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to foresee, that by the occupation of riod, had not exhibited more numerous the fortresses, Buonaparte would be instances of fickleness and falsehood come in effect master of that country, than any other power. He stated that and might avail himself of it as an ad. it was against Buonaparte's feelings to vanced post in his future hostilities a. declare war merely for political convegainst Russia. He was not only ena- nience! He would have made Prussia bled to exhaust it by grievous exac- a mediator between France and Rus. tions, under the name of military con. sia ; " and would have consented to tributions, but to ruin its finances by aggrandize for the interest of his sys- . that deceitful and ingenious mode of tem, and for the peace and repose of impoverishing his neighbours, which the world, which formed his sole view, he termed the continental system. In a power, whose sincerity had been put this wretched situation was Prussia to the proof.” Buonaparte would have placed, when Buonaparte's plans a. aggrandized Prussia ! " made her act gainst Russia began to be devoloped. a fine part," and manifest decided sen. Unable to stand alone, her circumstan- timents ; “ but,” said the Duke of ces did not allow of neutrality; and Bassano, “ he did not suspect the du. she was unwillingly dragged along as plicity of a power which had solicited a vassal in the train of the ruler of the the honour of an alliance with France." French nation. But even if she had While the diplomatic arrangements sot suffered severe oppression in time were concluded between Russia and of peace, she was at once plundered, Prussia, the commanders of the French trampled on, and insulted, during the armies in vain attempted to make a war. Buonaparte acted over the king- stand at Berlin. The inhabitants madom of Prussia the sovereign, or rather nifested a spirit no less formidable to the conqueror, without ceremony or them than that of the army; and the restraint. He seized on Pillau and French themselves confessed, that the Spandau by a sort of military surprise ; Russian light troops which approach. he kept possession of Glogau and Cus. ed Berlin, were conducted and reinfortrin, in express opposition to treaties : ced by the young men of that capital ; be subsisted his garrisons in those pla.

several of whom were killed in the ces by levying contributions for ten skirmishes which took place in the subleagues around; he seized no less than urbs. 30,000 horses, and 20,000 carriages ; Very different from the conduct of together with every other article of the King of Prussia was that of the which his commissariat happened to misguided sovereign of Saxony. The stand in need ; and he even sent or approach of the allied armies alarmed ders to General Bulow to join Vic. him, and he determined to quit Dres. tor's corps without consulting the den, and to cling to the interests of King of Prussia on the subject. These, the common enemy. Before abandonand many other equally serious groundsing his capital, he issued a proclamaof complaint, were distinctly recapi- tion recommending a peaceable de tulated by Count Krusemarck in his meanour to his subjects. He told them, official communication to the French at the same time, that the political government.

system to which he had for the last six The Duke of Bassano, in reply, be. years attached himself, was that to gan by a sarcastic allusion to the ver. which the state had been indebted for satile politics of the Prussian cabinet its preservation amid the most immisince 1792, as if France, since that pe- nent dangers. This was strange lan

guage,

when his adherence to this very tem of policy to carry its ambitious political system now compelled him to and depraved views into effect, to de. abandon his capital.

mand the blood of your sons, dry up General Blucher, however, took a the springs of your commerce, depress different view of the interests of Saxo. your industry, destroy the liberty of ny, and addressed from Bruntzlau, a your press, and turn your once happy proclamation to the people, stating country into the theatre of war. Al. that he entered their territory to offer ready has the Vandalism of the oppresthem his powerful assistance, and call- sive foreigner wantonly destroyed your ing on them to raise the standard of most beautiful monument of architecinsurrection against their oppressors. ture, the bridge of Dresden. Rise ! His language on this occasion was sin. join us : raise the standard of insurrecgular and characteristic:—“. In the tion against foreign oppressors, and be. north of Europe," he said, “ the Lord free. Your sovereign is in the power of Hosts has held a dreadful court of of foreigners, deprived of the freedom justice, and the angel of death has cut of determination, deploring the steps off 300,000 of those strangers by the which a treacherous policy forced him sword, famine, and cold, from that to take. We shall no more attribute earth which they, in the insolence of them to him than cause you to suffer their prosperity, would have brought for them. We only take the provinces under the yoke. We march wherever of your country under our care, when the finger of the Lord directs us, to fortune, the superiority of our arms, fight for the security of the ancient and the valour of our troops, may thrones and our national independence. place them in our power. Supply the With us comes a valiant people, who reasonable wants of our warriors, and have boldly driven back oppression, in return expect from ys the strictest and with a high feeling have promised discipline. Every application to me, the liberty to the subjugated nations. We Prussian General, may be freely made by announce to you the morning of a new all oppressed persons. I will hear comday. The time for shaking off a de- plaints, examine every charge, and setestable yoke, which, during the last verely punish every violation of discisix years, dreadfully crushed us down, pline. Every one, even the very meanhas at length arrived. A new war un- est, may with confidence approach me, luckily commenced, and still more un- I will receive him with kindness. The happily concluded, forced upon us the friend of German independence will, peace of Tilsit ; but even of the seve- by us, be considered as our brother rest articles of that treaty, not one has the weak-minded wanderer we will lead been kept with us. Every following with tenderness into the right road

; treaty increased the hard conditions of but the dishonourable, despicable tool the preceding one. For this reason we of foreign tyranny, I will pursue to have thrown off the shameful yoke, the utmost rigour as an enemy to our and advance to the heart.cheering com- common country.” bat for our liberty. Saxons ! ye are Prussia now became one great camp; a noble-minded people ! you know, the supple instruments of French tythat without independence all the good ranny were banished from the cabinet, things of this life are to noble minds and the generals known by their resoof little value,--that subjection is the late opposition to French influence, greatest disgrace. You neither can nor were invested with new and effectual will bear slavery any longer. You will powers. The whole country between not permit a cunning and deceitful sys. the Elbe and the Oder was divided in.

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to four military districts, under the naparte ; and it appeared that they command of L'Estocq, Tauenzien, would embrace the first opportunity of Massenbach, and Gotzen; the mili- deserting. In these circumstances he tia was called out; the levy-en-masse thought it necessary to make an addi. was ordered ; volunteers enrolled them. tion, even to the immense preparations selves on all sides ; no less than 20,000 which he had already contemplated.of the militia were collected at Ko. Ninety thousand men of the conscripningsberg ; and the national enthusi- tion of 1814, who had been originally asm was universally directed to one destined for the reserve, were now ren. great object.

dered disposable; and ninety thousand The King of Prussia, on the 20th of more were raised by a sort of retroMarch, 1813, published an edict, abo. spective conscription. The cities and lishing the continental system, and re- municipalities were invited to equip gulating the duties to be collected in

new corps of cavalry, to replace that future on goods imported into Prus- part of the army which had entirely sia. All French goods were prohibit- perished during the Russian campaign. ed under severe penalties.

Buonaparte, however, was aware that The French troops having quitted he could not at once lead these raw Berlin, the Russian General, Tcherni- levies against the enemy ;-every re• cheff, arrived in that city amid a great source, therefore, which experience concourse of people :-the Russian and ingenuity could suggest, was extroops were received with kindness and hausted to confer on them that dishospitality. On the 11th of March, cipline in which they were deficient. Count Wittgenstein made his public officers were procured either by drafts entry into the capital, and was recei- from Spain, or by selecting the subal. ved with the greatest enthusiasm. terns of the regiments which had es.

The torrent from the north rolled caped from Russia. A large camp was on; the barriers of the Vistula and the formed upon the Maine, where the preOder proved inefficacious to stem it. paration of the young soldiers for the The accession of Prussia and Sweden, field, could be carried on without danand the great armaments which were ger of interruption from the approach preparing in the north of Germany, of the enemy.—The immense armies swelled the single power of Russia in. which Buonaparte was accumulating to a formidable confederacy. The fide proved the uneck alled vigour of his lity of all the foreign troops in the despotism, and the great resources of French service was suspected by Buo. his empire.

CHAP. XIII.

Progress of the War.-Buonaparte takes the Command of the French Armies.

Battle of Lutzen.-Battle of Bantzen, and Retreat of the Allies.-- The com. bined Armies retire, and Buonaparte enters Dresden.

As'the allied sovereigns were fully lay down their arms, until the foundapersuaded that their chance of success, tions of the independence of every Euin the great enterprize which they had ropean state should have been estaundertaken, must depend upon the blished and secured. soundness of their principles, no less The unprosperous state to which than upon the numbers and valour of the affairs of the French were reduced, their armies, they hastened to announce had, as it was natural to expect, a great the maxims of policy by which they influence on the policy of their allies, were guided.

Even Denmark now expressed a disPrince Kutousoff, the commanderposition to join the great confederacy in-chief of the Russian and Prussian of Europe ; she proposed, however, armies, accordingly published an ad. the most extravagant terms. She sent dress to Germany in the names of the an ambassador to London, who ten. Emperor of Russia and King of Prus- dered to England the benefit of a Dasia. In this address, the two monarchs nish alliance, on the following condi. gave a solemn pleoge of their inten. tions : -Ist, That all the territories of tions. They desired to re-establish Denmark (Norway of course included) Germany in her rights and indepen- should be guaranteed to her. 2d, dence. They would not tolerate that That all her islands should be restored. badge of a foreign yoke, the confede. 3d, That her fleet should be given up, ration of the Rhine. They declared and a large indemnity allowed for its that they had no intention of disturb- capture. A considerable sum was also ing France, nor of forcing with their demanded, as a compensation for what armies her rightful frontiers. They de- the Danes had suffered during the occusired that she might occupy herself in pation of Zealand by the British. 4th, her own concerns, and not disturb the That the Hanse towns should be as. repose of other nations. They were signed to her. 5th, That a subsidy anxious for peace, but for such a peace should be granted to pay the troops as should be founded upon a solid necessary to enable her to take posbasis ; and they concluded with an- session of these towns. And upon nouncing their determination not to the accession of the British govern

ment to these reasonable terms, Den- wards marched to Bergedorf. Gene-
mark would make peace, and join ral Morand then attempted to march
the common cause. Such demands, from Bergedorf to Hamburgh, but
of course, could not require a mo- was prevented by the Danish troops,
ment's deliberation, and the Danish 3000 of whom, with a numerous ar-
minister took his departure.—Eng. tillery, were stationed on the borders
land was the last of the allied powers to maintain their neutrality.
tried by Denmark. She began at Colonel Hamilton, the governor of
Petersburgh under French influence, Heligoland, was induced by the suc-
and there she failed; she continued cess of the Russian arms, and the fa-
negotiations at Copenhagen under the vourable reports from different parts
same influence, and again she failed; of the Hanoverian coast, to take every
she then turned her attention towards step which an inconsiderable force at
London, where there could be no such his disposal would admit of, to pro-
influence, and there she failed also. mote the common cause, and to assist
But although her attempts at negotia. the operations of the allied armies in
tion had no success, the momentary this direction. Lieutenant Banks ac-
change which was thus produced upon cordingly proceeded to Cuxhaven,
her policy, had considerable influence whence the French had departed with
on the affairs of Hamburgh, which great expedition, after destroying all
about this time excited great interest their gun-boats, and dismounting the
in England.

guns
from the

strong

works constructThe grand French army (inclu- ed for the defence of the harbour. On ding the division of General Grenier, a summons from Lieutenant Banks, amounting to 20,000 men, which in the castle of Ritzenbuttle, and batthe beginning of January had hastened teries of Cuxhaven, were surrendered from Italy to the north) had been re. by the burghers, and the British and duced by many severé engagements Hamburgh flags were immediately diswith the cossacks to about 18,000 men, played. The peasants assembled in and had quitted Berlin to lay the basis considerable numbers, and took the of future operations in a more solid strong battery and works at Bremerlee. manner behind the Elbe.

General A corps of about 1500 French haMorand, in the meantime, who had ving been collected in the vicinity, kept possession of Swedish Pomerania threatened to retake the battery, and with about 2500 men, and had been application was made to Major Kentzinstructed to maintain himself there at inger, at Cuxhaven, for assistances all events, put himself in march to fol. This officer having left Cuxhaven with low the grand army, whose left wing a party of the soldiers in waggons, was was formed by the army of Pomerania met by the peasants, who informed under his command. Baron Tetten. him that the enemy had marched off borne, colonel.commandant of a corps in great haste, in consequence of the of General Wittgenstein's division of landing of some British troops. the army, marched at the same time Tettenborne, after this, entered in the direction of Hamburgh; his Hamburgh, amid the acclamations of vanguard was at Limburg, when the citizens. In consequence of this Morand, on the 15th of March, en. happy event the ancient government tered Mollen. As some parties of was restored. Colonel Tettenborne cossacks had been detached in front, addressed the inhabitants of the left and were approaching Mollen, the ar- bank of the Lower Elbe, and the in. my of Pomerania balted, and after- habitants of the city of Lubec, ex

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