Obrazy na stronie



"Some flowers of Eden we still inherit ?"

ished noble—in the wildest savage, or in the gravest | the daily intercourse of life. And when we witness philosopher. The soul, leaving the beaten track of ev one of our species, whose expansive heart sympathizes ery day experience, seeks for pleasure in the airy fic- with suffering humanity, wherever it is found—whose tions of the imagination, and launching forth in fields diffusive benevolence obliterates every local or sectional of fancy, revels in the day dreams of its own creation. prejudice, and finds its own reward in the practice of Dissatisfied with the past and the present, it wanders to true benevolence-or where we behold the patriot forethe future; and finds only in the anticipation of endless going ease and comfort, and toiling day after day with progress towards perfection the full measure of its desires. unremitted zeal, sparing no sacrifice, and avoiding no With a full conviction of its own eternity, which no danger, but willing to lay his life upon the altar of his arguments can strengthen, it feels that this life is not native land, if thus he may thwart the tyranny of the the circle which limits its vision, and therefore it strives oppressor, and give freedom and equality to his counto leave the memory of its deeds in the recollection of trymen, can we suppose that either the one or the other its successors. Else why is it that men rear the tow- will find in the grave the extinction of these noble emoering pyramid, and the regal mausoleum-why perpet- tions, and that the generations whom they have raised uate their memories in the breathing marble, and the from the dust, shall enjoy the inheritance bequeathed glowing canvass

s—why wish their deeds eternized in them, when their benefactor "sleeps the sleep that the page of the historian, and the inspiration of the knows no waking ?" And is there nought of immorpoet, if the soul is blotted out from the universe of its tality in those tender outpourings of affection and love, fellows, when the last grim messenger summons it to which, while we witness them, assure us that, though the silent halls of death? Why this restless pursuit fallen from our high estate, of knowledge—this fond desire "to grasp the soul of ages in a single mind”—to talk familiarly with the The fond mother who bends over the bier of her dedead of former times, and incorporate their wisdom parted infant, and seems to have drained the bitterest with our own stores? Why this thirst to penetrate the dregs in the cup of humanity, yet is soothed in the aginmost arcana of nature, and seek the hidden causes of ony of her bereavement by the hope that though death the ceaseless changes which are going on around us, if, hath chilled the fair fountain, when we have “strutted our brief hour," we must sink

“ It but sleeps 'till the sunshine of heaven unchains it, unconscious “to the vile earth from whence we sprung.' To water that garden from whence was its source.

And when we consider how vast are the fields of | And how often do we see the spotless in soul, and the science—that one discovery is but the stepping-stone refined in intellect fall into the snares of the crafty, or to new and grander revelations of truth, which rise like the malice of the cruel, until crushed and bleeding, " Alps on Alps” in endless perspective, where is the earth has no charm for the eye, and no balm for the sceptic so bold as to assert that the few moments which wounded spirit, yet even in the midst of sorrow, we can snatch-when the necessary calls of nature

"Like the plants that throw and the conventional demands of society are complied

A fragrance from the wounded part," with—is the limit that bounds our investigation of these exhibiting nothing but patience and innocency, meekmultifarious phenomena? And if, as is the fact, we ness and resignation! acquire new ardor in the pursuit of such inquiries, un Time forbids me to dwell upon, or even to enumertil the mind is, as it were, sublimed of the appetites of ate all those warm sympathies and tender sensibilities, sense, and the groveling predilections of self-interest, the ties of friendship—the softer influences of lovethen why—if annihilation is the goal of our pursuits—those promptings of the free heart which form the why is the soul but refined to be debased below mat- "green spots in memory's waste," and throw their rainter, and tantalized with hopes that lure us on, but like bow tints athwart the lowering realities of human exDead Sea fruits turn to ashes when in our grasp? | istence. These are the feelings Not to know, in such a case, were a pleasure, and

to mortals givin, “Where ignorance is bliss,

With less of earth in them than heav'n;" 'Twere folly lo be wise."

and it needs no train of reasoning to establish the fact But in all the investigations of the most scrutinizing of their destiny; for they flash forth the doctrine of analysis, philosophy has not found, amid all the muta- immortality to the soul of man.

Besides these argutions of matter, one instance of annibilation; and can ments, adduced from the universal belief of mankind, we believe that the soul, so superior in its energies and the nature of the soul itself, its powers and capacities, essence to matter, shall meet with a direr destiny than intellectual, moral, and social, we might dwell upon the clods of the valley which we spurn from our feet ? that unequal distribution of justice, by which the proud

But not only in intellect is the dignity and grandeur are exalted in their oppression, while the virtuous and of the soul seen, but even more so in the moral powers good are trampled to the earth-upon the disorder and which it possesses. These unite us more closely than confusion consequent upon this unnatural state of the former with our fellow beings around us; for it is things-upon the terrors and forebodings of the guilty, by benevolence, reciprocity, patriotism, and the tender and upon the necessity of this doctrine to vindicate the emotions of the heart, that civil society is upheld and benevolence and wisdom of the Creator; but we hasembellished with all those courtesies which give zest to ten to a close, convinced that so impregnable are the




defenses of this doctrine, that the madness of the scep-|| more naturally amiable. There was yet one thing need-
tic, and the miserable expedient of him who gives the ful, which she sought and found. The love of Jesus
rein to his appetites and passions, by denying what his (as I trust) was shed abroad in her heart. How de-
fears wish not to be true, will alike fail in their endeavors, lightful to behold the morning of life devoted to the
until reason is transformed into her imitator, sophistry, service of the Redeemer! and how expressive those
and the teachings of sound philosophy into the dreams lines of the poet-
of the wildest enthusiast. Were any thing wanting to

“ A flower, when offered in the bud,
fill out the proof, or shed light upon what has already

Is no vain sacrifice !" been said, the pages of inspiration furnish abundant The hour of separation came. I saw my young evidence, that though the body returns to its parent friend pledge her hand and heart to “the long betrothearth, yet the soul, free and unfettered, will spring up ed”—the parting embrace was given, and she left us radiant with immortality, ever progressing in the knowl- for her distant home. Three years have passed; and edge of nature's works--its powers strengthening—its with her, as with all others, “time hath wrought a capacities enlarging, until the mysteries which enshroud change.” She is now a mother. May she be an orour being shall become clear to the eye of reason, and nament to that sacred character, and spend a useful as the “great eternal scheme, involving all,” shall evince well as a happy life! the expanding intellect, the wisdom, benevolence, and The morning that saw Ann K. a bride, witnessed the omnipotence of Him who, at his creation, breathed im- marriage of one of her companions. The same bright mortality into the spirit of man.

G. horizon dawned upon both-hope penciled for each a

gay perspective of the future; but while one was permit

ted to remain "the loving and the loved," the other was Original.

summoned to the spirit world away. L. H. had early FIRE-SIDE GLEANINGS. been a child of sorrow; for she had early lost her moth

er-a loss which time can never restore. Her demeanTais chapter shall be dedicated to remembrances of or in school was uniformly cheerful, yet sedate and the past. I have before me a long list of names, all as obedient to every wish of her instructors. She was not familiar as household words—the names of those who calculated to dazzle the gay world, or to attract obserfor the last six years have at various times been under vation; for she was of a thoughtful disposition; but my instruction. The bond of affection between teach- those who knew her intimately, loved her well. Soon er and pupil (if not rudely severed by misconduct) is after her marriage I met her in the house of God, and one that time can never destroy. Months and years was somewhat surprised at the settled look of sadness may pass away-other friends may share in the affec- which she wore. Although at the time I attributed it tions—other scenes interest the heart; yet will faithful to a slight indisposition, yet when I next saw her, the memory often recur to school-room avocations, renew-pallid brow and laboring cough told too well her desing upon the retina of the mind the imagery of many tined fate. Consumption had fastened upon her with pleasant hours. It may be called enthusiasm; but if a relentless grasp. For some weeks she was not aware it be, it is an enthusiasm which many share. In con- of her danger; and when the appalling consciousness versation with a valued friend, (the strength of whose that she must die came home to her heart, she trembled life has been spent in teaching,) she observed, “I have and seemed to cling to life. Her affectionate husband many memorials of my former pupils; but I cannot watched daily and nightly by her bed-side, supplying look upon them—I dare not think of them. They blind the place of father and mother, of brother and sister, my eyes—they fill me with thoughts which I cannot | for of these she had none living. Why did she thus indulge, without detriment to my health and comfort."' || cling to earth--thus dread to grapple with the king My friend has other duties now devolving upon her; of terrors? Why was the tear ever glistening in her but those who are not thus circumstanced may be al- eye, and the sigh ever bursting from her bosom? She lowed to cherish the reminiscence so grateful to their had connected herself with a Church sometime previous feelings.

to the events I have narrated; but she did not feel satI return to the manuscript which has elicited the isfied of her acceptance with her God. The prayer of above remarks. Upon reviewing it, how many inter-faith was raised to heaven for the dying one, and earnesting associations are revived! The first name in-est were her own efforts to find that peace which the scribed is that of a dear girl from the far—the sunny world knoweth not of. He who tempers the wind to south-as warm, as generous, as ardent in her nature the shorn lamb, spoke peace to her soul, and there was as are the rays of her own native sun; yet restrained light and gladness thrown around the gloomy grave. by a firm moral principle, she yielded not to levity of She lingered some weeks after this event, patiently action. Her conduct towards teachers and schoolmates bearing every trial, and ever ready humbly to give a was ever a standard for her youthful companions; and reason of the hope that was in her. She died calmly if any envied her the suffrage of universal admiration, and happily, and her death was blessed to him who had the kindness of her attentions to each and all soon con- | been her only earthly support in time of trouble. He verted envy into respect and love. I would not imply connected himself with the people of God the day after that she was faultless; but I have seldom known one li her burial, and was soon enabled to rejoice that he

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had been called to mourn by a God of infinite wisdom

Original. and goodness.

DEITY AND NATURE.* It would be difficult to represent, at length, the varied characteristics of mind and heart, all fresh before the writer, or to describe the many changes which have The next metal which we shall notice, as being passed in a few short years; and neither do I feel at highly useful to man, is mercury, which was well liberty to use freely even the initials of my scholars, known to the ancients. though it were “to point a moral, or adorn a tale." The principal localities where it is now obtained are However, I have ventured to speak of the absent and the mines of Idria, in Carnolia, and Almaden, in Spain. the dead, in hope that their example may be beneficial. It is also found in Mexico and Peru; but a large proI feel that I am almost on hallowed ground; but if un- portion of the mercury of commerce comes from Idria, warily I have intruded upon that sensitiveness which where it occurs in beds of bituminous shale, gray sandfain would shrink from observation, my motive must be stone, and limestone, at a depth of several hundred my apology. Yet, did time permit, I would delight to feet below the surface. The mines of Almaden run dwell upon the highly gifted who struggled through through clay, slate, and shale; and though they have adverse and opposing circumstances, to acquire an edu- been worked for a period of more than two thousand cation—upon the nobly aspiring, who, though reared years are still prolific. in the lap of luxury, were not content to remain in ig Mercury differs from all other metals, by possessing norance-the gentle and unassuming, whose yielding the property of fluidity at all common temperatures. sweetness saved them from unpleasant collision—the Its color is tin white, and its lustre strongly metallic. playful—the sad-upon all, yes, all, save the wayward || At 39° or 40° below zero it becomes solidified, and in and ungrateful. Where are they now? Many of so doing shows a strong tendency to crystalize in octothem have gone forth into society. The principles or hedrons; at the same time contracts so greatly, that passions which then alternately governed or overcame while its density at 47° is 13,568, when frozen it is them have now a wider sphere of action, and are pow-15.612. When solid it possesses nearly the malleabilerful in their influence, either for good or for evil. ity of tin, and may be extended into thin sheets, or cut Many of them have learned what it is to suffer from with a knife. When its temperature is raised to 662° the frowns of adversity. One has buried her first-born Fah., it enters into ebulition, and the rising vapor conbeneath the clods of the valley. Several, upon whom | denses again on cool surfaces into metallic globules. memory rests with sadness, are moldering in the dust. If, however, it be subjected to the action of oxygen gas, They mingle no longer with earthly friends; yet could it slowly absorbs it, and is changed into the peroxide they return to this busy, trifling world, would they not of mercury. Mercury, when quite pure, is not tarwhisper in our ears, “Be ye also ready!" One just | nished in the cold by exposure to air and moisture. If, entering into graceful womanhood, is enjoying the van- however, other metals be amalgamated with it, though ities of this frail life, and dreaming of nought but plea- in very small portions, oxydation will take place, and a sure, while another, another, and yet another, have lain film be collected on its surface. The only acids which for weary months upon beds of suffering. O, could I act on this metal are the sulphuric and nitric, the fortell them how sweet are the consolations of religion- mer of which is inefficient in the cold; but when heat how dear the promises of the Gospel to the sick and is applied the mercury is oxydized, pure sulphureous the sorrowful! They have other and better monitors. acid is disengaged, and sulphate of mercury formed. Kind hearted Christian friends are near them, ready to Nitric acid acts strongly upon mercury, both with and advise and cheer-the ambassadors of heaven are there without heat, oxydizing and dissolving it with the evoto warn and to encourage, while the still small voice of lution of binoxide of nitrogen. the Spirit of God is even now knocking at the door of Mercury occurs in a variety of forms. Thus we their hearts for admittance. Yet not alone around the have the native mercury, native amalgam, muriate and sick are these sacred influences thrown—they encircle sulphuret of mercury, as natural productions. The priall, and none are free from their gentle visitations, though mary form of native mercury, when crystalized, is the with them none may trifle with impunity; for God hath regular octohedron; but it is found in small fluid globsaid, “My Spirit shall not always strive with man.”|ules, scattered in various quantities through its gang, Then, whether in sickness or in health, let us all, while or vein-stone. Pure mercury is a metal rarely found, time and opportunity are ours, seek that preparation of that which is used in the arts being obtained from the heart which alone will fit us for the trials of life, or sus- sulphuret, or, as it is commonly termed, cinnabar. tain us under the agonies of death.

Cinnabar, in its crystalization, assumes, as its primary M. A. DE FOREST.

form, the shape of an acute rhombohedron, and as its secondary, various modifications of the primary. Its

imperfect crystalizations are granularly massive, with Intimacy has been the source of the deadliest en the particles small, often impalpable, and sometimes mity, no less than of the firmest friendship; like some forming superficial coatings on the minerals or ores mighty rivers, which rise on the same mountain, but pursue a quite contrary course.

* Continued from vol. ii, p. 45.

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with which it may be in a state of proximity. Its color The similarity of its composition with the calomel varies from cochineal red, to brownish red and lead prepared by art would seem to be the result of more gray—its lustre adamantine, inclining to metallic, and than accident. Klaproth, a celebrated chemist, anadull in the darker and friable varieties. Some varieties lyzed it, and found its components to be oxyd of mer. are subtransparent, others translucent-fracture con- cury 76, hydroclhoric acid 16.4, sulphuric acid 7.6. Archoidal, and may be cut with a knife. This mineral is tificial calomel is composed of mercury 84.74, chlorine usually associated in beds with native mercury, native 15.26. amalgam, and occasionally with calcareous spar and Iron. This is the most important metal which the quartz; yet it has been observed in veins with iron earth contains. It is even more valuable than all the

The finest crystals occur in the coal formations precious metals together, and is more extensively difof Moschellandsburg and Wolfstein in the Palatinate;' fused than any other. Iron was known to man in the also, in Japan, Mexico, and Brazil, and several districts most remote ages, and has a peculiar gray color and meof Germany. This ore is the great source from which tallic lustre, which is susceptible of being heightened commerce is supplied, and from which the mercury is by polishing. It occurs in a great variety of forms and obtained by sublimation—the modus operandi of which combinations, and to a greater or less extent in every is as follows: The ore is first pulverized, then com- part of the world. Among the most common of its bined with one-fifth of slacked lime, and put into re ores are the magnetic, specular oxide, brown hernatite, torts which hold about half a hundred weight each. chromate of iron, &c., &c. Magnetic iron ore, when From forty to fifty of these are built into a furnace, crystalized, puts on as its primary form, the regular ocand have receivers fitted to them. Heat is then applied tobedron—its secondary, are numerous modifications will the aqueous vapors are expelled. The receivers are thereof. Its structure is frequently granular. It is then luted, or closely stopped with clay, the heat in- strongly attracted by the magnet, and sometimes poscreased, and the mercury comes over in the form of sesses polarity. Magnetic iron ore occurs in beds in vapor into the receivers, where it is condensed. One primitive rocks, as gneiss, clay slate, hornblende slate, hundred pounds of ore yields on an average from 6 oz. &c. The beds of ore at Arendal, and nearly all the to 10 oz. of pure mercury. Cinnabar, when pure, is celebrated mines in Swelen, consist of this ore. Danidentical with the manufactured vermillion of com- nemora and Taberg, in Smaland, are entirely formed merce, a beautiful and valuable pigment, employed in of it. Still larger mountains of it exist in Lapland, a variety of operations in the useful and fine arts. and the most powerful native magnets are found in the

Mercury is of great importance in the extraction of Hartz mountains in Siberia. Very extensive beds of gold and silver ores, (see article in February number,) this ore occur at different places upon the western side for which purpose it is transported in large quantities of Lake Champlain, and in the mountainous region of from Europe to South America. An amalgam of tin New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Virginia, and and mercury made to adhere by pressure to one side of also large masses in the Ozark mountains. plate glass constitutes the mirror in which beauty and Specular iron ore is a variety possessing a dark steel deformity alike may gaze. Combined with gold it gray, or iron black color, and a metallic lustre, which forms another amalgam with which the works of time- is often beautifully splendent with the richest hues of pieces are gilded to protect them from the corrosion pro- the rainbow. The most magnificent specimens of this duced by the oxygen and moisture contained in the species are brought from Elba, famous for the residence atmosphere. In its pure state it enables man to form of Napoleon Buonaparte, and which is celebrated by various instruments, as the thermometer and barometer, Ovid as the “ Insula inexhaustis chalybdum generosa &c., which not only aid him in his researches in natural metallis.Europe and the United States abounds in science, but also frequently minister to his physical localities of the different varieties of this species of wants, and by warning him of approaching and important iron ore, and it furnishes a considerable portion of the changes in the atmosphere enable him to avoid certain iron of commerce. destruction from the boisterous wind and howling tem Brown iron ore, under its various names of brown pest. Mercury is also prepared by chemical processes to hematite, bog iron ore, brown ochre, &c., is one of the act as a corrective to most of the physical ills which flesh most important ores of that metal, as it yields a pig is heir to, and in the hands of the skillful practitioner is iron easily convertible into steel. Though iron is infedoubtless an efficient agent in controling disease and pro-rior to several metals in ductility and malleability, it longing life. Nature would appear to have anticipated surpasses all in tenacity. At ordinary temperatures it man in this use of the metal; for she has prepared in is very hard and unyielding, and its hardness may be her deep and silent laboratories a substance of a similar, increased by heating and then suddenly cooling it. In kind to the preparation made by art. This substance is combination with other substances, and especially with named muriate of mercury, and native calomel. It is oxygen and sulphur, it is abundantly distributed throughfound in small quantities in the cinnabar mines in Ger- out the whole field of nature. There are but few memany, in crystaline coats of a granular massive struc- tals or minerals with which it is not in close associature, adamantine lustre, yellowish gray, or yellowish tion. It is a necessary ingredient in good soils. It white color, and when crystalized its primitive form is enters into the structure of vegetable matter, imparting a right square prism.

to the woody fibre strength, and to the leaves and flow.




ers many of their loveliest bues. To it man owes

Original. many of the colors which he uses in the decoration of THE SISTERS OF BETHANY. his home and his person, as well as of the blood which

“What's hallowed ground?” is the inquiry of a courses, full of life and vigor, through all his frame. distinguished poet. Here is the responseThe iron is extracted from its ores by their exposure,

'Tis what gives birth after previous roasting and pulverizing, to the action of

To sacred thought in souls of worth." charcoal and lime at a high temperature. The carbon How hallowed, then, is the land of Palestine! What in the charcoal removes the oxygen from the ore, while sacred associations are connected with every spot renthe lime acts as a flux, by combining with all the impu- dered memorable by our Savior's matchless precepts, rities of the ore, and forming a fusible compound called his wondrous miracles, and consummate wisdom, bea slag. The whole mass being thus fused, the particles nevolence, and love! How often, in imagination, have of metal descend by their greater specific gravity, and I followed the lowly Jesus in his wanderings amid the collect at the bottom, while the slag forms a stratum delightful scenery of the Holy Land! But, alas! he above, and protects the melted metal from the action of was a persecuted wanderer—a man of sorrows, and the air. This, as it collects, runs out at an aperture at acquainted with grief. Yet though his precious counthe side of the furnace, and the fused iron is let off by sels were often disregarded, some there were who rea hole at the bottom, which was previously filled with ceived his doctrines, and to many hearts, and especially sand. This is the cast iron of commerce, and contains to the daughters of Israel, he spoke in accents of mera considerable quantity of carbon, unreduced ore, and cy. The village of Bethany is consecrated ground; earthy substances. It is subsequently converted into for there dwelt Martha, Mary, and Lazarus, the intersost or malleable iron by exposure to a strong heat, esting family that Jesus loved. Let us contemplate the while a current of air plays on its surface. By this character of the sisters of Bethany; for those whom means the decomposed ore is reduced, earthy impurities our Savior approved must be worthy of imitation. rise to the surface as a slag, and the carbonaceous mat They were distinguished for their hospitality. In ter is burned. The oxide formed on the surface being all ages and among all civilized nations, hospitality has stirred with the fused metal below, facilitates the oxyda- | been esteemed, and its rites held sacred; but among tion of the carbon. As the iron increases in purity, its the chosen people of God, whether under the Jewish fusibility diminishes, until at length, though the heat be or Christian dispensation, it is enjoined as a duty; and the same, the iron becomes solid. It is then, while hot, often in the performance of its obligations unexpected subjected to the processes of rolling or hammering, blessings have been realized. Angels have been the by which its particles are approximated, and its tenaci-| guests of mortals, and frail man has held converse with ty greatly increased.

the messengers of Heaven. The sisters of Bethany had How numerous the purposes to which man has ap- | a guest whom angels delighted to honor; but such was plied this most useful of all metals! It aids him in the darkness that vailed the minds of even the pious commerce, agriculture, manufactures, and domestic op- Jews, that it is probable, though our Savior was at first erations. Scarce a physical instrument is used by him received as a teacher come from God, yet the exalted into the formation of which iron does not enter. It character of his mission was but faintly understood. ministers to his wants and necessities in peace, and to How great, then, was their reward, when, by receiving his defense and protection in war.

instruction from his lips, they were prepared to accept (To be continued.)

him as the long expected Messiah.

Another interesting characteristic of the sisters, was

their affection for cach other. Martha, on one occasion, Original. ON NIGHT.

complains that her sister had left her to serve alone. From this we infer that Martha had not been accus

tomed to bear alone the burden of service, but had ever 'Tis night! No zephyr stirs the leaves—the breeze been sustained by the cheerful co-operation of Mary. Has died away among the distant hills

Martha erred in being perplexed and troubled “about All nature sleeps, lullid by the murmuring rills, many things,” while Mary was commended, not that And guarded by those dim old forest trees,

she was unmindful of her sister's claim, but for choosThe ghosts of buried ages!-fancy sees

ing the “better part” of sitting at the feet of Jesus, In each the veteran of a race gone by.

and listening to the important truths he uttered. Both Aloft, how glorious is the evening sky!

sisters were eager to show proper respect to their Lord; Diana floats upon her car at ease,

and piety to God can only dwell in hearts where pure Amid her virgin train, and smiles on earth,

affection glows. The strong affection of the sisters for And earth returns the smile, and all is bright; their brother was also exemplified during his sickness

Those twinkling orbs, as at creation's birth, and subsequent death. The message sent by them to When this fair world first greeted new-born light, the Savior appeals directly to the heart: “He whom

Hymn the Creator's praise, in heavenly mirth, thou lovest is sick.” Commensurate with their love And shine like quenchless lamps, to light thy halls, O was their grief when death ensued before the arrival of night!

the great Physician.


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