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the sauce, gave thanks, saying, "Blessed be thou, O Lord our God, King everlasting, who hast sanctified us by thy commandments, and hast commanded us to eat unleavened bread." He then, with the others, eats that which he has
After other suitable thanks, the paschal lamb was then eaten; and the eating part of the feast concluding with this, the company again washed their hands; after which the master gave thanks for what had been eaten. Another cup of wine was then taken; and this was called the cup of blessing" (see 1 Cor. x. 16), pre-eminently, because the final blessing, or, as we should say, "grace after meat," was pronounced over it, as concluding the meal. A fourth cup was added; and this was called "the cup of Hallel," because over it was sung the remaining four psalms of the Egyptian Hallel, being the 15th, 116th, 117th, and 118th. Another blessing was then pronounced, and with this the feast of the Passover ended.
It will be seen that there is much here concerning which the Law gives no directions, although nothing, that we can see, contrary to the Law, or which might not be suitably introduced. We have judged that the statement might be useful, as such were certainly the usages of the Jews in the time of Christ, and it will be found that they illustrate all the details offered by the Evangelists concerning our Lord's celebration of the Passover, and thus supply means for more clearly understanding the whole account.
31. That he may sift you as wheat.”—After the corn had been trodden, the clods of earth were broken and sifted to separate the grain. It was apparently with an allusion to this process, that the sifting of wheat was made a symbol of affliction.
1 Jesus is accused before Pilate, and sent to Herod. 8 Herod mocketh him. 12 Herod and Pilate are mude friends. 13 Barabbas is desired of the people, and is loosed by Pilate, and Jesus is given to be crucified 27 He telleth the women, that lament him, the destruction of Jerusalem: 34 prayeth for his enemies. 39 Two evildoers are crucified with him. 46 His death. 50 His burial.
AND the whole multitude of them arose, and led him unto Pilate.
2 And they began to accuse him, saying, We found this fellow perverting the nation, and forbidding to give tribute to Cæsar, saying that he himself is Christ a King.
3 And Pilate asked him, saying, Art thou the King of the Jews? And he answered him and said, Thou sayest it.
4 Then said Pilate to the Chief Priests and to the people, I find no fault in this man.
5 And they were the more fierce, saying, He stirreth up the people, teaching throughout all Jewry, beginning from Galilee to this place.
6 When Pilate heard of Galilee, he asked whether the man were a Galilæan.
7 And as soon as he knew that he belonged unto Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who himself also was at Jerusalem at that time.
8 And when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceeding glad: for he was desirous to see him of a long season, because he had heard many things of him; and he hoped to have seen some miracle done by him.
9 Then he questioned with him in many words; but he answered him nothing.
10 And the Chief Priests and Scribes stood and vehemently accused him.
11 And Herod with his men of war set him at nought, and mocked him, and arrayed
1 Matt. 27. 11.
him in a gorgeous robe, and sent him again to Pilate.
And the same day Pilate and Herod were made friends together: for before they were at enmity between themselves.
13 And Pilate, when he had called together the Chief Priests and the rulers and the people,
14 Said unto them, Ye have brought this man unto me, as one that perverteth the people and, behold, I, having examined him before you, have found no fault in this man touching those things whereof ye accuse him:
15 No, nor yet Herod: for I sent you to him; and, lo, nothing worthy of death is done unto him.
16 I will therefore chastise him, and release him.
17 (For of necessity he must release one unto them at the feast.)
18 And they cried out all at once, saying, Away with this man, and release unto us
19 (Who for a certain sedition made in the city, and for murder, was cast into prison.)
20 Pilate therefore, willing to release Jesus, spake again to them.
21 But they cried, saying, Crucify him, crucify him.
22 And he said unto them the third time, Why, what evil hath he done? I have found no cause of death in him: I will therefore chastise him, and let him go.
23 And they were instant with loud voices, requiring that he might be crucified. And the voices of them and of the Chief Priests prevailed.
24 And Pilate 'gave sentence that it should be as they required.
3 Or, assented.
2 Matt. 27. 23.
25 And he released unto them him that for sedition and murder was cast into prison, whom they had desired; but he delivered Jesus to their will.
26 And as they led him away, they laid hold upon one Simon, a Cyrenian, coming out of the country, and on him they laid the cross, that he might bear it after Jesus.
27 And there followed him a great company of people, and of women, which also bewailed and lamented him.
28 But Jesus turning unto them said, Daughters of Jerusalem, weep not for me, but weep for yourselves, and for your children.
29 For, behold, the days are coming, in the which they shall say, Blessed are the barren, and the wombs that never bare, and the paps which never gave suck.
30 Then shall they begin to say to the mountains, Fall on us; and to the hills, Cover us.
31 For if they do these things in a green tree, what shall be done in the dry?
32 And there were also two other, malefactors, led with him to be put to death.
33 And when they were come to the place, which is called "Calvary, there they crucified him, and the malefactors, one on the right hand, and the other on the left.
34 Then said Jesus, Father, forgive them; for they know not what they do. And they parted his raiment, and cast lots.
35 And the people stood beholding. And the rulers also with them derided him, saying, He saved others; let him save himself, if he be Christ, the chosen of God.
36 And the soldiers also mocked him, coming to him, and offering him vinegar,
37 And saying, If thou be the king of the Jews, save thyself.
38 And a superscription also was written over him in letters of Greek, and Latin, and Hebrew, THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS.
39¶ And one of the malefactors which were hanged railed on him, saying, If thou be Christ, save thyself and us.
40 But the other answering rebuked him,
• Matt. 27. 32. Isa, 219, Hos. 10. 8. Rev. 6. 16.
saying, Dost not thou fear God, seeing thou art in the same condemnation?
41 And we indeed justly; for we receive the due reward of our deeds: but this man hath done nothing amiss.
42 And he said unto Jesus, Lord, remember me when thou comest into thy kingdom. 43 And Jesus said unto him, Verily I say unto thee, To day shalt thou be with me in paradise.
44 And it was about the sixth hour, and there was a darkness over all the earth until the ninth hour.
45 And the sun was darkened, and the veil of the temple was rent in the midst.
46 And when Jesus had cried with a loud voice, he said, "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit: and having said thus, he gave up the ghost.
47 Now when the centurion saw what was done, he glorified God, saying, Certainly this was a righteous man.
48 And all the people that came together to that sight, beholding the things which were done, smote their breasts, and returned.
49 And all his acquaintance, and the women that followed him from Galilee, stood afar off, beholding these things.
50 ¶ "And, behold, there was a man named Joseph, a counsellor; and he was a good man, and a just:
51 (The same had not consented to the counsel and deed of them;) he was of Arimathæa, a city of the Jews: who also himself waited for the kingdom of God.
52 This man went unto Pilate, and begged the body of Jesus.
53 And he took it down, and wrapped it in linen, and laid it in a sepulchre that was hewn in stone, wherein never man before was laid.
54 And that day was the preparation, and the sabbath drew on.
55 And the women also, which came with him from Galilee, followed after, and beheld the sepulchre, and how his body was laid.
56 And they returned, and prepared spices and ointments; and rested the sabbath day according to the commandment.
7 Matt. 27. 38. Or, the place of a scull. 9 Or, land.
1 Pet. 4. 17.
Verse 7. "He sent him to Herod."-Herod doubtless had come to Jerusalem to celebrate the Passover; and this mark of deference from Pilate, probably paved the way to the reconciliation between them (verse 12). Perhaps this was Pilate's object, though we may also suppose, that in transferring the adjudication of this affair to Herod, he partly sought the ease of his own conscience, alarmed by his wife's dream (Matt. xxvii, 19), and by clear perception of Christ's innocence and the malice of his accusers. The Roman governors were fully empowered to punish any persons guilty of crimes within their own provinces, even though such persons belonged to other states and jurisdictions. Hence the
mark of attention paid by Pilate to Herod was perfectly gratuitous, though naturally enough suggested by circum
11. "Mocked him, and arrayed him in a gorgeous robe."-It appears then that Herod suggested the mockery, which was afterwards carried into fuller effect by the Roman soldiers, although it probably would not have occurred spontaIneously to them, such a method of deciding pretensions, supposed to be unfounded or which prove unsuccessful, being more conformable to Oriental than to Roman practice. A remarkable illustration of this is related by Philo, as having occurred, soon after the present time, to Herod Agrippa, the nephew of this Herod, and the brother of his notorious wife Herodias. Caligula conferred on this prince the tetrarchy of his uncle Philip, with the title of king, and permission to wear a diadem; and when about to depart to take possession of his dominion, he was advised to proceed by way of Alexandria. On his arrival at that city, he kept himself as private as possible; but the inhabitants gained intelligence of his arrival and the design of his journey, and being filled with hatred and envy at the idea of a Jew bearing the title of king, expressed their feelings in a very insulting though expressive manner. There was in the town a poor distracted creature called Carabas, who, in all seasons of the year, wandered, naked, about the streets, and, being something between a madman and a fool, was the common laughing stock of boys and idle people. This man they took, and brought him into the theatre, and set him on a lofty seat that he might be conspicuous to all. They then put on his head a paper crown, covered his body with a mat for a regal robe, and, for a sceptre, a piece of reed, taken from the ground, was put into his hand. Having thus invested him with mock royalty, some young fellows, with poles on their shoulders, came and stood on each side of him, as his guards. Then people came around him, some to pay homage to him, others to ask justice from him, and some to learn his will and pleasure concerning affairs of state. Meanwhile, in the crowd, there were loud and confused exclamations of "Maris! Maris!" being, as they understood, the Syriac word for "Lord ;" thereby indicating the person whom, by all this mock show, they intended to ridicule : Agrippa being a Syrian, and his territory a large country of Syria.
The same kind of mockery has always been common in Persia, where there have been, perhaps, more pretenders to royalty, than in any other country of the world. The following account, from Morier, of the treatment which one of these received is striking. "Mahomed Zemaum Khan was carried before the king. When he had reached the camp, the king ordered Mahomed Khan, the chief of his camel-artillery, to put a mock crown upon the rebel's head, bazubends or armlets upon his arms, a sword by his side, to mount him upon an ass, with his face towards the tail; and then to parade him through the camp, and to exclaim, This is he who wanted to be the king!' After this was over, and the people had mocked and insulted him, he was led before the king, who called for his looties, and ordered them to turn him into ridicule by making him dance and make antics against his will; he then ordered, that whoever chose might spit in his face. After this he received the bastinado on the soles of his feet, which was administered by the chiefs of the Cagar (or royal) tribe, and some time after he had his eyes put out." (Second Journey,' p. 351.)
38. "A superscription was written."-In leading to his death a person condemned to crucifixion, it was usual to carry before him, or put upon him, an inscription, stating the crime for which he suffered: and sometimes such inscription was fastened to his cross, as in the present instance. It was here written in three languages, that none who could read might remain unapprized of its contents:-In Greek. which was the general language of commerce in Western Asia, and which would be familiar to many Jews from Europe, Egypt, and elsewhere, who probably did not understand, or at all events could not read, the Syriac, called "Hebrew," which was vernacular in Palestine. The "Latin" was probably for the use of the Romans, of whom there were many (soldiers chiefly) at Jerusalem during the Paschal week. No doubt, many of the Jews also, from the necessity of communicating with the Romans, had picked up some idea of their language, and an acquaintance with its most frequently recurring words. The Romans would however naturally introduce a repetition in their own language, as an evidence of their superiority. It appears from Josephus (Wars, vi. 2. 4) that the public announcements posted up in the city, were usually in Greek and Latin. We do not know on what authority rests the rather strange opinion that, in conformity with Hebrew and generally Oriental usage, the words of the Greek and Latin were written from right to left, not, as properly they should be, from left to right. But the Greek and Latin were intended for those who could not read the Hebrew; and whoever could read Greek and Latin at all, must needs know in what direction words in those languages were written. As to the "Hebrew," the inscription being intended for general information, must have been in the vernacular Syriac; but very probably the Syriac words were written in the Hebrew character. Public announcements are given in two or three languages in some of our own colonies, and, in general, wherever a foreign people rules, or where the population is mixed and two or more languages are spoken.
1 Christ's resurrection is declared by two angels to
the women that come to the sepulchre. 9 These report it to others. 13 Christ himself appeareth to the two disciples that went to Emmaus; 36 afterwards he appeareth to the apostles, and reproveth their unbelief: 47 giveth them a charge 49 promiseth the Holy Ghost: 51 and so ascendeth
Now 'upon the first day of the week, very early in the morning, they came unto the sepulchre, bringing the spices which they had prepared, and certain others with them. 2 And they found the stone rolled away from the sepulchre.
T Matt. 28. 1.
7 Saying, The Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again.
8 Matt. 17. 23.
Or, him that liveth.
10 It was Mary Magdalene, and Joanna, and Mary the mother of James, and other women that were with them, which told these things unto the apostles.
11 And their words seemed to them as idle tales, and they believed them not.
12 Then arose Peter, and ran unto the sepulchre; and stooping down, he beheld the linen clothes laid by themselves, and departed, wondering in himself at that which was come to pass.
13 ¶ 'And, behold, two of them went that
• John 20. 6.
same day to a village called Emmaus, which was from Jerusalem about threescore furlongs.
14 And they talked together of all these things which had happened.
15 And it came to pass, that, while they communed together and reasoned, Jesus himself drew near, and went with them.
thou only a stranger in Jerusalem, and hast not known the things which are come to pass there in these days?
19 And he said unto them, What things? And they said unto him, Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, which was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people:
20 And how the Chief Priests and our rulers delivered him to be condemned to death, and have crucified him.
21 But we trusted that it had been he which should have redeemed Israel: and beside all this, to day is the third day since these things were done.
22 Yea, and certain women also of our company made us astonished, which were early at the sepulchre ;
23 And when they found not his body, they came, saying, that they had also seen a vision of angels, which said that he was alive.
24 And certain of them which were with us went to the sepulchre, and found it even so as the women had said: but him they saw
25 Then he said unto them, O fools, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken:
26 Ought not Christ to have suffered these things, and to enter into his glory?
27 And beginning at Moses and all the prophets, he expounded unto them in all the Scriptures the things concerning him
28 And they drew nigh unto the village, whither they went: and he made as though he would have gone further.
29 But they constrained him, saying, Abide with us: for it is toward evening, and the day is far spent. And he went in to tarry with them."
30 And it came to pass, as he sat at meat with them, he took bread, and blessed it, and brake, and gave to them.
31 And their eyes were opened, and they knew him; and he vanished out of their sight.
32 And they said one to another, Did not our heart burn within us, while he talked with us by the way, and while he opened to us the Scriptures?
33 And they rose up the same hour, and returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and them that were with them,
34 Saying, The Lord is risen indeed, and hath appeared to Simon.
Or, crased to be seen of them. 7 Mark 16. 14.
35 And they told what things were done in the way, and how he was known of them in breaking of bread.
36¶And as they thus spake, Jesus himself stood in the midst of them, and saith unto them, Peace be unto you.
37 But they were terrified and affrighted, and supposed that they had scen a spirit.
38 And he said unto them, Why are ye troubled? and why do thoughts arise in your hearts?
39 Behold my hands and my feet, that it is I myself: handle me, and see; for a spirit hath not flesh and bones, as ye see me have.
40 And when he had thus spoken, he shewed them his hands and his feet.
41 And while they yet believed not for joy, and wondered, he said unto them, Have ye here any meat?
42 And they gave him a piece of a broiled fish, and of an honeycomb.
43 And he took it, and did eat before them.
44 And he said unto them, These are the words which I spake unto you, while I was yet with you, that all things must be fulfilled, which were written in the Law of Moses, and in the Prophets, and in the Psalms, concerning me.
45 Then opened he their understand ing, that they might understand the Scrip
46 And said unto them, Thus it is written, and thus it behoved Christ to suffer, and to rise from the dead the third day:
47 And that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name among all nations, beginning at Jerusalem.
48 And ye are witnesses of these things. 49 And, behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you: but tarry ye in the city of Jerusalem, until ye be endued with power from on high.
50 And he led them out as far as to Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed them.
51 And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven.
52 And they worshipped him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy:
53 And were continually in the temple praising and blessing God. Amen.
8 John 15. 26. Acts 1. 4. 9 Mark 16. 19. Acts 1. 9.