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ny generals and commanders. In fine, ers, who have distinguished themselves after numerous bloody combats, whole by their zeal and ardour, nor from the regiments imploring the magnanimity general bravery of their troops, we of their conquerors, have laid down must confess, that what they have actheir arms. The rest, composing a complished surpasses all human power. number equally great, pursued in their-Acknowledge, then, Divine Proviprecipitate fight by our victorious dence in this wonderful event. Let us troops, overtaken by cold and hunger, prostrate ourselves before his sacred have strewed the road from Moscow throne, and acknowledging his divine to the frontiers of Russia, with car. hand chastening pride and impiety, incasses, cannons, waggons, and baggage, stead of boasting and glorying in our 80 that, of those numerous forces, a victories, let us learn from this great very inconsiderable part, exhausted, and terrible example to be modest and and without arms, can, with difficulty, peaceable executors of his law and his and almost lifeless, return to their will ; let us never resemble those ime homes, to serve as a terrible example pious profanators of the temples of to their countrymen, of the dreadful God, whose carcasses, without num. sufferings which must overtake those ber, now serve as food for the fowls rash men who dare to carry their hose of the air. God is mighty in his kindtile designs into the bosom of Russia: ness and in his anger. Let us be gui. -To-day we inform our well-beloved ded by justice in our actions, and pue and faithful subjects, with a lively joyrity in our sentiments, as the only path and grateful acknowledgments towards which leads to him. Let us proceed God, that the reality has surpassed to the temple of his sanctity, and there even our hopes ; and that what we an- return him thanks for the benefits nounced at the commencement of this which he has bestowed uporus ; and war, is accomplished beyond all ex- address to him our ardent supplicapectation. There is no longer a single tions that he will extend to us his par. enemy in our territories, or rather, dong-put an end to the war, and there they all remain ; but in what grant us victory on victory, until peace state? Dead, wounded, and prisoners. and tranquillity be firmly re-establish. Even their chief himself has, with the ed.” utmost difficulty, escaped with his prin- The invitations of Russia to induce cipal officers, leaving his army disper. her neighbours to declare against the sed, and abandoning his cannon, of common enemy, were not unavailing. which there are more than 1000 pieces, The whole Prussian force, joined to exclusive of those buried or thrown in- about 6000 French, under Macdonald, to the water, which have been recover- had been employed in the blockade of ed, and are now in our hands. This Riga; and the Russian army, in adscene of destruction surpasses all be- vancing to the Niemen, came upon the lief. We almost imagine that our eyes rear of this corps. Macdonald, by deceive us. Who has been able to ef. retreating with the utmost expedition, fect this? Without derogating from succeeded in extricating himself; but the merited glory of the commander. D’York, the Prussian commander, felt in-chief of our armies, this distinguish. no disposition to make such extraored general who has rendered to his dinary efforts. He withdrew his country services for ever memorable, whole force from the French army, and without detracting from the merits and concluded a convention with the of other valiant and able command. Rassians, by which the Prussian troops were to remain neutralin Eastern Prus. family. He spoke the language of a sia. The orders which he sent to the man who knew that he had acted well Prussian general, Massenbasch, who re- --" he was indifferent,” he said, “about mained with Macdonald at Tilsit, with the judgement which the world might two batteries six battalions and six pass on his conduct." Yet Buonaparte, squadrons of Prussian troops, to leave whose principal weapon was treachery, the French and join him were obeyed. pretended to be astonished !-He call« Massenbasch set off on the 31st ult.” ed upon all 'sovereigns to unite their said Macdonald,“ without my orders, voices against such deeds, and to comto repass the Niemen. He thus aban. bine their power to prevent a recur. dons us before the enemy.” Macdo- rence of them. This defection struck nald had taken some steps to detain him deep; for he foresaw and feared the Prussian general and disarm his its effects. “The Prussian people,” he troops ; but the Prussian was aware of said, “ will judge, and all the nations his intentions, and began his march of the north will judge with them, of without delay. Macdonald could not what misfortunes such a crime' might prevent or pursue him. And thus, be the source.”—The correspondence nearly the whole of the 10th corps, between General D’York and Mar. the only one which had not greatly shal Macdonald was laid before the suffered in the last campaign, was de French senate, and immediately followtached from the enemy's service, and ed up by a report announcing this dismight in fact be considered as part aster as the motive which induced of the force destined to act against Buonaparte to issue a senatus consul. France.
tum for calling out 350,000 men.General D'York, in a letter to Mac. Throughout the whole of this report donald, offered some explanation of England stood prominent ; she had his conduct, and remarked, that " af- been the cause of the Russian war, ter many painful marches it was not and of the desertion of the Prussian possible for him to continue them with army.--Some, and no inconsiderable out being attacked on his Aanks and merit, indeed, she might fairly claim, rear; it was this that retarded his junc- for it was her constancy which set an tion, and left him to choose between example to all Europe it was her the alternative of losing the greater part
arms and councils which stimulated of his troops, and the materiel, which and suported Spain and Portugal--it alone insured his subsistence, or saving was her greatness, resources, and love the whole."-But other and nobler of freedom, which first placed a barmotives impelled him. He wished to rier against the tyranny of France. set an example to the other powers Macdonald, thus left with an army whom Buonaparte kept in subjection, of 5000, attempted to effect a speedy to invite them to withdraw from sla• junction with some troops from Kovery, and to break their fetters upon ningsberg, who with that view came the heads of their oppressors. He out to meet him. They were comwished to teach a lesson to the Ger- pelled, however, to fall back by Genemans—to sound the alarm-to rekin. ral Steingel, whom Wittgenstein had dle their ancient love of independence, dispatched to frustrate this part of the and to arm them against a tyranny French plan, while he himself closely which had drained their resources, pursued Macdonald. Tchichagoff, who drenched their fields with blood, and had also reached the Pregel, advanced carried calamity and ruin into every along the course of the river, preceded
by Platoff with his cossacks, through cape from the cossacks. General La Gumbinnen and Insterburg towards Pierre, four inferior officers, 200 men, Koningsberg General Schepeleff, and a courier sent by Napoleon to who commanded Wittgenstein's van the Prince of Neufchatel with disguard, reached that fortress by the patches, were made prisoners. On the way of Labau, where the French had road to Nuenburg, Lieutenant-Colonel taken an advantageous position, and Adrianoff, while pursuing the enemy, attempted to make a stand. On the met a squadron of Baden troops, and 4th of January, a battle took place destroyed it. Another corps atwhich continued till noon, when the tempted to make a stand at the tête. enemy being driven from his position, du-pont at Derschoff, about four Gerretreated towards Koningsberg. man miles from Dantzic; a sanguinary
On the 6th of January, Konings. affair took place, but the enemy were berg, the ancient capital of Prussia, compelled to abandon their post, and was occupied by Count Wittgenstein's to retire upon Dantzic, pursued by advanced guard, under the orders of the Russians. Major-General Schepeleff.--Marshal While these operations were carMacdonald had ordered the town to ried on in the neighbourhood of the be occupied by a corps
d'armée, com- Baltic, some advances were made posed of the old French guards, and against the Saxons and Austrians, besome troops who had escaped the ge. yond Warsaw. General Sacken from neral wreck of the enemy's grand army. Ruzana, advanced against Regnier, But on the approach of the advan- who commanded the Saxons, and Ge. ced guard of the Russians, the enemy, neral Wasillchikoff, from Grodno, without halting, passed by Konings- against Schwartzenburg and the Ausberg, and abandoned it to Major-Ge- trians. Sacken, on the 25th of Deneral Schepeleff, who entered it with. cember, took possession of the town of out resistance. The French fled in Brescry Litoff, and proceeded thence confusion towards the Vistula.—There along the Bug to Grannym. Wasillwere taken in Koningsberg, 1300 pri- chikoff, having been joined by four soners, besides 8000 sick, and 30 regiments of don.cossacks, pursued pieces of the battering-train from before Schwartzenburg along the course of Riga -Count Wittgenstein arrived at the Narew; the Austrian general diKoningsberg on the 7th. On the 9th viding his corps into three columns he followed the army, which continued gradually approximated to Warsaw, to drive the remains of the French to- by the way of Ostrolenka and Powards the Vistula. On the 12th, Ad. lotzk. miral Tchichagoff and Count Platoff The Prussians every where receitook possession of the fortresses of ved the Russian troops in a friendly Marienwerder, Marienburg, and El. manner, and supplied them willingly bing; and on the following days ha- with provisions. In return for their ving crossed the Vistual and the No- good conduct, the most rigorous disgat, a branch of the same river, they cipline was observed to the great sapursued the French in different direc- tisfaction of the inhabitants.—The retions on the roads to Dantzic, Stut- treat of the French armies through gard, and Grandenz.
the kingdom of Prussia was, like that When the Russians entered Marien- from Moscow, marked by devastation ; werder, the viceroy of Italy and Mar- and by the abandonment of their mashal Victor were scarcely able to es• gazines, tumbrils, and stores of all de
scriptions. Some idea may be formed fining to their barracks. A regency of the misfortunes of this retreat, by had been established in the name of the consulting two returns which were in. king, at Koningsberg, of which the tercepted of the 4th French voltigeurs, ex-minister Stein, who had been an and 6th tirailleurs. The former regi. object of French persecution, was the ment, when it left Smolensk, consist president. This regency had issued a ed of 32 officers and 427 privates, of proclamation, calling on the loyal and whom there remained under arms on patriotic inhabitants
of Prussia to come the 16th December, only 10 officers forward and rescue their king and and 29 privates ; the latter, com- country from French thraldom; nor posed of 31 officers and 300 privates, was the call in vain. The young men mustered on the 31st of December on
were eagerly running to arms, and ly 14 officers and 10 privates. joining their brethren under the com
The Emperor of Russia proceeded mand of General D'York, who had in the night of the 7th January from been nominated, by the
regency, comWilna, to join the division of his guards; mander-in-chief of the patriotic army. and the head-quarters of the whole The rapid advance of the Russians, Russian army were at Merez on the and the wide extent of country over 10th. On the 13th they were removed which they were now scattered, proved to Ratschky ; and the emperor crossed that they were supported by a general the Niemen on that day, amid the ac- insurrection.
insurrection. Had the spirit of the clamations of his troops. He continu. people been different, the conduct of ed to march with a division of his ar- the Russians would have been incon. my, in a western direction, through sistent with the most obvious rules of Berjuiki, Krasnoplo, and Subalki, to prudence. Instead of the line of the Lique, where he established his head Vistula, or the entrenched camp in quarters on the 19th. Generals Mi- front of the Oder, which Buonaparte loradovitch and Dochtoroff, with the had lately acknowledged as the limit troops who crossed the frontier at of his defensive operations, his expecGrodno, moved in a line parallel to tations were now confined to the army that of the emperor's march on the of observation of the Rhine. left. Intermediate corps were direct- The head quarters of the Russian ed to keep up the communication be- army, which were on the 19th at Litween each of the columns.
que, had been moved forward by the The situation of Prussia about this 26th nearly 120 miles, to Willenberg, time was very singular. The capital in a direction to the westward of the was in the hands of a French garrison ; Warsaw road. The Russians had thus but the inhabitants favoured the Rus- got into the rear of the Austrian posisians, and flattered themselves that the tion at Pultusk. Previously to this, king, with the troops he was collect. General Miloradovitch, supported by ing in Silesia, would declare against Winzingerode, had advanced as far as their oppressors. What were the real Prasnitz, the Austrians gradually reintentions of the king, or whether he tiring before him, and successively had yet come to a decision, it seem- abandoning Smadovo, Novogrodck, ed difficult to discover. Throughout and Ostrolenka, on the river Naren. the month of January, Berlin exhibit- Regnier retired to Posen; Count Wored daily scenes of tumult and disorder, ranzoff had advanced to Bromberg, the populace having risen against the and made himself master of the large French, whom they succeeded in con- magazines collected there by the enc
my, to cover which, and to observe with such praise of Beauharnois, as Thorn, General Tchichagoffapproach- could not fail to hurt the feelings of ed the latter fortress.
Murat. But the consequences of the The arrangements of the Russian Russian campaign were every way so cabinet, no less than the movements of disastrous to the French, that the sol. the armies, indicated the most resolute diers were rendered suspicious of their hostility to the French system. Count officers, the generals became dissatisRestopchin, the virtuous governor of fied with each other, and all of them Moscow, was appointed minister of lost their regard for Buonaparte. the interior of Russia, and the ex- The accounts given at this time Prussian minister Stein, whose enmity in the French official paper of the to Buonaparte had called forth a fu- state of the armies, were very sin. rious tirade against him, was made a gular. The Moniteur now spoke Russian cabinet minister ; Kutusoff, chiefly of the new troops proceeding Wittgenstein, and their brother gene to the north. Thorn, however, it rals, had the most distinguished ho- affirmed, was occupied by 6000 men ; nours conferred upon them. These 6000 Prussians were at Graudentz; brave men had saved their country; and Davoust commanded a corps of obserthe Emperor Alexander shewed by the . vation upon Bomberg; Victor and most magnificent rewards every dispo. Macdonald were at Posen ; and Lausition to recompence their exertions riston was to command a corps of obagainst the common enemy.
servation at Magdeburgh. Another A singular event occurred in the corps was also to be established on the course of the month of January; Murat Rhine, and an army of observation in gave up the command of the French Italy, under the command of Genearmy to Eugene Beauharnois from in. ral Bertrand. From this statement it disposition, it was pretended, but, as was manifest that Buonaparte expected everyone believed, from disgust. Buo- the next campaign to commence unnaparte, in announcing this event, took der very different auspices from the last, care to state, that Beauharnois was -in the heart of Germany, instead of “ more accustomed to a grand adminis- the frontiers of Russia. The Moni. tration,” and possessed “ the entire teur, however, attempted to sustain the confidence of the emperor.” If this spirits of the people of France and Gerhad been true, how did it happen that, many—“We are authorised to make at the moment of the greatest difficul- this exposé to tranquillize the good ty and peril, when Buonaparte aban- citizens of France and Germany." doned his army, he selected Murat as Thus it appeared that there was much the most proper person to command discontent produced, in all probabiliit? This general was then thought per ty, by the efforts of the British gofectly competent to a “grand admi- vernment to inform the people of the nistration.'--Beauharnois, however, true state of affairs. was now deemed superior, although it It became necessary in these circumwas difficult to discover that he had ever stances, that Buonaparte should do distinguished himself in such a way as something to tranquillize, or at least to to deserve this eulogy. Had Murat occupy, the public mind and support been really indisposed, and had the his tottering power. The pope acstate of his health been the sole cause cordingly was once more brought on the of his retiring from the command, public scene. After his expulsion from Baonaparte would hardly have ac. Rome, he had been sent to a town on companied the notification of this event the shores of the Adriatic ; thence to