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is preached unto you the forgiveness of
39 And by him all that believe are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses.
40 Beware therefore, lest that come upon you, which is spoken of in "the prophets;
37 But he, whom God raised again, saw no corruption.
38 Be it known unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this man
41 Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish: for I work a work in your days, a work which ye shall in no wise believe, though a man declare it unto you.
42 And when the Jews were gone out of the synagogue, the Gentiles besought that these words might be preached to them the next sabbath.
47 For so hath the Lord commanded us, saying, "I have set thee to be a light of the Gentiles, that thou shouldest be for salvation unto the ends of the earth.
48 And when the Gentiles heard this. they were glad, and glorified the word of the Lord and as many as were ordained to eternal life believed.
49 And the word of the Lord was published throughout all the region.
50 But the Jews stirred up the devout and honourable women, and the chief men of the city, and raised persecution against Paul and Barnabas, and expelled them out of their coasts.
51 "But they shook off the dust of their feet against them, and came unto Iconium.
52 And the disciples were filled with joy, and with the Holy Ghost.
11 Matt. 3. 1. 12 John 1. 20. 13 Matt. 27.122. 14 Matt. 28. 6. 15 Psal. 2. 7. Heb. 1. 5. 16 Isa. 55. 3. 17 Gr. rà ie, holy, or just things: which word the Septuag., both in the place of Isa. 55. 3, and in many others, use for that which is in the Hebrew, mercies. 18 Psal. 16. 10. 19 Or, after he had in his own age served the will of God. 20 1 Kings 2. 10. 21 Hab, 1.5. Gr. in the week between, or, in the sabbath between, 23 Isa. 49. 6. 24 Matt. 10. 14.
Verse 1. "Simeon...called Niger."-Nothing is known of this disciple. His surname, "Niger," means black; and hence it has been supposed that he was so called from his black or tawny complexion; whence it is also supposed that he may have been a native of some part of Africa.
"Lucius of Cyrene."-This person is not usually supposed to be Luke the Evangelist, but probably the same as the "Lucius" of Rom. xvi. 21.
"Manaen, which had been brought up with Herod the tetrarch."-This must mean the Herod who, some years before, had been tetrarch of Galilee; but who, if still alive, was at this time in banishment. The word uvrgapos literally denotes, as here translated, "brought up with ;" but definite signification cannot here be determined with precision, since, like the phrase of translation, it is applied, 1. to a foster-brother, and so the Ethiopic here renders by the son of Herod's nurse."-a very probable interpretation: 2. One who takes food with another: 3. One who is educated with another; school-fellow. In thinking that the first is probably the meaning here to be preferred, it should be mentioned that the relation implied, is one far more intimate and endearing in the East than it usually is in Europe. This may partly arise from the length of the time during which the breast continues to be given to Oriental children.
4. "Seleucia.”—A city on the coast of Syria, near the mouth of the Orontes, and about twenty-four miles from Antioch. To distinguish it from other places of the same name, it was called Seleucia Pieria. It had its name from Seleucus Nicator, the first Greek king of Syria, by whom it was founded.
"Cyprus.”—This is well known as a large and important island of the Mediterranean, about 100 miles from the coast of Syria, and 60 from that of Cilicia in Asia Minor. It is about 200 miles in length, and 60 in its greatest breadth. Once it had many considerable cities, of which those mentioned in the text, Salamis and Paphos, were the chief: the former, which was situated on the eastern coast, was famous for its temple to Jupiter; and the latter, at the opposite extremity of the island, was still more renowned for its temple dedicated to Venus. For the worship of this goddess, the whole island, and this city in particular, was renowned; and hence her common and well-known titles of Cyprian goddess" and "Paphian goddess." This beautiful island was eminently fertile in all kinds of productions suited to its climate; and its wines were held in very high estimation. It has also been always noted for its redundant produce of corn, with which it has been enabled to supply other countries. At present Cyprus exhibits but the ruin of its former glory and beauty. The spontaneous fertility of its soil cannot be suppressed even by desolation and neglect; its olives, oranges, and vines, will still grow, combined even with the sugar cane: but now not more than thirty thousand persons are found on this large and rich island, which once sustained a population of two millions.
7. "The deputy of the country."-The word rendered “deputy” is ¿vvaros, or proconsul. This has been objected to by infidels as a mistake, under the impression that Cyprus was not such a province as gave the title of proconsul to its governor. Many commentators have conceded this point, but suppose that Luke gave the higher title by way of compliment. This does not seem very likely. Lardner, however, ably vindicated the literal accuracy of the Evangelist, and produced a passage from Dion Cassius, in which this very title is given to the governor of Cyprus. But to this it was again fairly enough objected, that, in the cited passage, Dion speaks at the same time of several Roman provinces, one of which was certainly governed by a proconsul; and that, in the absence of other authority, it might be concluded that, for the sake of brevity, he used one term for all, whether it properly applied to all or not. The accuracy of Luke, even on this obscure and much disputed point, has now been most conclusively established by the discovery of a coin belonging to Cyprus, struck in the very age in which Sergius Paulus was governor of the island; that is, in the reign of Claudius Cæsar, whose head and name are on the face of it; and it was in this reign that St. Paul visited the island. It was a coin belonging to the people of that island, as appears from the word KTIIPION on the reverse, and though not struck while Sergius Paulus himself was governor, the inscription upon the reverse shows that it was struck in the time of Proclus, who was next to Sergius Paulus in the government of the island. On this coin the very same title, ANOTПATO】, is given to Proclus which is given by St. Luke to Sergius Paulus. That Cyprus was a proconsulate is also evident from an ancient inscription of Caligula's reign (the predecessor of Claudius), in which Aquilius Scaura is called the "proconsul" of Cyprus. (See Lardner, vol. ii. pp. 51-54; Bishop Marsh's Lectures,' as cited by Horne, vol. i. p. 195.)
8. "Elymas the sorcerer (for so is his name by interpretation)."-That is to say, that "sorcerer," or more properly magus (payos), was the interpretation of the name or title, Elymas (from the Arabic Aliman, wise), which was a name given to the magi in Arabia. The word magus, which properly means a wise man, a man of science and learning (see the note on Matt. ii. 1), is used in a good or indifferent, and in a bad sense, in Scripture; even as, in the use of our own language, "a wise man," which in its proper sense is the highest of characters, does also, in a popular sense, denote a fortune-teller, one who professes to be acquainted with arts by which he can discern the secrets of the future. This last sense evidently comes from “wizard" (wise-ard), a word of similarly equivocal import to "wise man," and together illustrating well the indefinite signification of the word magus, which means exactly the same thing in both In Scripture the context must determine the sense; and as Bar-jesus is not punished for being a magus, but for "seeking to turn away a deputy from the faith," we should not have known with certainty that he professed to be more than a man of learning and science, had we not previously been informed that he was "a false prophet."
9. "Saul (who also is called Paul)."-Here the name of Paul is first given to the apostle, and by this name only he is always subsequently mentioned. As it occurs just here, it is thought by some that he took the name of Paul out of deference to the proconsul, his first illustrious convert. But in this we should discover nothing of the apostle's usual character; and, besides, Luke gives him this name before the conversion of the proconsul is noticed. We incline to think, according to our previous statement under John xx. 24, that being a native of Asia Minor, he always had two names, one among the Jews and the other among the Gentiles. That Saul was his Jewish name we know, and that Paul was his other name is probable, because any Greek name he might have borne, would have passed well enough among the Romans, without the necessity of his taking a third, Latin, name. That his original Gentile name was the Roman one of Paul is also the more probable from his being born a Roman citizen, which privilege was likely to be indicated by his bearing a Roman name. The reasons for his now resuming it, would be the same as those which might have led him to assume it, had it not been previously borne by him; which reasons are, on that supposition, thus stated by Doddridge: "I think Beza's account of the matter most easy and probable-that having conversed hitherto chiefly with Jews and Syrians, to whom the name of Saul was familiar, and now coming among Romans and Greeks, they would naturally pronounce his name Paul; as one whose Hebrew name was Jochanan would be called by the Greeks and Latins Johannes, by the French Jean, by the Dutch Hans, and by the English John. Beza thinks the family of the proconsul might be the first who addressed or spoke to him by the name of Paul." This conjecture of Beza's is exceedingly probable. It is clear, however, that the reasons here stated must, according to the view we have
taken, equally have operated in procuring him the name of Paul before he left his native Tarsus, that city being chiefly inhabited by Greeks.
13. "Perga in Pamphylia."-The province of Pamphylia was opposite the western extremity of Cyprus, where Paul embarked; and occupied a central portion of the southern coast of Asia Minor, having on the east Paul's native province of Cilicia, and the small province of Lycia on the west. Perga was the chief town of Pamphylia, and is chiefly noticed by the ancients for a famous temple, dedicated to Diana, in whose honour a noted annual festival was there celebrated. It was situated, at some distance from the sea, upon the river Cestrus. D'Anville thinks it may be found in the Kara-Hisar, or Black Castle, of the Turks.
14. “Antioch in Pisidia.”—The province of Pisidia lay immediately behind Pamphylia, inland; and, consequently, northward. Its capital, Antioch, is named as Antioch in Pisidia, to distinguish it from sixteen other places of the same name in Syria, and particularly from the Syrian capital on the Orontes. Pliny says, that the present Antioch was also called Cæsarea. It appears to have been situated on the indefinite limits of Pisidia and Phrygia; and we are not aware that its situation has been well ascertained, although D'Anville seems to think its site denoted by the Akshehr, or White City, of the Turks.
"Sat down."-Lightfoot says, that if the elders of the synagogue had no other knowledge of Paul and Barnabas, they might have known they were preachers by their sitting down when they entered the synagogue, this being the practice of those who were accustomed to teach or preach.
15. “If ye have any word of exhortation," &c.—Being strangers, they were not asked to read, as our Saviour did in the synagogue of Nazareth. It was not usual for any one to read in a synagogue of which he was not a member; and hence, although our Saviour taught in many synagogues, it does not appear that he ever read in any but that to which he belonged. The word of exhortation," or sermon, must not be confounded with such an exposition of Scripture as our Lord delivered on the occasion to which we have referred. It was a distinct matter, after the regular service had been finished. There was then almost always a discourse delivered by some competent person. There was no regular officer for the purpose; but any properly qualified teacher, who happened to be present, was asked, or offered himself, to address the congregation. As the Jews residing in foreign parts had less abundant opportunities of obtaining instruction in this way than those in Judea, they were probably all the more anxious to avail themselves of such opportunities as offered of hearing such strangers as visited their synagogues. This will explain the character of the present application.
1 Paul and Barnabas are persecuted from Iconium. 8 At Lystra Paul healeth a cripple, whereupon they are reputed as gods. 19 Paul is stoned. 21 They pass through divers churches, confirming the disciples in faith and patience. 26 Returning to Antioch, they report what God had done with them.
AND it came to pass in Iconium, that they went both together into the synagogue of the Jews, and so spake, that a great multitude both of the Jews and also of the Greeks believed.
2 But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the Gentiles, and made their minds evil affected against the brethren.
3 Long time therefore abode they speaking boldly in the Lord, which gave testimony unto the word of his grace, and granted signs and wonders to be done by their hands.
4 But the multitude of the city was divided and part held with the Jews, and part with the apostles.
5 And when there was an assault made both of the Gentiles, and also of the Jews with their rulers, to use them despitefully, and to stone them,
6 They were ware of it, and fled unto Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia, and unto the region that lieth round about:
7 And there they preached the Gospel.
8 And there sat a certain man at Lystra, impotent in his feet, being a cripple from his mother's womb, who never had
9 The same heard Paul speak: who stedfastly beholding him, and perceiving that he had faith to be healed,
10 Said with a loud voice, Stand upright on thy feet. And he leaped and walked.
11 And when the people saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voices, saying in the speech of Lycaonia, The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men.
12 And they called Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius, because he was the chief speaker.
13 Then the priest of Jupiter, which was before their city, brought oxen and garlands unto the gates, and would have done sacrifice with the people.
14 Which when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of, they rent their clothes, and ran in among the people, crying out,
15 And saying, Sirs, why do ye these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and preach unto you that ye should turn from these vanities unto the living God, 'which made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are therein :
16 Who in times past suffered all nations to walk in their own ways.
17 Nevertheless he left not himself with
Psal. 81. 12.
1 Gen. 1. 1. Psal. 146 6. Revel. 14. 7.
Verse 1. "Iconium."-This was the capital of the province of Lycaonia; and must have been a place of some importance from this circumstance, as well as from being mentioned by Pliny, as the chief of fourteen cities in the tetrarchy of Lycaonia. It was situated upon the lake Trogilis, 120 miles inland from the Mediterranean; and still exists, under its old name in the form of Koniah, as one of the very first inland cities of Asiatic Turkey: being the capital of the extensive province of Caramania. It enjoys a fine climate, and is pleasantly situated in the midst of gardens and meadows; while, at some distance, it is nearly surrounded by mountains, which ascend to the regions of perpetual snow. Notwithstanding its having been the chief town of Lycaonia, Sir John Macdonald (Kinneir) suspects that it was not a place of much real consideration until after the taking of Nice, by the Crusaders, in 1099, when the Seljukian sultans of Roum chose it as their residence. These sultans rebuilt the walls and embellished the city. They' were, however, expelled in 1189 by Frederic Barbarossa, who took it by assault; but after his death they recovered
their capital, and reigned there in splendour, till the irruption of Ghengiz Khan and his grandson Hulokoo, who broke the power of the Seljukians. It has been included in the dominions of the Grand Seignior ever since the time of Bajazet. who finally expelled the Ameers of Caramania. Under the Sultan it remained for a long the capital of an extensive government, and the seat of one of the most powerful pashas of the empire; but of late years it has dwindled into comparative insignificance; and all travellers describe its aspect as one of desolation and decay. "The modern city," says Kinneir, has an imposing appearance, from the number and size of its mosques, colleges, and other public buildings; but these stately edifices are crumbling into ruins, while the houses of the inhabitants consist of a mixture of small huts, built of sun-dried bricks, and wretched hovels thatched with reeds." The city is about four miles in circumference; but much waste land is included within this limit. The wall, of this extent, was strengthened with upwards of a hundred square towers; which, however, are now allowed to moulder away, without any attempt being made to arrest the progress of their ruin.
6. “Lystra and Derbe."-Since Ptolemy places Lystra in Isauria, and Strabo says that Derbe was on the border of Isauria, while the evangelist places them in Lycaonia, it appears that they were upon the indeterminate frontier between the two districts. The small country of Isauria, which lay on the borders of Lycaonia and Pisidia, seems however to have been sometimes considered as a part of Lycaonia; in which sense, perhaps, Lystra and Derbe are here called cities of that province. The situation of the two towns is not distinctly known.
"Lycaonia."-This province extended its length from Cilicia and Isauria, having Cappadocia on the east, Phrygia on the north-west, Pisidia on the west, and Cilicia, with the district of Isauria, on the south. It was sometimes_considered a western province of Phrygia, and at other times a south-eastern one of Pisidia.
11. “The speech of Lycaonia.”—Their dialect was probably a corrupt Greek intermixed with Syriac words.
12. They called Barnabas, Jupiter; and Paul, Mercurius."-Mercury was deemed the god of letters and eloquence, and was usually represented as an active young man: having therefore determined to consider that Paul and Barnabas were gods, it was natural enough that they should regard Paul, he being the younger and more eloquent of the two, as Mercury. The appearance of Barnabas may probably, in like manner, have reminded the Lystrians of the appearance in which Jupiter was represented to them by painters and sculptors. This was as a venerable full-bearded personage, in the advanced prime of life, of grave countenance and majestic presence-not looking as one prone to speak, but as one whose mind was deeply concentrated on thoughts and purposes within; and yet not so deeply as to be unobservant of the outer world and its concerns. The ancient mythology is so full of accounts of the gods descending to the earth and walking among men in human forms, that, considering the miracle which had been wrought, the mistake of the Lystrians was not unnatural, when their conduct is viewed with reference to the prevailing notions of the time. When Jupiter appeared on earth, Mercury was usually represented as his attendant, which suggests another reason for their being associated on the present occasion.
13. "Garlands."-Commentators do not agree as to the purpose to which these "garlands" were to be applied. As the idolaters used to put garlands on the head of their idol, before they offered sacrifice, some think that they were intended to be set on the heads of the apostles. But perhaps it is better to understand that the garlands were for the victims, whose heads and necks were generally thus decorated. Garlands were also worn by the sacrificers. They were, for the most part, made from such trees or plants as were esteemed most agreeable to the god who was the immediate object of worship.
19. "Having stoned Paul, drew him out of the city.”—There is an observable distinction between this stoning of Panl by the heathen, and the stoning of Stephen by the Jews. The latter hurried Stephen out of the city, and stoned him beyond the walls: the Lystrians, although they could not have been more excited against Paul than the Jews were against Stephen, stone him at once in the city, and afterwards drag forth his supposed corpse. These little characteristic differences deserve to be noticed.
1 Great dissension ariseth touching circumcision. 6 The apostles consult about it, 22 and send their determination by letters to the churches. 36 Paul and Barnabas, thinking to visit the brethren together, fall at strife, and depart asunder.
AND certain men which came down from
2 When therefore Paul and Barnabas had no small dissension and disputation with them, they determined that Paul and Barnabas, and certain other of them, should go up to Jerusalem unto the apostles and elders about this question.
3 And being brought on their way by the church, they passed through Phenice and Samaria, declaring the conversion of the Gentiles and they caused great joy unto all the brethren.
4 And when they were come to Jerusalem, they were received of the church, and of the apostles and elders, and they declared all things that God had done with them.
5 But there rose up certain of the sect of the Pharisees which believed, saying, That it was needful to circumcise them, and to command them to keep the law of Moses.
6 And the apostles and elders came together for to consider of this matter.
7 And when there had been much disputing, Peter rose up, and said unto them, Men and brethren, ye know how that a good while ago God made choice among us, that the Gentiles by my mouth should hear the word of the Gospel, and believe.
8 And God, which knoweth the hearts, bare them witness, giving them the Holy Ghost, even as he did unto us;
9 And put no difference between us and them, purifying their hearts by faith.
1 Galat. 5. 2. Chap. 10. 20, and 11. 13. 3 Chap. 10. 43. 1 Cor. 1. 2.