Obrazy na stronie



upon the life and character of St. Paul, not particular-|| At 5 o'clock, P. M., the procession issued from the ly distinguished for elegance of diction, or energetic Cathedral, and marched through the principal streets delivery. The speaker, as usual in the Brazilian pul- | under the heavy chiming of bells. The whole town pit, recited his discourse memoriter. In some instan- || was on the alert to witness the expected parade, and ces, I have witnessed a most impassioned delivery, but every window and veranda was thronged with eager specon the present occasion the good canon must have been lators; while from the mansions of the wealthy, curtains sadly pushed for want of time to commit, or else have of damask were suspended in honor of the passers by. been afflicted with a treacherous memory; at least he Two brotherhoods, the first colored, the second white, required a second person to stand near him with the composed the train; each individual bearing a lighted manuscript in his hand. A curtain had been placed wax candle of sufficient length to serve for a staff, and before the last named gentleman, to shield him from having upon his shoulder a white, red, or yellow scarf, the vulgar gaze; but as his services came into requisi-|| (capa,) indicating the order to which he belonged. tion, more light was needed—the curtain was thrown The images were much fewer in number than ordiaside—the prompter stood forth in all the importance of narily. There were only three; the first designed to his office.

represent the Virgin Mary with her infant; the second, The style of construction in this, as well as the Bra- St. Peter and his keys; the third, St. Paul. In rear of zilian churches generally, has no reference to the con- the last walked the bishop, sustained on either hand by venience of a speaker or his auditory. The pulpit is aged priests, who, next to the prelate, were clad in the upon one side, the rear of the church being invariably richest ornaments of their sacristy. Smoking incense devoted to the chief altar. There are no seats, save preceded this venerable diocesan, already bowed down the earth, wood or marble floor, which may be severally with the weight of years. Gold and diamonds sparkled found, according to the sumptuousness of the edifice. on his mitre, and a silken canopy was borne along over The floor is sometimes strewed with leaves, sometimes his head; while he held before his face a small crucifix covered with clean boards, and in a few cases I have containing the host, to which he appeared devoutly seen temporary seats carried in. On the present occa- praying. The procession was closed by a band of marsion, the large area within the railing that protected the tial music, and about a hundred apologies for soldiers, side altars was filled with females closely seated a la in the uniform of National Guards. Turque; and having become thus arranged, in atten Among the excursions we made in the vicinity of S. tion to the mass which was celebrated in front of them, Paulo, not the least interesting was that to the ancient they were unable to face the speaker, although he took gold mines of Jaragua. These are situated about three care to place himself on the right side of them. leagues distant, at the foot of a mountain, from which

The appearance of this portion of the assembly was the locality is named, and which can be plainly seen truly imposing; nearly all the females being covered from the city in a northwesterly direction. These with their dark and graceful mantillas, serving at once mines, or washings of gold, were the first discovered in as hat and scarf. My Parisian friends were peculiarly Brazil. They were very productive in the early part impressed with this part of the scene, and were not a of the 17th century, and the large amount of the prelittle disposed to murmur when subsequently they dis- cious metal sent from thence to Europe secured for the cerned, under the folds of the mantillas, so large a pro-region the name of a second Peru; while it promoted portion of colored faces. As good Catholics they felt exploration in the interior, and ultimately resulted in bound to remonstrate, that a considerable share of the the discovery of the various localities of gold in Minas music performed as sacred during the solemnities, was Geraes. They have long since ceased to be regularly known in France as licentious and profane; but even wrought, and are now the private property of a widow this was not laid to heart like their disappointment lady, being situated upon a plantation embracing not respecting the complexion of the ladies. It should be less than a league square of territory. here remarked, that the Paulistanas are not rivalled in Senhora Donna Gertendes was not only proprietress respect to beauty or accomplishments by their sex in of this immense Fazenda, but also of six others of any portion of the empire, while the purity and illus- nearly equal value; two of which were situated still trious character of their descent is a common boast. nearer the city, and all stocked with the requisite proBut it is not in a promiscuous assembly like that refer- portion of slaves, horses, mules, &c. She resided in red to, where a fair representation of the above qualities one of the most splendid establishments of the city; can be expected. Moreover, elegance of dress is by no and being distinguished for a disposition to contribute means an index of condition or character in Brazil. to the entertainment of visitors to the province, had The lower classes exhaust the avails of their industry | favored our company with a kind invitation to spend a in holyday ornaments, and mistresses take pride in little time at the Fazenda de Jaragua, whither she adorning their slaves. In certain instances the gold would temporarily remove her household. Mules wer and jewelry purchased to shine in the drawing-room, provided for the expected guests, but having the offer are seen glittering in the streets, in curious contrast of a horse from another friend, and being detained from with the ebony skin of domestics, who are the humble, going with the company on the evening appointed, I though temporary representatives of the wealth of the made my appearance by means of an early ride the folfamily.

lowing morning, in ample time for breakfast. That


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repast was enjoyed by about twenty persons, seated on | direction, he judges of his relative position, and of his benches, at a long table, permanently fixed in the remoteness from the city. dining-room. It was a matter of peculiar pride to the The prospect here enjoyed was varied and beautiful Donna, that every thing partaken at her table was the beyond description, repaying a hundred fold the toil of produce of her own soil: the tea, the coffec, the sugar, ascent. At no great distance in the rear were several the milk, the rice, the fruits and vegetables, the meats, lavradas, or gold washings, which having been extenand, in fact, every thing except what she overlooked — sively wrought in former times, left the soil broken and the wheaten flour, the wines, and the salt, which latter naked. In the opposite direction lay the capital of the had made the voyage of the Atlantic.

province spread out upon the declivity, originally deKnowing my fondness for rural adventure, Mons. G. nominated the plain of Piritininga. The localities of had proposed to me an especial distinction—the privi- Campinas, Itu, Sorocaba, Santo Amaro, and Mogi das lege of accompanying him and his botanical assistant Cruzes, were discernible. The general aspect of the to the summit of the Jaragua mountain, which stood country bore some resemblance to scenes I had beheld frowning above our head. Soon after breakfast we in the northern hemisphere; and, owing to my distance were under march, accompanied by a guide, a Portu om any distinguishing object, save a few plants on the guese lad, and several blacks. The route was alto-neighboring precipices, I might, for once in Brazil, have gether unfrequented, and, in fact, had to be sought out easily imagined the scene a part of our own United in a winding course over a high hill, by which we ap- States. Such associations at such a time make an improached the rear of the mountain, the only part where pression not soon to be forgotten. I had now wandered ascent was possible. Several hours were spent in cut-to the farther extremity of the torrid zone; and from the ting and trampling our way through dense jungle and Equator downward, could scarcely gaze upon an object high weeds. Long before we began the ascent proper, calculated to remind me, otherwise than by contrast, of my companions came to the conclusion that it would the land of my nativity. But here my proximity to be much better for them to botanize below, rather than the temperate regions of the south, and still more my persevere in such exploits. No persuasion could induce momentary abstraction, from contact with things as them to go forward; but abandoning the enterprise to they were below me, called up in vivid recollection the me they turned back, and as they afterward informed days and scenes of other years. But the illusion had me, missing their way, lost nearly all the time it took soon to be broken by the necessity of hastening down me to accomplish the ascent. Several motives induced the mountain. Another look showed me the vast cirme to go on; retaining in my company the guide, the cle of vision skirted with mountain ridges disappearing bearer of my port-folio, and the Portuguese boy. We in the blue distance, while the intervening surface unsoon found the walking more expeditious, although the dulated between every variety of hill and valley. Here ascent was exceedingly steep, and the surface rocky. and there could be observed the angular encroachments Fearful stories had been told me about the rattle-snakes of the cultivator upon the forests—the richness and roand other serpents, that would render the excursionmance of the whole view being greatly augmented by perilous, but I encountered none of them. Here and he winding courses and occasionally glittering waters there we found a resting-place, and at length placed our of the Tieté and the River of Pines. feet upon the very summit of the peak.

The rock was granitic, approaching to gneiss; but from long exposure to the atmosphere, its exterior was

EARTHLY JOYS. so much decayed as to resemble decrepitated limestone. I twir'd me a wreath of the rosiest flowers It was chiefly overgrown with a species of thin grass, The morning could boast in the cool shady bowers, in the midst of which I found several rare and interest-|| When the dew-drop was clear in the brocket's bľue eye, ing plants. Precisely in the centre of the small area and the bright leaves were wooing the summer winds' upon the summit, was an excavation several feet deep.

sigh. This I inferred to have been an essay of the ancient gold hunters in search of treasure; although I was sub- I sought them again at the close of the day, sequently informed of a tradition, stating it to be a bu- In the morn where I left them, all shining and gay, rial place of the aboriginal inhabitants, who sought out But I found that the violet had droop'd its fair head, the highest eminences as places of repose for their dead. That the bloom of the rose and the lily was fled.

On reaching this elevation my attendants set up a deafening shout, making at the same time a demand Yet sweet as the breath of their flourishing hours, on me for handkerchiefs to wave to the dwellers below, A perfume was wafted around from the flowers, as a signal of triumph. The peak of Jaragua is the Though each gem of the garden was wither'd and dead, highest in the whole region, being the southern extrem

Yet e'en from their dry leaves a fragrance was shed. ity of the serra do Mantiqueira. It is called the barom- || And, methought, it was thus to the desolate heart, eter of S. Paulo; for when its summit is clear the That virtue a fragance and balm can impart; weather is uniformly good, but when its head is capped Life's sunniest hours, tho' laughing and gay, with clouds, then all look out for storms. Moreover, Must be ended—but virtue can never decay. it is the land-mark of the traveler, by which, from any


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continued flow of the benevolent affections, the blessed

ness of the soul can be measured only by the extent of Extract from President Mahan's sermon on “This is life eter. its capacities. Christian, “this is life eternal.” nal, that they might know thee, the only true God, and Jesus

3. Those deep and tender emotions which a fixed Christ, whom thou hast sent."

contemplation of the glory of God as it “shines in the The attention of the reader is invited to a consider-face of Jesus Christ” excites, render the blessedness ation of the following propositions:

of the soul as great as its capacities permit. The emo1. To all who love God, a knowledge of the "only liv- tions excited by a continued contemplation of objects ing and true God, and of Jesus Christ, whom he hath beautiful

, grand, or sublime, are of the most happifying sent, is eternal life.

nature which the mind experiences. Men will cross the II. The conditions on which Christ will impart this ocean, they will circle the earth, to enjoy those deep knowledge and consequent blessedness to us.

and expanding emotions, which a perception and conI. To all who love God the possession of this knowl-templation of the sublime scenery of nature awakens. edge will be eternal life. In other words, it will in- Men have often expended fortunes to secure the enjoyduce a state of blessedness as great as the capacities of ment of the emotions awakened by a contemplation of the subject will permit, and endless in duration. the sublime objects of the different continents. But

1. It transforms the whole moral character into a the emotions of delight awakened by the contemplation perfect resemblance to that of Christ. The infinite of finite objects, however beautiful, grand, or sublime, and perfect blessedness of God results from the con- in themselves, when compared to those awakened by scious possession of infinite and perfect holiness. Just the contemplation of the infinite, such as the infinite so far as the believer enters into a conscious possession and boundless love and glory of God, are almost as of a character like that of God as revealed in the plan finite to infinite. Take one or two examples in illusof redemption, so far, to the extent of his capacities, tration. he possesses the pure and perfect blessedness which Mr. Tennent had occasion to take a journey which God himself enjoys. Now the possession of the would occupy a whole day. Before he started, he enknowledge here referred to, results in the full and con- tered his closet and besought the Lord to “manifest scious possession of such a character. “We all with himself to him" on the way. As he mounted his open face, beholding as in a glass the glory of the horse the vail was lifted, and he “beheld with open Lord, are changed into the same image, from glory to face the glory of the Lord." He had those full and glory, even as by the Spirit of the Lord.” Let Christ| distinct apprehensions of the love and glory of God, list the vail, Christian, and show you his glory, as he is which filled the whole sphere of moral and intellectual able and willing to do by his Spirit, and you would be vision. In these divine contemplations, his mind was like him. Your whole moral character would be trans- occupied during the entire day in a state of such entire formed into his likeness. The natural result would be, fixedness, that he was wholly insensible to all things that his "joy would be fulfilled in you.” The blessed- || else around him. At length his horse stopped at the ness which he enjoys would be yours to the full extent place of his destination, without the exertion of any of your capacities. And this would be “life eternal.” | conscious direction on the part of the rider. So wrapt This would be the life eternal which God enjoys, and was he in the visions of the divine glory, that it rewhich the pure spirits around his throne possess. quired much effort on the part of the people in the

2. Such knowledge of God, such apprehensions of house to recall him to a consciousness of the scenes the infinite glory and love of Christ, induce the contin-| around him. ued exercise of that perfect love which is the consum Now I suppose, that during that day, the emotions mation of blessedness. The highest happiness of which awakened by such contemplations rendered the mind we are susceptible arises from the strong and continued of that man of God as blessed as his capacities permitexercise of the benevolent affections. Any object that ted. Nor could his powers long have endured such a can call forth these affections and induce their strong crushing weight of glory. Take another example. and continued exercise, will render us in the highest de A man of God, of a similar spirit to Tennent, on

Now there is but one object in existence retiring, one morning, to his place of private devotion that is capable of doing this. It is a “revelation of gave directions to a domestic to call him down at the the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus expiration of three hours, as he was then to receive a Christ.” Let the Spirit of God “take of the things of visit from some friends. At the specified time, the doChrist and show them to the believer;" let him impartinestic found him in such fixed contemplations of the to him a full and distinct apprehension of his glory- | divine glory that he returned without disturbing him. let the Most High “cause all his goodness to pass be- || At the end of three hours more he returned and found fore him”-and the result is, that the “fountains of the his master in the same state as before. So perfectly great deep" of feeling and affection in the soul “are absorbed was his whole mind in those visions of “the broken up.” The tide of love rolls on with a power breadth, and depth, and length, and height, of the love perpetually increasing. The heart's purest, strongest, || of Christ which passeth knowledge,” as to render him and best affections for ever roll around one blissful cen- || wholly unconscious of the presence of any other obtre. This “perfect love casteth out fear," and in the ll ject. Again, he retired, and after three hours, returned

gree blessed.

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once more, and found the man of God in the same || relations existing between him and God, he is brought fixed contemplations as formerly. God was “causing into such relations to the arrangements of universal all his goodness to pass before him.” On being then providence, that not an event will ever transpire througharoused, his first inquiry was, whether it were possible, | out the universe, which will not “work together for his that the time had come for the arrival of his friends ? | good,” in short, that “all things are his,” whether Paul, He had been so fixed with those spiritual apprehen- or Apollos, or Cephas, or the world, or life, or death, or sions as to be entirely unconscious of the lapse of time. things present, or things to come: all are his; and he

Many persons, such as Mrs. Edwards, and Dr. Pay is Christ's; and Christ is God's.” To know God with son, near the close of life, have had similar manifesta- the consciousness of sustaining such relations to him tions of the divine love and glory. Now while the as these, this surely must be life eternal. soul is borne upward and onward in the tide of emo II. The conditions on which Christ will communition awakened by such contemplations, nothing but an cate this knowledge, and consequent blessedness to us. increase of capacity can render its happiness greater. 1. We must set our heart supremely upon its attainAnd as a revelation to the mind, of the “light of the ment. “My son, if thou wilt receive my words, and knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus hide my commandments with thee; so that thou inChrist,” is adapted to hold all the powers of our being cline thine ear unto wisdom, and apply thine heart to in a state of perpetual fixedness, in which the tide of understanding; yea, if thou criest after knowledge, and blissful emotion shall rise and swell for ever, with con- liftest up thy voice for understanding; if thou seekest stantly accumulating power, how true the declaration | her as silver, and searchest for her as for hid treasures; of our Savior is—"this is life eternal, that they might then shalt thou understand the fear of the Lord, and know thee, the only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom find the knowledge of God. Then shalt thou underthou hast sent." It is not to be expected, that Christians stand righteousness, and judgment, and equity; yea, shall, at all times, and under all circumstances, have every good path.” “Then shall ye seek me and find these overwhelming visions of the divine glory. Our me, when ye shall search for me with all your heart.” present capacities do not permit it. But, Christian, The great mass of professing Christians walk on in we would impress this truth deeply upon your mind, | darkness without finding God, simply because they that it is your privilege, as well as your duty, to have never set their hearts upon finding him. A friend of those perpetual apprehensions of the divine glorymine, speaking of a certain sister in Christ, said, that which shall render your blessedness, at all times and sister knows what it is to have fellowship with God, under all circumstances full. Let Christ once lift the and I doubt not you will find her prepared to sympavail and show you his glory, and the deep emotions of thize with you in reference to your views of the infilove and delight which would swell your bosom, wouldnite and boundless love of Christ. Years ago she rerender the “life eternal” referred to in the text, a bles-ceived such apprehensions of the great mysteries of resed reality in your experience. Christian, Christ is demption, as few obtain in this life. She became fully able and willing, yea, infinitely desirous, to do this for sensible, he said, that it was her privilege to know God you. If you will “seek him with all your heart," he as she never had known him, and to enjoy him as she will thus be found of you. He will “ bring you out of never had enjoyed him. She then fixed her whole darkness into God's marvelous light.” “God himself heart upon attaining this state. She besought the shall walk in you and dwell in you,” and with “open Lord night and day, “with strong crying and tears,” to face, you shall behold, as in a glass, his glory.” And manifest himself unto her, by “showing her his glory.” thus, “the sun shall be no more thy light by day; neith-As she came from her closet one Sabbath morning to er for brightness shall the moon give light unto thee: but accompany her family to church, an accident occurred, the Lord shall be unto thee an everlasting light, and which she saw would occasion a delay of two or three thy God, thy glory. Thy sun shall no more go down; minutes. She felt that that interval was too precious neither shall thy moon withdraw itself: for the Lord to be lost. She hastened to her closet and spent the shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy time in the most fervent prayer, that God would manimourning shall be ended.”

fest himself to her soul. As she entered the house of 4. The fact that the knowledge under consideration God, he did manifest himself to her, to such an extent, must be eternal life, may be shown also by a reference that her mind was almost overpowered with the weight to the relations which the individual thus knowing of glory and blessedness that pressed upon her. Since God, recognizes as existing between him and God. that, while I knew her, she seemed to be continually Let us suppose, that while an individual has a full and sitting at the feet of Christ, with a full realization, in distinct apprehension of the infinite perfections and her own experience, of the truth of the declaration, glory of God, such as the Spirit only can impart, he - this is life eternal, that they might know thee, the becomes perfectly conscious that every attribute of Di-only true God, and Jesus Christ, whom thou hast sent.” vinity stands pledged to secure and advance his eternal Those who thus seek God find him, and none others blessedness, that throughout eternity, God is to employ do find him. the resources of his own infinity to render him in the Think of the African alluded to in a former number highest degree holy and happy; let him also become of the Evangelist, who, as Mr. Buck, in his religious as fully sensible of the fact, that in consequence of thellanecdotes, informs us, crossed the ocean to hear about

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“the Christian's God that paid the debt.” In his own || set your heart supremely upon the object for which country he became sensible of his condition as a sin-Christ imparts it to you. If Christ should give you to

At the same time the thick and impenetrable behold as with open face, the glory of the Lord,” it gloom of despair settled down upon his mind, because would be that you might be “changed into the same he was in total darkness in respect to the way of par- image from glory to glory, even as by the Spirit of the don and eternal life. In this state he was accustomed Lord,” in other words, that you might be free from sin, to sit under the shade of a particular tree, and weep and rendered pure and holy, like God. Would you aloud in view of his lost and hopeless condition. A above all things prize this state together with the bles. wicked sailor who heard his cries one day told him to sedness that results from its possession ? If so, you "go to England, and there hear about the Christian's may seek the Lord with the assurance, that you will God that paid the debt.” Without a moment's delay, | find him, and that in finding him, you will find eternal he sought the nearest port, and took the first ship he life. could find, that was bound for London. On the voy 3. You must seek this knowledge with the most perage, he continually besought the sailors and all on fect assurance, that its possession will in fact be “life board to tell a poor negro about “the Christian's God eternal.” Do you believe, that if Christ should admit that paid the debt.” But none could unfold the mys- you as it were into the holy of holies of his sacred tery. On his arrival at London, he passed up and presence, and permit you to behold with unvailed face, down the streets beseeching the multitude that passed, the glory of the Lord, your blessedness would be full ? to “tell a poor negro about the Christian's God that Can you seek such a knowledge as such a good? If paid the debt.” Some gave him money, others heaped || so, be assured, that in seeking you will find him, and abuse upon him; but none pointed him to the “ Lamb that in finding him, your joy will be “unspeakable and of God that taketh away the sin of the world.” At full of glory.” length he gave it up in despair, and as the shades of 4. Seek this knowledge with the profoundest humilevening came on, he sat down on one of the publicity and teachableness. A philosopher of Germany begreens, and began to utter the same mournful cries that came sensible of his condition as a sinner, and set himhe had been wont to utter amid the deep moral mid-self to study the Bible for the purpose of understandnight of his native land. His cries attracted the no-ing the way of life, there revealed. But impenetrable tice of an evangelical clergyman who was on his way darkness hung over the sacred page. At length he reto a public lecture. “Do,” he cried, as the man of quested a poor peasant, whom he knew as a very ig. God inquired the cause of his grief, “do tell a poor ne- norant, but highly spiritual man, to sit down with him gro about the Christian's God that paid the debt." | and teach him the way of life as revealed in the Bible. “Go with me,” said the minister, "and I will tell you.” Thus humble and teachable must you become, if you He took the inquirer into the church, and gave a histo- || would find God. Is this, reader, the spirit which you ry of the plan of redemption, representing sin as the breathe? Are you ready to be taught and led by any debt, and Christ, by his incarnation and atonement, as one, even a child, or a beggar, if he can only lead you paying the debt. “I have found it,” cried the African, to Christ? as the mystery was unfolded to him. As the minister 5. Seek the counsel, and secure an interest in the came down from the pulpit, after the congregation had prayers of those who have the most full and rich exretired, he found the stranger entirely unconscious of perience of that knowledge of the “only living and

visible objects, so perfectly absorbed was his whole soul true God, and Jesus Christ, whom he hath sent,” the • in the mystery of mysteries which had dawned upon possession of which is “life eternal.” Lay open to

his mental vision. He had sought the Lord with all them your whole heart, and having received their counhis heart," and was “found of him," and now his cupsel, engage them to “bow the knee unto the Father of was full.

our Lord Jesus Christ, of whom the whole family in Now, reader, if you do not know God in such a heaven and earth is named, that he would grant you, sense, that your blessedness in him is also full, you are according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened as really in darkness, and as utterly dependent upon with might by his Spirit in the inner man; that Christ divine teaching for the light of life, as that African may dwell in your heart by faith; that you, being root

as. If you will seek God as he sought him, “heed and grounded in love, may be able to comprehend will be found of you,” too. If you do not thus seek with all saints, what is the breadth, and length, and him, you will never see the light. You will wander on depth, and height; and to know the love of Christ, in darkness, without “knowing at what you stumble.” which passeth knowledge, that you might be filled with If you continue to walk in darkness, without "seeking all the fullness of God.” Brother, take this course, God with all your heart,” when you know that you while you also yourself seek the Lord with all your may enjoy his marvelous light, what else can you ex-heart, and he will do for you “exceeding abundantly pect, but that the darkness around you shall thicken | above all that you ask or think." into the gloom of eternal midnight? Reader, will you 6. Seek this knowledge, in devout dependence upon “ seek the Lord with all your heart," until “he is found the teachings of the Holy Spirit. Seek and expect his of you?”

teachings with a humble confession of your darkness 2. If you would attain this knowledge, Christian, ll and ignorance, in the most prayerful study of the Bi


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