Obrazy na stronie


Pray for your unworthy brother and laborer in the

if you send me in the woods with my old dull axe and || tidings in the ears of the bright angels of God, who
piece of bread, I shall try to be faithful and cut down | rejoice before the dazzling throne of God and of the
the trees as many as I can, "God being my helper." Lamb, when one sinner repenteth of his sins, and
And when I come to the place where I have been coming home to God. And also this is encouragement
laboring this year, I was pleased with the country and and glorious news to the saints of God who pray day
the inhabitants. And I have found some of the Lake- and night for the prosperity of Zion.
ville Indians loving Jesus Christ as their Savior. They
were kind to me after they learned that I was their
preacher for this year. I immediately commenced
preaching and visiting from lodge to lodge. The Lord
blessed the poor Indians, who once laid along the streets
of white men, who are part of them black men in their
hearts! And now the Indians are praising God in the
streets and roads of white men. Now poor whisky, or
fire-water traders are ashamed; for the Indians have
joined the temperance society, and keep their pledges.
Now soon these poor fire-water traders will hide them-
selves in their whisky barrels. Lord, find them out in
their fire-water barrels!

ity. Sometime, after I was done preaching, the Indians rejoicing and praising their God with a loud voice as they returned home. I have kept school in three months. I had thirty-six scholars regularly. Some of them are now gone as far as three or four syllables. When I first commenced the school, I found two of the boys knowing letters, from Ke-che-moo-koo-maun-un, || which signifies, persons who have a great knife, and rest of them they have learned since that time.


Lakeville Mission, August, 1842.


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THE station of the elder sister has always appeared to me so peculiarly important, that the privileges which it involves assume almost a sacred character. The natural adjunct and ally of the mother, she comes forth among the younger children both as a monitress and example. She readily wins their confidence, from a conviction that she, even more freshly than the parent,

Soon we have large society among the Indians, and many of them experienced the religion of Jesus Christ. I believe all the Lakeville Indians embraced Christian-"is touched with the feelings of their infirmities." In

proportion to her interest in their affection, will be her power to improve their characters, and to allure them, by the bright example of her own more finished excellence. Her influence upon brothers is often eminently happy. Of a young man who once evinced high moral principle, with rich and refined sensibilities, unusually developed, it was said by an admiring stranger, "I will venture to affirm that he had a good sister, and that she was older than himself."

And during this spring I have visited Nebesceng It has been my lot to know more than one elder sisIndians in Genesee county, Michigan, about thirty-ter of surpassing excellence. I have seen them assufour miles northwest from Lakeville mission. I con- ming the office of a teacher, and faithfully imparting to tinued visiting them three times. The last visit I made, those whose understandings were but feebly enlightthe Lord blessed this band of Oo-je-bwais. These ened, the advantages of their own more complete edupoor Indians, while they sat in “darkness, and in the cation. I have seen them softening and modifying the shadow of death," they saw a great light, the light of character of brothers, breathing, until it melted, upon the Gospel, and salvation from God. Marvelous, O, obduracy which no authority could subdue. marvelous light of the Gospel of Christ! He poured down his Holy Spirit upon this tribe, to convict them that they were "very far gone from original righteousness." I took the text from St. Luke xv, 18: "I will arise and go to my Father, and will say unto him, Father, I have sinned against heaven, and before thee." As I went along, explaining my text, I saw the poor Indians listening very attentively, some of them their tears running down on their cheeks. Poor "prodigal son!" As soon as I had done preaching, I asked them, I knew another, on whose bosom the head of a sick who “will arise and go to his Father ?" And they all, brother rested, whose nursing kindness failed not, night men, women, children, rose up, saying, "We will arise or day; from whom the most bitter medicine was subup and embrace Christianity!" And, Monday morn-missively taken, and who, grasping the thin cold hand ing, they all brought their images and bad medicines in hers, when death came, saw the last glance of the to me. I took them all, and piling up those images sufferer's gratitude divided between her and the mother and bad medicines, I did burn and destroy them before who bare him.-Mrs. Sigourney. their eyes. Those Indians requested some one to labor with them, and I told them I will, God being my helper. But O, God, "send more laborers into thy vineyard!" And now, of these Indians, sixty-nine have been baptized, with their children. O this is glorious

I have seen one in the early bloom of youth, and amid the temptations of affluence, so aiding, cheering, and influencing a large circle of brothers and sisters, that the lisping student came to her to be helped in its lesson-and the wild one from its sports, brought the torn garment trustingly to her needle-and the delighted infant stretched its arms to hear her bird-like song-and the cheek of her mother, leaning on so sweet a substitute, forgot to fade.

+0 14

MENTAL pleasures never cloy; unlike those of the body, they are increased by repetition, approved of by reflection, and strengthened by enjoyment.

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number of persons; for many, by nature, or by the misuses of health, are "out of tone" to its application and efficiency. There is no doubt that the human animal does, either through ignorance or neglect, worse abuse his physical than either his moral or his spiritual MESMERISM is an instinct. Why then seek to ele- nature. His physical, which though really inferior, vate it above itself? That there is somewhat in it we he yet estimates as more eminent and more precious would not deny; that there is very much in it, or what than his other conditions of being. This responsibilshould equal any known faculty, to all tests it denies ity, we say, he violates daily and hourly. And because itself. That its reputation has been abused by the the mal-practices which hurt him are common and genextravagant pretensions urged by its professors, we do eral, he takes no thought that they are injurious, and not doubt. Whilst these would elevate it to an availa- that, as in the other departments of his being, they ble science, the opposite party, in their over-indigna- tend, in prolonged error, to "death." Even whilst the tion, would stigmatize it as purely empirical. If there most precious object of nature is the conservation of is any truth in the matter itself, all the derision in the || vitality, almost the least regarded is the preservation of world cannot gainsay its action, whatever it may its health; and it is wantonly said, "Man is born to die!" reputation. Candor will allow that it is exactly such Yes, but not before his time. If we take a close a subject, full of "wonderment and strangeness," as enough view of the subject, can we not see that not the many would delight in; and truly this disportment one half the number of human beings fill the measure hath been its worst chance; for the inconsistency of its of their days? for there is a providence ordained which setting forth has been fully as much of themselves as of is the law of their health-with which they have not the subject; and their inadequate handling has thrown complied-which, like spiritual life, they have rejected. the thing into more disrepute than was necessary to its Yet God is long-suffering, and in their extremity he unexplained properties and possibilities. We think pities them. It is not to one or to two agencies alone that the subject has not been frequently referred to its that he has deputed their recovery; and amongst others proper tests. Its essence and its functions we deem to would we name the innate power existing in the physbe purely remedial: but this only in the degree of a ical system to receive a help in extremity, by means succedaneum, and to come in as auxiliary to nature, but recently known, or recently revived, by the name where the more obvious modes of treatment have, in of Mesmerism. This power is remedial, and as such their combinations, not only failed, but have so ex- should not be wasted. And how much does it revolt hausted their subject, that repetition and renewal must us that the subject has been distorted from its real not be attempted in the same form. integrity, and set up for a show! We believe it to be remedial, and, as we have said, not common to every constitution. But this is no partiality or obliquity of its nature; for practitioners agree that certain medical agents, even specifics, are not agreeable to every constitution, yet not the less for this are they disregarded as salutary to others.

"What!" says the scoffer, "is this mysterious agency, after the lapse of four or five thousand years, come to be known as existing in the human constitution, and of which not one of all the myriads which in all that time have peopled the earth, and in successive generations have gone down to its graves, of which not one was conscious!" This, we allow, is surprising, but yet not without precedent. How many centuries had elapsed before the circulation of the blood was known? If the chronometer of life itself, articulating its pulsations, and counting seventy-five (?) for every minute for each individual, for all those centuries of time—if this, we say, were not noticed, what else might not be overlooked? Yet, for man's disregard, was it less true to its office, less substantially useful to all the breathing nations of the earth, than if it had been known? And is it now the less universally accredited, because for ages it was not believed? And no doubt there may be other agencies in full operation, which it is perhaps their very simplicity that hinders us from noticing. The machinery of nature, in its facile beauty, strikes us not-it is only when disorder occurs that we are



But there is other access of healing-other accessories of the human constitution to be acted upon; and to these is accorded a mercy—a sort of physical extreme unction, which may soothe and calm, and in its repose give time for nature to rally and recover herself. Were it only of that physical sympathy, as the physician expresses it, by which the mental belief strengthens and re-assures the body as a method and medium, it should be, in some sort, accredited; for the adage has it, "There is a sickness which cures not, for sadness." And for the thirteen hundred and sixty inexplicable varieties of nervous disease*-if there is found for any number of these a remedy, occult though it be, should it be disregarded or neglected, even in the face of cures? This is carrying the pride of science beyond its integrity; for fact is the only test of truth in the medical as in all other experiment.

Why, then, should it be thrown out here, with the insufficient assertion that the system ought to be doubted, because it is not generally believed; that is, "I will not believe, because others do not believe," even when those others have not spent a single reflection upon the subject, but have only attended to it as a matter of talk. "How absurd!" say they, "as if people would not at once know of a matter personal to all." But personal to all it is not, but confined in its reliefs to the lesser

* Vide Burton's Anatomy of Melancholy,


aroused. The constant falling of the dew, though a thousand times more efficacious, is less observed by us than the pattering of the occasional shower, or the pelting of the hard rain.

been won step by step-by analogy-by the patience of repeated and varied experiments-here apparent and there occult-searching nature, and taxing art in the process-now succeeding and now frustrated, till the patience of wisdom has at last deduced results reconciling nature and reason; and philosophy has claimed the hard-earned treasure, and sanctioned it to science and to truth.

None deny but that "dumb beasts" possess methods of perception which we "wot not of." They know, without a look or a movement, who of us are hostile to them; and not only to their need hath nature made them "sharp-seeing," but they know, also, who, in the natural elements of their constitution, are harmless to them. The bee catchers are those who love them; and all animals perceive the harmony of friendliness or the jarring of antipathy. And though some instances, at first sight, may seem to contradict this-for some poor worried brutes have habits of precautionyet these we shall find have been superinduced upon them by circumstances, and are out of the category of natural animals. The spider, that we intend to sweep from the wall, knows when we would go about this movement, although we have given no demonstration. The animal has a true instinct; that is, their animal magnetism is never at fault. And here may be found the analogy we would seek. The sentient human being may also possess possibilities of this sort, hidden away from common use and common waste, and kept as a sort of dernier resort when the proper faculties shall have become disabled by disease, or done away by remedies. That the sort of perception we have noticed should extend from brutes to man into an intercommunication would seem not necessary, in most cases; yet where there is need, we may infer that it does. We all acknowledge our antipathy to the noxious animals with power to hurt us—at least our consciousness to the premonitory sense is then aroused; whilst the|| snake rattles his alarum of the same dread. And this same latent power of intercommunication may exist in the human constitution, bidable to the same species at need-and to need should it be confined; for the power, such as it is, common to brutes, but extended to man,|| we would not compare, in dignity, or use to the faculties proper and peculiar to humanity, but only class it a latent power, possible to our extremity, as a succedaneum when our health, and the faculties which served it, have both succumbed to disease, and the disproportionate remedies which the leech with discreetest skill has failed to measure. But this remedy, where it is efficacious, measures itself. First comes ease and then the "sleep ;" and the watcher by the bed of affection would, whether in ignorance or by perception, fain thank God that a remedy, though occult and hidden, were found for the mitigation of suffering, which the known remedies had failed to cure. And who, under such circumstances, does not fail to deprecate the misuse, and absurd straining, which, irreverent in themselves, tend to throw odium and disgrace upon that which, in limited and peculiar measures, is salutary and efficacious, its proper sphere of remedial aid.

But the uncandid, because they cannot allow all the claims affected for the subject, deny it any thing, and this without a hearing. All of science we know, has


But in animal magnetism we have a subject, of the benevolence of which nature herself hath given the inkling; and yet, without process, or examination, with only a ribald jest at the unworthy grimacing which hath been put upon it, it is dismissed with the positive and full grown opinion of him who utters it. Quoting Solomon, he says, "There is no new thing under the sun." Verily; but many an undiscovered one is there; and we would hint that all are not Solomon who are of Solomon.

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WE are fleeting. Like shadows we soon pass away,
And the sun will soon set on our life's longest day-
Soon the chill night of death will burst on our view,
Ere we cease all the shadows of earth to pursue.
What is joy but a shadow? and yet we engage
In the phantom-like chase, from our youth to old age;
And the prize which we promise ourselves soon to gain
Is that which the earth-born can never attain.
What is syren-tongu'd pleasure, that form which we seem
Oft to clasp, in the mazes of mirth's witching dream,
When the soft note of music pours forth its sweet strain,
And we pant for the dream-like enchantment again?
O, it is but a shadow, whose glimmering light
Will vanish away like the slumbers of night:
It gleams but a moment-we bend to its power,
And dream we are blest in the revel's wild hour.
What is fame but a shadow, to dazzle the eye-
To urge on the warrior to conquer or die?
It can wake up the harp of the poet again,
To pour out his soul in his passionate strain.
The world of his being is gleaming and bright,
And his visions are teeming with scenes of delight,
While fancy's creations, as round him they throng,
Spring anew into life with his rapturous song.
Yet all we deem lovely, and all that is fair,
Like the dew drops of morning, will melt into air.
As the light clouds of even, which gladden the eye,
All the bright, and the lovely will vanish and die.
Thus the shadows of earth, its pomp, and its power,
All the boast of its great ones in flattery's hour,
With the smiles of the gifted, the praise of the brave-
All are shadows which soon shall be lost in the grave,

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world must have some adequate builder-it must be an SCENES AT SEA.-NO. II. effect produced by infinite power, wisdom, and goodDURING Several transatlantic voyages, by personal ness. That ship was built by some man, but he that intercourse, and close observation, I had the opportu- built all things is God." "But," inquired the atheist, nity of ascertaining something of the feelings and hab-"who saw God creating this world? Where have you its of sailors, a most deserving but long neglected class evidence of the fact? Did you or any one else see him of men. Of all the claimants to the benevolence and at it?" I replied by asking him, "You firmly believe sympathies of the human heart, they that go in ships, that that ship is the work of some builder. Did you and dwell upon the deep, possess the strongest and see her on the stocks? and were you a personal eyemost irresistible. Prejudice, founded in ignorance of witness of her building?" "No, not I." "Yet you their real condition and true character, has always believe the fact as if you had been a bystander when exerted a powerful repellant influence to keep off the her timbers were hewn, and her bolts driven. And can hand of philanthropic and Christian effort to elevate you think that the great ship, the world, built itself? their character, and lead them to the Savior. With all or that fortuitous atoms came together and formed it? his faults, there is in the sailor something peculiarly Is it not as reasonable to believe, from other evidence, interesting and attractive. His perilous avocation on that God created it, as if you stood by the barren womb the tempestuous ocean, and his greater danger from his of nothing, hearing his command, 'let there be light,' avaricious destroyers on land, should awaken our inter- or saw every particle of matter adjusted in its place by est in his behalf. Sailors are distinguished for their his almighty and intelligent hand?" The conviction noble bearing and generous feelings. When you have was resisted-his rebellious heart rose in arms against their confidence, they are open and frank in con- the truth. The silence that ensued was broken by askversation, faithful and devoted in their friendship, yet ing another question in relation to the providence of proverbial for thoughtlessness and prodigality. Among God: "Do you suppose that noble ship would perform them we may find every shade of character, from the her voyages regularly, driven by the wind, without a most godly Christian to the most unprincipled and captain, helmsman, or pilot on board; that she made her abandoned debauchee. ports of her own accord, having no helm but the wind. Though you were not aboard, would you not say, in reference to her successive and regular voyages, that she was under the command of an intelligent and skillful captain? Now look at the great ship, the earth we dwell uponyou know the regularity of her revolutions. Could these be sustained if she moved by chance? Is not atheism here irrational and absurd? Her Creator is her commander, helmsman, and pilot. See how regular she makes her daily and annual voyages-never out of her course, or behind her time. Should a day be lost or gained in her voyage round the sun, all your nautical tables would be worthless. Can you, then, for a moment any more doubt that she is under the direction of some skillful commander than if you saw him regulating her motion? And remember, if God is regulating her course, he must of necessity observe the behavior of her crew."

In view of the demoralizing and contaminating influences thrown around the sailor, it is remarkable that so few of them are sceptical in sentiment. Generally,|| they believe in the being of God, his special providence, and that the Holy Scriptures contain the revelation of his will. Occasionally, however, a sailor is found infidel in theory as well as in practice.

On an outward bound voyage, among the crew, about twenty in number, I found an infidel sailor-if I mistake not, the child of praying parents, a native of the rock-bound coast of Scotland. He was gloomy and sullen in temperament, but an able seaman. His mind was strong and vigorous, and somewhat cultivated; but poisoned with the deadly virus of atheism. He stoutly denied the existence of God-professed to believe that all things came by chance-discarded the doctrine of divine Providence, and esteemed the human The pilot now arrived. All hands were summoned soul and its immortality of being a delusive whim.|| on deck, and in a few moments we were making rapid On one occasion, while our ship was lying to, waiting headway to port. There I parted with the atheistical for a pilot, I had an opportunity to converse with our sailor, to see him no more till the loud blast of an atheistical mariner. In the lone hour of midnight, archangel's trump shall bid earth and sea give up their undisturbed, but by the regular footstep of the watch, dead. Then, beholding a burning world, and a God and the gentle breaking of the waves against the ves- in glory, atheism shall be for ever silenced, and its sel, I introduced the subject on which we so widely || votaries covered with shame and everlasting contempt. differed. He seemed strongly entrenched in his posiB. W. C. tion, yet at times betrayed the secret misgivings of his heart. As we were leaning on the larboard bulwarks, a large and beautiful ship, distinctly visible by the We cannot think too highly of our nature, nor too silvery brightness of a full-orbed moon, passed near us. humbly of ourselves. When we see the martyr to virI asked my atheistical friend, "Do you believe that that tue, subject as he is to the infirmities of a man, yet sufsplendid and well equipped vessel sprung, like a bubble, fering the tortures of a demon, and bearing them with from the ocean? or that she built herself?" "No," was the magnanimity of a god, do we not behold an herohis prompt reply; "she was designed and built by skill-ism that angels may indeed surpass, but which they ful and intelligent men." "Then," said I. “this great|| cannot imitate, and must admire.

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he visited a large part of the country on the Black Sea.

His history is contained in nine books. Its design was to combine a general history of the Greeks and

THE GREEK CLASSICS.-NO. IX. He was well acquainted with Athens, Delphi, at which was the celebrated oracle of Apollo, Dodona, Olympia, Delos, and many other places of Greece. He also visHISTORIANS HERODOTUS-THUCYDIDES-XENOPHON. ited southern Italy. These extensive travels, by enBEFORE entering upon a sketch of the prominent ||riching his knowledge of men and places, well qualihistorians, a passing remark on the general subject of fied him for the literary labors which he had undertaken. early history may not be inadmissible. We have stated that the earliest attempts at poetic writing among the Greeks consisted of mythological narratives, gener-barbarians with the history of the wars between the ally relating to the gods. From the satyric chorus* former and the Persians. It commenced with the oversprung the drama. To other songs of a kindred char- throw of Croesus, the Lydian king, by Cyrus, (B. C. acter are to be traced the first outlines of history. 546,) and terminates with the complete triumph of the These mythic songs previously related the exploits of Greeks over the Persians, (B. C. 478)-embracing a gods. Afterwards demi-gods and heroes were celebra-period of 68 years. Although his object was single, ted. These led to a more extended notice of the indi- yet, in its development, he was led into many minute viduals celebrated. Their "wondrous deeds" were re-descriptions of places and circumstances which mar corded, although interwoven with a great deal of fic- the unity of his work. These digressions are interesttion; for then every thing assumed a poetic aspect. ing, as they give a very good idea of the places, manHyperbole and metaphor were the chief characteristics ners, and customs of the people whom he visited. of all their narratives. From these chronicons Herodotus conceived the idea of compiling a history of preceding events. This was probably the first attempt at regular history. From this fact he is often called the father of profane history. If, therefore, we adopt the course of infidel France, and reject the BIBLE, as being untrue, and unworthy of credit, we are left without any record of the world's history until the times of Herodotus; and the history of the world, from the creation until near the close of the Babylonian captivity, becomes a perfect blank!

As a writer he is attractive, but as a historian not always to be followed implicitly. The character of the age in which he lived tempted him to seek for the marvelous. In gratifying this taste of his age, he is biassed, and permits his desire of pleasing to sway his judg ment. He is, however, in many respects invaluable. He read his history at the Olympic games with applause. Subsequently he read it at the Panathenæan festival at Athens, when the Athenians presented him with the sum of ten talents ($10,555) as a reward for his eulogy on the deeds of their nation. By the Greeks he was held in high estimation, and time has detracted little from his well-earned reputation.



Herodotus was remarkable as a historian and as a traveler. He visited three continents. In Africa he traversed Egypt from extreme north to extreme south. To the west he proceeded as far as Cyrene. In Asia he visited Tyre, Babylon, Ecbatana, and Susa. He traveled extensively in Asia Minor, and proceeded as far east as Colchis, the ancient Havilah. In Europe



Herodotus was born at Halicarnassus, B. C. 484. He was of Dorian extract, and of a distinguished family. His uncle, Panyasis, was a poet of eminence, Thucydides was born in Halinusia, in Attica, B. C. ranked by some as next to Homer. The events in the 471. His father's name was Olorus, or Orolus. On life of Herodotus, which have come down to us from his mother's side he was descended from Cimon, the antiquity, are few and doubtful, except such as can be son of Miltiades, names illustrious in the history of collected from his own works. Of his early history Greece. At the age of fifteen, he is said to have liswe know nothing. After arriving at mauturity, he left tened to the works of Herodotus at the Olympic games, Halicarnassus, on account of the tyranny of Lygdamus, and to have been affected even to tears. This fact, the governor of his native place, and took up his resi- however, has been questioned. His education was of dence in Samos. Before he was thirty years old he the highest order, having had such instructors as joined in a successful attempt to expel Lygdamus. But Anaxagoras. Of the particular events of his life until the banishment of the tyrant did not produce lasting the eighth year of the Peloponnesian war, history is peace. Herodotus having become the object of dislike silent. When in his forty-seventh year, (B. C. 434,) to many of his countrymen, again left his native place, he was appointed to the command of the Athenian and joined an Athenian colony at Thurium, in south-fleet off the coast of Thrace, which also included a ern Italy. Here he died. At what age, and under command of the Athenian colonies there. While lying what circumstances, is uncertain. at Thasus, he was suddenly summoned to the defense of Amphipolis. By an unavoidable detention he arrived at this point half a day too late. He succeeded, however, in saving a place of considerable importance, called Eion. The Athenians, being out of humor at the disaster, degraded and banished him. He had married a rich lady of Scaptesy le. Thither he retired, and employed his resources in obtaining information respecting all the circumstances of the war.

This ban

* So called from Satyri, a species of demi-gods, part man and part goat, who are said to have danced and sung before Bac-ishment continued twenty years. After the close of the


war, which lasted twenty-seven years, a general amnesty

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