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Cremona, to Verona, and to Piedmont'; amuse the Parisians for a day, could
Buonaparte hoped, by thus harassing do little towards consolidating the new
an old man, to bend the mind of the dynasty.
pontiff to his purposes. On hearing, The legislative body having been
however, that some attempt would be convoked in the month of February,
made to release the holy father, he or Buonaparte made one of his singular
dered him to be sent to France, and speeches to them. He consoled them
placed under the police at Fontainbleau. by an assurance that the British army
There he remained for some time, till had been wrecked before Burgos, and
the emperor surprised him with a visit had evacuated Spain.-But every one
on the 19th of January of this year. asked, if the British army had been
Buonaparte and the Austrian princess wrecked before Burgos, how happen.
left Paris under pretence of hunting at ed it that the enemy had not ventured
Grosbois, and suddenly proceeded to to make

any
attack

upon it in its ruin. Fontainbleau, “ where they were not ed state? If the allies had entirely eva. expected.” Buonaparte instantly re- cuated Spain, why were not the French paired to the pope's apartments, and again in possession of the capital of entered

upon

the business of his visit. Estremadura and of Ciudad Rodrigo ? From that evening till the 25th, va- If all the hopes of the English had been rious conferences took place between disappointed and their projects defeatthem, which ended in the signing of ed, how came it to pass that the evea new concordat.

The pope had my was not in possession of the fertile considered Buonaparte's last marriage provinces of Andalusia ?-When alluillegal and his issue illegitimate, as ding to the Russian campaign, he the former marriage had not been dis said, that “ he was constantly victosolved according to the canons of the rious at Polotsk, at Mohilo, at Smocatholic church, nor by the special lensko, and Maloyraslovitz.” At permission of the head of that church. Maloyraslovitz! where the Russians The manner in which the pope had drove him back to the road which be. been treated had produced a strong came the grave of his army ! " He sensation in France, which, although got to Moscow," he said,“ triumphing Buonaparte might disregard it du- over every obstacle, and even the conring the tide of his victories, he now flagration of that city changed in no felt was no longer to be treated with

manner the prosperous state of his afcontempt. The proposals, however, fairs.” This was in direct contradice which were now made to the pope, tion to his own bulletins (particular. were accepted, the territories of the ly the 26th) in which he said, “ that church were restored, and the sanc- after Moscow had ceased to exist, the tion of his holiness was obtained to the emperor had determined either to aban. marriage of the French ruler.

don this heap of ruins, or only occupy Other measures for sustaining the the Kremline—that it appeared useless authority of Buonaparte were also to compromise any thing whatever for adopted. A regency was provided in an object that was of no military value, the event of his death during the mino. and had now become of no political rity of his son. The Austrian prin- importance."-But after expressing all cess was named the regent; she was due contempt for the Russian arms, to act with the assistance of a council. after asserting that the Russian troops She and her son were to be crowned were not able to stand before the French a spectacle which, although it might army--what did Buonaparte now pre

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pose to do? The object of the war, as cure this line of defence against any avowed by himself in his first bulle- future invasion ? This seemed the most tins, was to dictate to Russia ; to prudent plan, and corresponded with deprive her of her consideration and the established usages of war.

But her influence; to impose upon her the Russians had penetration enough his system, and to reduce the Emperor to perceive, that much more brilliant of Russia to the abject situation of a prospects were opened by the present King of Bavaria. What did the French situation of Europe. The remains of ruler now avow to be his object? To the French army were too small, and make the Russians return to their own in too complete a state of disorganizacountry ! « The Russians," said he, tion and dismay, to oppose any obstacle “ shall return to their own frightful to their victorious progress. It was climate !” Was it for this he went to certain, that as they advanced, every war with Russia !--that she might not sovereign, every country, would reestablish her power over Germany ? ceive them with open arms;

their force that she should be contented with her would be swelled by the force of all own immense possessions !--Heinvaded the districts which they might traverse; her territories to conquer her, and he the resources of every country would was now anxious only that she should be withdrawn from the strength of not invade France. She had destroyed France and added to that of her enethe army which he brought against mies. With respect to the danger of leaher, and burst beyond the limits of ving behind them so many strong-holds, her own territories, and he would now the example of the French themselves have been fully satisfied if her armies had shewn, that there were circumstanwould have relieved him of their pre- ces, in which what might otherwise have sence, and “ returned to their fright- been the height of imprudence, became ful climate !"

perfectly safe. The danger, which Buonaparte spoke very generally of would have been serious if entering his allies. He said, indeed, he “ into a hostile country, with a powersatisfied with all of them- that he ful enemy in front, ceased to exist would abandon none of them, and that when the French force was completely he would maintain the integrity of broken, and when the whole country their states.”_One paragraph in the through which their pursuers were to speech shewed the impossibility of ma- pass was enthusiastically devoted to king peace. “ The French dynasty their cause. Every circumstance, in reigns and shall reign in Spain,”-a short, indicated, that the moment had pledge which, so long as it was per- arrived for following up, with the ut. sisted in, cut off all hope of putting a most vigour, the advantages they had period to the war with England. gained. It would have been madness to

The Russian army meanwhile had pause, until the mighty edifice, which arrived on the Vistula. The utmost for the first time had been made to deliberation was required in determi- totter, should be laid in the dust. The ning the course which it was now to Russians therefore determined to adfollow. The French possessed along vance ; and the boldness and vigour of that river a range of fortresses, which this policy, contrasted with the caution commanded its course, and seemed to which had marked their proceedings oppose a barrier against the further in different circumstances, heightened progress of a northern army. Was the greatly the impression of that wisdom Russian army to employ itself in be- by which their councils were guided. sieging these fortresses, and thus se- On the 7th of February, Major:Geo

was

VOL. VI. PART I.

neral Count Woronzoff marched to- within 2000 paces of the fortress : wards Posen with his detachment; The troops posted themselves partly whilst Admiral Tchichagoff invested in front of this village, and partly on the fortress of Thorn, General Milo- the heights situated on the right and radovitch's corps passed to the left left of it ; and the Russian general bank of the Vistula. Major-General immediately sent a summons to the Paskevitch, with the 7th corps, took commandant of the French garrison. possession of Sakroczin, and pushed This measure led to a convention, by forward some cossacks for the purposes which the French troops, on the 8th, of observation as far as Modlin. quitted the town and fortress of Pil.

The enemy, with the view of obtain. lau, which had been garrisoned by ing provisions from the villages about them since the month of May, 1812. Dantzic, made a sally towards Brentau, The garrison, which marched out, but was immediately received by some consisted of about 1200 men; the cossacks, who compelled him to retreat. number of sick left behind amounted At the same time a strong column of in. to about 400. On the 9th the Rusfantry and of cavalry appeared on the sian troops returned to the grand army; Russian left flank, opposite the village the Prussian troops who were in the of Nenkau, and at first drove in their town and citadel remained as a garadvanced posts. A cossack chief, na- rison. med Meinikoff, taking advantage of this The mild and sagacious policy of movement, collected several detach. the Russians in entering the provinces ments of his warriors, rode round the of the north as friends and deliverers, enemy's wing, and falling unexpected and restoring the national functionly on his rear, threw him into confu- aries, greatly assisted their exertions.sion ; the result was, that the whole Their advance was accompanied with column was cut off from the city, and every circumstance which was calcunot a single man returned into the for- lated to endear their cause to the natress ; 600 men were cut down on the tions around them. They resorted to spot, and 200 privates and 73 officers the press as a powerful auxiliary for were made prisoners.

the overthrow of the enemies of EuPrince Schwartzenberg's corps ha rope; they disseminated friendly adving been forced to retreat, on the 8th dresses over the continent, and their of February General Miloradovitch conciliatory offers were received with took possession of the city of Warsaw. joy at Warsaw, Berlin, Hamburgh, On his arrival at the village of Wilanoff, and Dresden. The press, which had he was met by the deputies of the cor. been so long fettered by the French, porations

of the nobility, merchants, and compelled to disseminate falsehood and clergy, headed by the prefect, sub- throughout Europe, began, after the prefects, and mayors of the city, who success of the Russians, to reassume presented to him the keys of Warsaw. its legitimate functions.--Wherever

Major-General Count Sievres, com- the allies carried their arms, this pow. manding in Koningsberg, received or. erful engine was occupied in exposing ders to march against Pillau, with all the malignant and deceitful policy the troops and artillery then in Ko. which had been so long pursued by ningsberg, and to summou the French the ruler of France. garrison to surrender. In pursuance The King of Prussia, who felt him. of these orders, the general arrived self while at Potsdam entirely in the with 6000 men and a strong party of power of the French general and garartillery, in the village of Old Pillar, rison of Berlin, resolved on obtaining his personal freedom by a sudden and troops should retire behind the Visunexpected removal to Breslaw. Ha. tula and the French behind the Elbe, ving arrived there, he, on the 3d of leaving Prussia, and all its fortresses, February, issued proclamations to his free from foreign occupation.- These subjects, calling on them to arm in suf- terms seem very favourable to the beatport of their king and country. This ten and discomfited enemy, who had so patriotic call was well understood over lately threatened to annihilate the inPrussia, and volunteers from all parts dependence both of Russia and Prusof the kingdom presented themselvessia. They were sullenly rejected, howfor enrolment. Mortified by this sight, ever, by Buonaparte ; while the EmBeauharnois, the new commander of peror Alexander, on the other hand, the French armies, forbade the recruit- evinced such sentiments of liberality ing enjoined by the royal decree. This toward the Prussian monarchy and naunparalleled affront had no other effect tion, as could not but insure their cor. than to excite the indignation of the dial attachment. king and of his people.

The patriots of Prussia accordingly The Austrians, in the month of Fe- surrounded their sovereign at Breslaw : bruary, concluded an unlimited truce they represented, that the moment was with the Russians, in virtue of which at length arrived to shake off the de. they withdrew into Gallicia ; and the grading, yoke, to which, in common Saxons under Regnier profited by with all Germany, their nation had this circumstance to retire towards been so long subjected ; they wisely their own country. On the evening and energetically insisted, that there of the 13th of February, however, was but one line to be adopted-an alGeneral Winzingerode came up with liance offensive and defensive with Rus. General Regnier and his Sa ons at sia.—This just remonstrance at length Kalitsch. The enemy directed their prevailed. On the 22d of February a movements upon the city, to form a treaty of peace and alliance, offensive junction with 4000 Poles, who had 15 and defensive, was concluded betwixt pieces of cannon with them; but they the Emperor of Russia and King of found themselves suddenly attacked Prussia, and a system of combined miby the Russian troops with their cha- litary operations was arranged. racteristic ardour. The result of this The King of Prussia, on this occa • attack was highly honourable to the sion, addressed his people and his arRussians, as the Saxon infantry, who mies..." It was annecessary," he said, were in superior) force, made a brave 6 to render an account to his good and obstinate resistance. Two Saxon people of Germany, of the motives for standards, seven pieces of cannon, the the war which was now commencing : Saxon general, Nostitz, three colonels, they were evident to impartial Europe. 36 officers and 2000 privates, were the Prussia was bowed down under the trophies of this day. General Win- superior power of France. That peace, zingerode’s advanced guard pursued which deprived the king of half his the enemy, who retreated upon Racz- subjects, procured us no blessings ; it, kowo and Ostrowo.

on the contrary, injured Prussia more In this state of things, the King of than war itself. The country was impoPrussia offered himself as a mediator verished. The principal fortresses were between the chief belligerents. On occupied by the enemy; agriculture the 15th of February, he proposed a was neglected, as well as the industry truce, on condition that the Russian of the cities, which had risen to a very

high degree. Liberty of trade being with victory. How great soever the interrupted, the new system naturally sacrifices which may be required from closed all the sources of ease and pros- individuals, they are small compared perity. By the most exact observance with the sacred interests for which they of the stipulated treaties, the king ho- are given, for which we combat, and ped to obtain some alleviation for his for which we must conquer, or cease people, and at last to convince the to be Prussians. We are now engaged French ruler that it was his own interest in the last decisive contest for our ex. to leave Prussia independent; but the istence as an independent people.king's exertions to obtain so desirable There is no medium between an hoan object proved fruitless ;---nothing nourable peace and inglorious ruin.but haughtiness and treachery were the Even this you would manfully support result. The Prussians discovered, but for your honour, because a Prussian rather late, that Buonaparte's conven- cannot live without it. But we dare tions were more ruinous to them than confidently trust, God and our firm open wars. The moment was now ar- purpose, will give our just cause vice rived in which no illusion respecting tory, and with this an uninterrupted their condition could remain. - Prus. peace, and the return of happier times.” sians," said the king, “ you know what The French ambassador, St Maryou have suffered during the last se- san, who was a spectator of the interven years. You know what a misera- view between the Emperor Alexander ble fate awaits you if we do not ho. and the King of Prussia, resolved on nourably finish the war which is now the following day to present a remoncommencing. Remember formertimes! strance to the Prussian chancellor. He Remember the illustrious Elector, the was prevented, however, by a note Great Frederick ! Remember the be- from the latter, formally announcing nefits for which our ancestors contend to him, that Prussia was at war with ed under his direction : liberty of con. France, and assigning the reasons by science, honour, independence, trade, which he justified her conduct. A siindustry, and knowledge. Bear in mind milar note was presented to the French the great example of our allies the government at Paris by Count Kruse. Russians! Think of the Spaniards and marck, the Prussian minister, to which Portuguese : small states have even an angry reply was made by the Duke gone to battle for similar benefits a. of Bassano. gainst a more powerful enemy, and ob- The Prussian minister stated the tained victory! Remember the Swiss strongest reasons in justification of an and the people of the Netherlands ! appeal to arms at the present time, Great sacrifices are required from all and argued with much force and abili. ranks, because our plan is great, and ty against the French system, which the means of our enemy extensive.- had successively led to the degradation You will make them sooner for your of every sovereign by whom it had country and your king, than for a fo- been adopted :-He urged the folly reign ruler ; 'who, by so many exam- of trusting to any engagements with ples, has proved he would seize your Buonaparte, and the absolute necessity children, and drain your resources for to which the powers of Europe were designs to which you are strangers. exposed, of destroying his system, or Confidence in God, constancy, cou. being destroyed by it. Prussia, by the rage, and the powerful assistance of treaty of Tilsit, in 1807, was left in our allies, will favour our just cause the most feeble condition. It was easy

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