and while the veteran gene. hemian frontier. They had judged ral was making his supposed serious correctly. Buonaparte had made the demonstrations on the Bober, they movement which they anticipated, were issuing in great force from the but happily it produced only defeat passes of Bohemia. They advanced and destruction to the troops employfrom the frontiers on the 20th and 21st ed in it. On two successive days the of August ; the Russian and Prussian enemy were attacked, and at last put armies, which formed their right wing, to a general route ; they threw down approached by the passes of Peters. their arms, abandoned their guns and wolde, leading to Pirna ; the Austrians standards, and retreated in all direcby the long delour from Commotau. tions. Vandamme and six other ge. This powerful mass moved upon Dres- nerals were taken. Sixty pieces of ar. den. An error occurred in the execution tillery, six standards, and about 10,000 of the movement, the neglect to secure prisoners, rewarded the exertions of the pass at Gobehr. The right wing of the allies - The fugitives were closely the allies, however, got into action on pursued by the cossacks and light ca. the 22d, with St Cyr, at Zehista, near valry of the combined armies. Pirna. The French general was driven Such were the operations near Dresback, and retired into Konigstein, den and on the Bohemian frontier.the entrenched camp at Liebenstein, General Blucher, in the mean time, ha. and the works round Dresden. The ving retired upon Janer, re-advanced grand armies pressed forward, and on on the 24th against Macdonald, who the 26th, the people of Dresden saw occupied a good position, which he them the heights above the city. had strengthened with a numerous arThe enemy retired to the protection of tillery. He was, however, attacked their works; and after a partial at. by Blucher upon the morning of the tack of the Russian and Prussian light 26th, and after a sharp contest, dritroops upon the gardens, the whole al.

ven from every part of his position, lied army moved to the assault at four leaving fifty pieces of artillery, thirtyin the afternoon of the 27th. The ar. nine tumbrils and ammunition wagtillery, though brought up at the close gons, and more than ten thousand priof the evening to within one hundred soners. The contest was renewed with paces of the wall, could not make any fresh vigour, and with equal success, practicable breaches ; and the allies re. by Blucher on the 27th and 28th ; and tired at night to the heights which the result was, that thirty pieces of they had occupied in the morning.- cannon and five thousand prisoners On the 28th, Buonaparte issued from were taken during these two days. Dresden with 130,000 men. The bat- Although no general battle had been tle was chiefly confined to the cavalry fought, a succession of sanguinary and artillery ; the main bodies of the combats thus followed each other, and infantry of both armies did not come the loss on both sides was considerinto contact. No impression could be able. Several officers of distinction made on the positions of the allies, and fell; but the chief interest was excited the action ceased. But as they appre- by the fate of Moreau. In the battle hended that Buonaparte might throw of the 27th, before Dresden, as he was over a body of troops at Konigstein on horseback by the side of the Em. and Pirna, to seize the passes in the peror Alexander, a ball passing through rear of their march, they retired from the horse, carried off both his legs. This their position on the 28th in the even- dreadful wound did not immediately ing, in perfect order, towards the Bo- prove mortal. His limbs were ampu. tated, and he was carried in a litter to reau, therefore, can scarcely be vindicaBohemia ; but after lingering for a few ted by the feelings of patriotism ; it can days, he expired in great agony,

be defended only upon the principles The presence of Moreau in the al- of universal philanthropy. Such prin. lied army had excited much enthusi. ciples, however, from their vague and asm throughout Europe ; and a fate flexible nature, ought to be viewed so tragical and untimely produced with extreme suspicion, particularly equal sympathy and regret. Yet when when they point to some object which we conie to reflect upon his conduct, may afford gratification to private amthere may be room for a difference of bition or resentment. There is one opinion. Unjust expulsion from the circumstance in the case of Moreau political community may seem to de. which, if not explained, appears exstroy the ties by which an individual tremely suspicious. He came only to is united to it, and to absolve him bask in the sunshine of that fortune from the duties of allegiance. When which had attended the allied arms; this injustice is exercised by a state for so long as the cause of Europe against one to whom it has been great- languished he had taken no part in it. ly indebted, the trial to individual for. He was not found in Spain, where the titude becomes the more severe. Yet most just of causes was to be defendthe general sense of mankind seems to ed ; not even in Russia, when that pronounce that there is something in- country was invaded, and in danger of delible in the relations between men being over.run. He came not till a and the country which gave them succession of victories, and the forma. birth, and that no wrong, no suffer- tion of a grand confederacy, had rening, can ever efface them. Moreau dered the triumph of the allied cause professed, indeed, (and in this he was almost certain. All this may admit of sanctioned by the declarations of the explanation ; he may not have been allies) to make war, not against France, invited ; a proper opening may not but against the usurper who ruled it. have been offered to his exertions. Had the object been to change the But some such explanation seems negovernment, to restore either a free cessary to account for the inactivity of constitution or the ancient monarchy, his philanthropic principles, till the Moreau might have had a fair ground moment when their exertion was less of justification. But the allies dis. necessary and less meritorious. But claimed any such intention; they pro- whatever opinion may be formed upon fessed no other object but to re-esta- this subject, there cannot be the slightblish against France the ancient ba- est doubt that the allied sovereigns lance of power, and to level her pre- were fully justified in availing them. sent overwhelming preponderance in selves of the acknowledged talents of the system of Europe. They were this commander, for the promotion of not thus, perhaps, doing her any real their own just cause. A very absurd injury, since extended conquest' does opinion, however, was alınost universal by no means constitute the real hap- at the time,—that the success of that piness of nations. Yet it is not viewed cause depended chiefly upon

Moreau, in this light by mankind in general; and that Buonaparte could only be and in the mind of a great commander opposed by commanders trained in the it can scarcely be doubted, that with same school with himself. Such an military successes the grandeurand pro. idea is totally inconsistent, not only sperity of his country will be in a great with subsequent events which could degree identified. The conduct of Mo- not be then taken into account, but

VOL. VI. PART I.

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