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station appointed for them. The some strong heights which cover the fourth and light division, however, village of Gamarro Major. Both Ga. passed the Zadora immediately after marro and Abechinco were strongly Sir R. Hill bad possession of Sabi- occupied, as tetes-du.pont to the jana de Alava ; and almost as soon bridges over the Zadora at these as these divisions had crossed, the co- places. General Pack, with his Por. lumn under the Earl of Dalhousie ar. tuguese brigade, and Colonel Longa, rived at Mendonza, and the third divi. with the Spanish division, supported sion under Sir T Picton crossed at by General Anson's brigade of light the bridge higher up, followed by the dragoons, and the 5th division of in7th division. These four divisions, fantry under the command of General forming the centre of the army, were Oswald, who was desired to take the destined to attack the heights on which command of all these troops, were dithe right of the enemy's centre was rected to turn and gain the heights. placed, while Sir R. Hill moved for. So soon as the heights were in possesward from Sabijana de Alava to attack sion of the allies, the village of Gathe left. The enemy, iowever, having marro Major was most gallantly stormweakened his line to strengthen his de- ed and carried by General Robinson's tachment in the hills, abandoned his brigade of the 5th division, which adposition in the valley as soon as he saw vanced in columns of battalion, under the disposition of the allied army to at. a very heavy fire of artillery and mus. tack it, and commenced his retreat in ketry, without firing a shot. The good order towards Vittoria. The enemy suffered severely at this point, British troops continued to advance in and lost three pieces of cannon. The admirable order, notwithstanding the Lieutenant-General then proceeded to difficulties of the ground.
attack the village of Abechinco with In the mean time Sir T. Graham, the first division, by forming a strong who commanded the left of the army, battery against it ; under cover of the consisting of the 1st and 5th_divi- fire, Colonel Walkett's brigade adsions,—of Generals Pack and Brad. vanced to the attack, and carried the ford's brigades of infantry, and Ge. village, the light battalion having nerals Bock's and Anson's cavalry, charged and taken three guns and a and who had moved on the 20th to howitzer on the bridge. Margina, advanced thence on Vittoria, During the operations at Abechinco, by the high road from that town to the enemy made the greatest efforts to Bilboa. He had with him also the repossess themselves of the village of Spanish division under Colonel Longa. Gamarro Major; but were gallantly General Giron, who had been detach- repulsed by the troops of the 5th
died to the left, under a different view vision under General Oswald. The of the state of affairs, having after. enemy had, however, on the heights on wards been recalled, had arrived on the the left of the Zadora two divisions of 20th at Ordima, and marched thence infantry in reserve ; and it was imposon the morning of the 21st, so as to sible to cross by the bridges till the be in the field in readiness to support troops which had moved upon the Sir Thomas Graham, if his support enemy's centre and left had driven bad been required. The enemy had a them through Vittoria. This service division of infantry, and some cavalry having been admirably peformed, the advanced on the great road from Vit- whole army co-operated in the purtoria to Bilboa, their right resting on
The movements of the troops un- find every reason to admire the talent der Sir T. Graham, by which they which he displayed on this occasion, obtained possession of Gamarro and and to wonder at the strange errors Abechinco, intercepted the enemy's committed by the enemy. retreat by the high road to France. The first operation of the allies was The fugitives were thus obliged to to occupy the heights of La Puebla, turn to the road towards Pampluna ; on which the enemy's left rested. but they were unable to hold any po. In permitting this to be effected with sition for a sufficient length of time little resistance, the French seemed to to allow their baggage and artillery to have committed a capital error, of be drawn off. The whole of the are which they immediately became sentillery therefore which had not been sible; and they made vigorous efforts, captured by the troops in their attack and poured detachment after detach of the successive positions taken up ment, in order to regain possession of by the enemy, after their retreat from them. Lord Wellington however suptheir first position on Arunez, and on ported the corps posted there in such the Zadora, and all their ammunition a manner, that they were still able to and baggage, and every thing they maintain their ground. Then follow. bad, were taken close to Vittoria. The ed the attack on both flanks of the enemy carried off with them one gun enemy's centre. The French were and one howitzer only.
not prepared for this attack. They The army under Joseph Buonaparte had weakened their centre, for the consisted of the whole of the armies purpose of making fruitless efforts of the south and of the centre of against the heights on the left ; and four divisions, and of all the cavalry discovering at last that their exerof the army of Portugal-and of some tions to maintain their position would troops of the army of the north, Ge. be unavailing, they abandoned it, and neral Foy's division of the army of the whole of their centre and left rePortugal was in the neighbourhood of treated upon Vittoria. General Gra. Bilboa at this time ; and Clausel, who ham, with the left of the allied army, "commanded the army of the north, was now carrying on those operations
was near Logrono with one division which were to render victory deciof the army of Portugal, and another sive. The enemy had stationed a conof the army of the north. The 6th siderable force in advance of Gamarro division of the allied army, under and occupied several strongly fortigeneral Pakenham, was likewise ab- fied villages, by which the high roads sent, having been detained in Medina to Bilboa and Bayonne were defend. del Pomar for three days, to cover the ed. General Graham succeeded in march of the magazines and stores expelling the enemy from all these belonging to thefallied army.--"I can. positions, and driving him across the not,” says Lord Wellington in his Zadora. The bridges however being official dispatches, "extol too highly strongly guarded, he was himself unthe good conduct of all the general able to gain the opposite bank, until officers and soldiers of the army in this it had been cleared by the victorious action."
right and centre. The left then crossWhen the short account of this bril- ed the river also, and joined in the liant exploit, which has just been given pursuit. almost in the very words of Lord The enemy was thus cut off from Wellington, is considered, we shall the high road into France, on which
all their arrangements for retreating reinstated upon his throne by proxy, had been made. They were forced to the ceremony having been attended by retire by the more difficult and circu. 'the civil authorities of the place, who itous route of Pampluna, upon which conducted the representative of mathey had secured no fortified positions jesty to a stage erected for the occato cover this movement. They had sion in the market.place. In the thus no means of making a stand at evening the town was illuminated and any one point for a length of time suf- the rejoicings were general and enficient to enable them to carry away thusiastic. their artillery and equipments. Near The victory of Vittoria will be no Vittoria, therefore, the whole fell into less memorable for the importance of the hands of the pursuers. Never was its consequences, than for the courage an army so completely stripped. Bag- and talent by which it was achieved. gage, artillery, ammunition, campequi. The extent of the enemy's loss in page-all was taken ; vast quantities stores and artillery was almost unexof treasure were even thrown down ampled. This victory besides afforded the rocks and collected by the pur. the prospect of driving the enemy out suing troops. The allied army, in of Spain-and what had by many this most legitimate plunder, found been regarded as wild speculation was some solid reward for the glorious toils now become matter of confident hope. through which they had passed. Of Even the invasion of France seemed one hundred and fifty pieces of can- to be a question of prudence merely non, the enemy carried with him one with the British general. The British gun and one bowitzer only; even this people, who had so long heard of the solitary gun was afterwards captured. intention of the enemy to invade this The French passed Pampluna, but country--who had heard of their vain without stopping at that fortress, and boast that they should plant the pursued their retreat over the Pyrenees French eagles on the Tower of Loninto France. Joseph Buonaparte pass- don--were now assured that France ed through Salvatierra, in his preci- might be invaded by a British army. pitate Aight from Vittoria, stripped It was highly probable that the same of every thing, and exhibiting every army which, by imperial mandate, symptom of fear and confusion. was ordered into the sea at Lisbon,
The Spanish people hailed the ap- might soon enter by land into Bourproach of their allies with the most deaux ; and thus the prospects which extravagant demonstrations of joy, sa- opened to the country were such as tisfied, as they were from the appear. amply confirmed the original wisdom ance and strength of the army, that of that policy which had led her to Spain was completely emancipated from engage in the cause of the peninsula. the French yoke. The inhabitants of The grand object of this policy was Logrono, a fine town a few leagues to support the cause of Spain and distant from Vittoria, resolved to lose Portugal, and thus create a most imno time in proclaiming the change of portant diversion in favour of othernaaffairs, although it was humanely sug- tions, who might be inclined to opgested to them, that, in case of the pose the encroachments, or throw off French returning, every one would be the yoke, of France ; and at the same oppressed and punished, who assisted time to afford to all nations a noble in the ceremony. They insisted, how. example of persevering and determined ever, upon proclaiming Ferdinand VII. resistance. The wisdom of that policy immediately; and he was accordingly had now been amply proved. It was universally known, that the efforts of forced to relinquish the other districts the British in Spain had encouraged of Spain.—The great talents of Lord Russia to resist. It was the request. Wellington had scarcely been more of that power, that, as the best displayed in the decisive battle of Vitassistance which Britain could give toria, than in the skill with which the her in her contest with France, the campaign was planned and the rapipeninsular war should be vigorously dity with which it had been conducted. maintained. And what had been the The enemy imagined that the fortifiresult of this resistance ? Th oppo- cations which he had constructed at sition made to the power of the enemy Toro and other places, but particularly in Spain and Portugal had produced at Burgos, would retard the movethe great efforts of Russia, and had ments of the British troops, till he enabled that country to resist with should be able, at least, to carry off success; for if the French had been his magazines in security. Such howprepared to advance into Russia at an ever was the skill of Lord Wellingearlier season, and in greater force, the ton's manœuvres, and such the rapidity issue might have been different. Ano with which they were conducted, that ther great object of this policy was to all the plans of the enemy were condeprive the enemy of the resources of founded. No sooner had the allies Spain and Portugal, which he might advanced into Spain, than the French have employed to the subjugation of hastily abandoned all their points of other countries. How great the pro- defence, and were constrained even gress which had now been made in to evacuate Burgos, on which they effecting this object! Was it not much had expended so much labour. They that the main French army, com
abandoned Pancorbo and Miranda on manded by the intrusive king in per. the Ebro with equal rapidity; so that son, should have been signally defeat. in less than a month after the allies ened with the loss of all its artillery, tered Spain, the enemy beheld them and every thing which constituted its threatening his magazines at Vittoria, strength; and that this same king, which he was compelled to defend at (whose “sacred dynasty'' was to be every hazard. Here the contest was perpetual) had been compelled to fly never for a moment doubtful. The in disgrace? In such a state of things, French seem to have fought with spirit it was impossible to deny that a great on two points only, the one on their stride had been made towards the ac. right, where it was their object to complishment of the legitimate objects cover or regain the main road to of the contest, the destruction of the France by Bayonne, in which attempt enemy's power in the peninsula. - they were completely repulsed by the This victory, moreover, was of a nature troops under Sir T. Graham; the as decisive as any which had graced the other on the left, where they endea. military annals of England. Not only voured in vain to retake the command. was the enemy defeated, and driven off ing positions which were forced and the field, but he had lost all his artillery, maintained by the division of Sir Rowhis stores, his baggage, and, in short, land Hill. It is remarkable that near every thing which constituted the ma- the spot where this great battle was teriel of an army.
He had been com- fought, another victory was obtained pelled to abandon the strong military in the proudest days of England's positions on the Ebro, which he had martial glory, when Edward the been fortifying for months, and where Black Prince defeated the
usurper he reckoned upon making a stand, if the crown of Spain, who on that
occasion was supported by French efforts—by his success in operations troops.
carried on in a country where the The merits of Lord Wellington seem- greatest difficulties were experienceded now to transcend all praise. He had by the ability with which he had conbeen tried in a more extraordinary man- ducted himself even in retreating, Der perhaps than any character, in mi- and at last by a series of victories which litary or in civil life. He had at first had never been surpassed in splendour planned and conducted a system of and importance. defence in the face of a far supe- The prince, whom he served with rior force, commanded by very able so much glory, testified the sense which generals ; and had displayed the high- he entertained of his high deserts in est qualities of a consummate captain. the most marked and gratifying manHe bad, with unequalled coolness The staff of Marshal Jourdan and vigilance, struggled with every having been taken at the battle of Vit. difficulty, and triumphed over everytoria, and sent to the Prince Regent, obstacle. Such events could have been his Royal Highness in return created accomplished only by wonderful exer- Lord Wellington a field marshal of tions of valour by himself and his army, Great Britain. The frank and affecand by the more difficult exercise of per- tionate letter of the prince, 80 worthy severing endurance in the most trying of that illustrious personage, which situations. But his lordship nowappear- accompanied this mark of the royal ed to his country and to the world, as a favour, must have greatly enhanced man who had frequently distinguished the gratification felt by Lord Wel. himself in every possible way through lington. The Spanish government alevery stage of the contest --by his skill so, as a proof of its gratitude for his in conducting sieges-by his promp. eminent services to Spain, created him titude in the application of sudden Duke of Vittoria.