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Two methods have been adopted for the propulsion (SEE ENGRAVING.)

of carriages on railroads by steam, namely, stationary Necessity is the parent of invention. This is il- and locomotive engines. Stationary engines are set up lustrated in the rise of railroads, from accidental causes. on the sides of the road, and they act on the cars by In some parts of England, where mining is common, it means of ropes or chains. They are used where was at first customary to lay parallel rails in the mines, the level changes too abruptly to be surmounted by the on which two wheel carriages were moved by men. use of locomotives, which is generally the case when Afterwards the carriages were enlarged, and horses were the ascent of the inclined plane exceeds the limit of used. The rails were finally extended beyond the from 100 to 200 feet per mile, according to the power of mines to the wharves where the coal was shipped. || the engine. At some greater inclination than 100 feet The rails were at first of wood, which was subse- per mile, an additional engine is often used; but whenquently overlaid with wrought iron. Cast iron was ever the inclination exceeds 200 feet per mile, the staused about a century afterwards. At length wrought tionary engine is resorted to. The passage of the iron was restored, but was used in a different form. | mountains between Johnstown and Hollidaysburg, in At present, in the United States, rails of wood are Pennsylvania, is made by a great number of inclined used, which being faced with iron answer the best pur- | planes and stationary engines. Some of the inclina. pose. The wood is a spring, yielding at first to the tions are more than half a mile in length. In the shock of the heavy weights moved upon it, and then month of May or September, a passage over the mounrestoring itself.

tains at this point affords the traveler who has a taste The best locomotive engines in present use rest on for wild and picturesque scenery much entertainment. six wheels. Two of these are larger than the others, Great improvements are going on in our own counand are driven by the engine. In this country the four try as well as in Europe in the construction of railsmall wheels are joined by frame work under one end | roads. It is reasonable to expect that in less than twenof the carriage, and the other end rests on the large ty years, nearly all the prominent cities of America will wheels. The locomotive is propelled by high pressure || be connected by them; and in the mean time such persteam power. Two cylinders are generally used, and | fection will be attained in their construction, and in to the piston of each cylinder a connecting rod is adapt- the application of steam as a propelling power, that ed, which is applied at the other extremity to a crank thirty miles or more per hour will be a common and on the axle of one of the pairs of wheels on which the safe rate of traveling. Then the Buckeye may take engine is carried.

his early coffee in his native state, and late at evening Upon a well constructed railroad, a horse power can drink tea with his friend in Baltimore. The merpropel a load of more than twenty tons. Fifteen tons chant may easily leave Ohio on Monday, spare two is a common load on a level road. The advantage of or three days to make his purchases in Philadelphia, a good railroad over a turnpike is about as twelve to and be at home on Saturday evening to keep the Sabone. A canal has the advantage in this respect over a bath holy. railroad, when horses are employed as the propelling The frontispiece is an admirable picture of a railroad power. But if speed be the object, it is otherwise. In scene. The cars are represented as departing from the this case railroads are superior to canals, even when city, whose spires and steeples are seen in the back horses are used as the moving power. Ten miles an ground; and wayside grazers, roused by the sudden and hour is the greatest speed that can be maintained by threatening invasion of their solitude, seek safety in horse power on a canal, but fifteen miles an hour can flight. The artist has succeeded to admiration in imbe accomplished on railroads. The reason of this dif- parting to the whole scene an air of life and motion; ference is the increased resistance to motion in fluids at and as we gaze, we almost listen in expectation of heara high velocity.

ing the rapid escape of steam, and the sound of the Railroads are valuable principally from the fact that wheels in their rapid whirl. steam can be used in propelling the cars. By this The reader will perceive at a glance that the locomeans great speed may be obtained. At present from motive in this picture is represented as borne on four twenty to twenty-five miles an hour is a common rate wheels instead of six, which we have stated to be the of locomotion on railroads. This is sometimes increas- usual mode. ed to thirty, forty, or even fifty miles an hour. It is an interesting scene to witness from twelve to twenty cars, each of which accommodates fifty persons with seats, Pride like the magnet, constantly points to one obmoving at the rate of twenty-five miles per hour, and ject, self; but, unlike the magnet, it has no attractive continuously, without any pausing for relays of horses. "pole, but at all points repels.

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Our blessings were not the mere product of our own THE NEW YEAR.

skill and diligence. “It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps”—it is not in him that sows the seed to

produce the fruitful harvest. The powers of nature are

under God's control, and he alone can charge them « 'Tis greatly wise talk with our past hours,

with a fructifying influence. Sometimes he commisAnd ask them what report they bore to heaven,

sions the very soil to devour and not to cherish the seed And how they might have borne more welcome news."


of the husbandman. Then in the place of plenty

come want and wasting famine. We are candidates for heaven. Time, fleeting as it The blessings of the year were not the product of is, affords us the only opportunity to secure its delights. the settled, uniform economy of nature. Nature is the What weighty issues depend on so brief a period! cup from which we drink the sweets of life; but that

The point which separates the old year from the new cup is in God's hand, and is replenished from his fullinvites serious and religious meditation. We are nearness. O, that this were engraven on our hearts! The that point. Let us devote it to recollection, to consider sun shines—the rain falls—the dew distills—the earth ation, to solemn vows, and to religious reformation, or pours forth her treasures. But why? Because the the commencement of a new and heavenly life. hand of God is upon the sun-upon the clouds—upon

Let us devote it to recollection. The origin and de- the smiling fields—because his wisdom points the course cline of all things are associated in the mind with their of each ray of light, of every drop of rain, of each end. When the hero perishes, memory gathers up his particle of dew. His finger touches every blade of valorous achievements, and tranfers them to the records grass, every flower, every fruitful branch, and twig, and of history, to be reported to the world. When friends bud, that they may bear delicious fruit. I mean by die, we wait on their funerals, see them laid in the these figures that God's power not only originally formgrave, and then sit down to talk about their virtues anded but still impresses every element of nature, infusing their failings, and to recollect the good or evil they may it with virtue to sustain, and cheer, and comfort us. have suffered at our hands.

Thus the blessings of the last year were not the proThe year is dying. “In winding sheet of snow,” it duct of chance, or of our diligence, or of any settled is sinking to the grave. While the winds wail its economy of nature, but were the gift of God. dirge, let us review its history. It has enacted the part Let us consider again that inasmuch as our blessings of a mighty sovereign. Its dominion was universal. came from God, they were his, and he therefore will Its reign extended over islands, seas, and continents.' reckon with us, and demand his property at our hands. It stretched its scepter to the heavens, touched every He will require an equivalent for his gifts. True, he . star, bound it in its sphere, and impelled the planets in will deal with us on Gospel principles. He will take their everlasting round. Yet amidst all we were not as an equivalent, through Jesus Christ, the sincere unnoticed. For us the year has teemed with blessings. homage of renovated hearts; but this he will rigidly To reckon them up in order were impossible; for they exact, and if we refuse it he will visit us with venfell upon us like refreshing showers, and flowed in geance. He allows none to consume his bounty withceaseless streams. They were more in number than out answering therefor. We cannot escape his indigthe moments which conveyed them—were precious as nation, if we squander his gifts, and refuse to yield him life, and rich as immortality. We were, throughout in return the offering of “a broken and contrite heart, the year, the cherished subjects of God's beneficent which he will not despise." providence. What else bore to us breath, and food, Consider, again, how we have abused his gists, and and raiment? What else preserved to us home, and how the abuse involves us. What single blessing, friends, and safe abode, with all the unutterable pleas- || among millions, have we devoted with exact fidelity to ures of our social and domestic states? We have lived the service of its donor? In what instance has our under a gracious reign, which has deferred our punish- gratitude been as ardent as was meet? Are we not this ment, prolonged our abused probation, and repeated to day liable to as many impeachments as we have reus those calls of mercy which we had impiously ceived gifts? Might not the omniscient searcher of spurned. The very evils we endured were blessings in hearts specify against us an offense for every blessing? disguise, had we used them according to their most | Doubtless, each boon is a distinct ground of censurecharitable aim. Let these truths be inscribed upon our of severe reprobation by the authority of Heaven. For hearts.

though it was not forbidden fruit, yet some forbidden To recollection let us add consideration. Let us con- emotion attended either its reception or its use. Alas sider that the blessings of the last year were the gift of for us! Our natures and Satan's artifices have conGod. They did not come by chance.” What is curred in wresting God's property from its intended, chance? Can you define it? Who knows any thing holy uses. In our hands it was pressed into the serconcerning it? It can be described by no attributes or vice of sin. properties. It is the mere imagining of a disordered or Then we may well consider again, how we shall be corrupt mind, and was profanely conceived, and blas- | redeemed from the woes and curses provoked by these phemously brought forth.

perversions. Begirt with guilt and danger, let us in

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quire for the way of escape. Let us not be stupid as || A year of sin is just now finished. In the midst of it the brute led to the slaughter. But recking past mis- | life was spared. How great the mercy! Now comes deeds, and present hazards, and coming woes, let us a new year, ushered in with many tokens of love and consider how our souls may be redeemed, how deliv- forbearance on the part of God. The very first sin you ered from deserved and pending Inconsideration willfully commit, will blot a leaf of the opening year. is a fatal curse. It is induced by infernal charms, and Refrain. Mar not the page so spotless and so comely. is symptomatic of infernal perdition.

Calling on Jehovah for his promised aid, commence the To consideration let us add solemn vows to the Al- year in the purity of penitence, spend it in the purity mighty. Let us pledge our all in the most impressive of faith, and close it in the purity of love. manner to the services of religion. Our powers of In a word, reform. By reformation your vows will thought, sentiment, and action-our whole being should take immediate effect. In this consists their virtue. be embraced in this pledge. We owe all to God, ond The execution of our vows must run from the moment from him let us dare to withhold nothing. To do it is they are offered. A moment's pause is fatal. The foul robbery; and “will a man rob God!” Would we frame in which they are sincerely offered is the only serve God, we must first resolve to serve him. Till we frame that can fulfill them. But one act of sin changes reach this point there is no hope. Vows to serve him that frame. A single violation robs them of their reare proper and right, and none can serve him without straining force. They are intended, like a ship’s cables, vows. Against these we hear objections, but they all to bind us to heaven. Sin breaks them, and then we drift. flow from ignorance or wickedness. Men do not refuse I might go farther. The violation of a vow exasperto form covenants and reciprocate pledges with one an-ates all unholy tempers. It is per se a great sin, and other. We are not afraid of bonds, and signatures, like murder hardens the heart, renders it desperate, and and seals, when our earthly interests are to be secured. makes one more than ever the child of the devil. In evasion of these solemnities we do not plead the ap Come, then, and with the new year commence a new prehension that we may fail to execute our covenants. and heavenly life. Resolutions to change our habits But when God is to be a party, and our eternal inter- || are generally indefinite as to time. We resolve on the ests are involved, we must ne pause-must deliber- change, but resolve at the same moment to delay it. ate and weigh the matter. But our refusal to pledge Millions carry these two resolutions along with them obedience to God amounts to an avowal of fealty to through youth, manhood, and old age, to the last hour, Satan. It is declining a covenant of peace with Jeho- and then die in despair. They resolved generally to vah in favor of an affiance with hell to war against him. be Christians, but resolved specially not to be ChrisWe dare not pledge ourselves to repent and seek Jesus, tians to-day, and thus lost their souls. It is easy to lest we should find it more convenient to scorn and cru- | persuade a man that he shall be, but difficult to percify him! And we flatter ourselves that our hesitation suade one to be a Christian. The first is no approach is a sort of pious deference to the interests of truth, towards the second. Indeed, Satan himself persuades while every feeling and thought of reluctance is from to the former as the surest method to avoid the latter. the father of lies. This hesitation is the quintessence Resolve, reader, to be a Christian. Let the season perof rebellion against God the Father, God the Son, and suade you. It is difficult to fix the time. Let Him fix God the Holy Ghost. It is because the heart resolves it who appoints the seasons. Plead with him who rento serve the devil, that it hesitates to be bound, by triple | ovates the year and renews our abused and undeserved vows to serve God.

mercies, to renovate your heart and renew in it the feaAt the entrance of the new year break this fatal | tures of his own blessed image, causing old things to charm of the adversary. Rouse yourselves, and cast pass away and all things to become new. away the cords which bind you to perdition. Having Those scenes of life which lie immediately before us, served the prince of darkness hitherto, notify him that are, by Infinite wisdom, concealed from our view. As the term of service expires with the closing year—that experience unfolds them, what disappointments, what you now assume new engagements—that you are bound sorrows, what agonies will they bear to many who look henceforth to Jesus, and will be his for ever. Vows forward with high expectation to a long and prosperous are strong. To a tender conscience they are well nigh life! Some, in no haste to seek the sustaining aids of invincible. They oppose a mighty barrier to the sel- | religion, are just now entering on scenes of unexpected fishness, deceitfulness, and wickedness of the heart. trial. Let none suppose the emergency remote in And they are urged upon us in the Bible. Indeed, which Christian fortitude alone can bear up under acthere exists no example of true piety on the face of the cumulated sufferings. This very year will bear to many earth without them. To pious resolutions they are of us wasting disease, crushing disaster, the desolation like the seal to a written and well established covenant of our homes, the struggles of death, and to some, if they “Vow, then, and pay unto the Lord thy vows." repent not, the fearful and hopeless agonies of undone

The commencement of the year is favorable to relig- souls. Shall we delay a prepartion for emergencies to ious reformation—to the commencement of a new and which each moment exposes us, which may befall us heavenly life. We are fond of integers. The prospect | to-day or to-morrow, of whose approach we can know of making out a whole year of religious duty and im- | nothing, and which will always seem remote until they provement has something in it particularly attractive. Il rush upon us like an unexpected tempest ?

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As the custom is, we wish our readers a happy || commandments: for this is the whole duty of man.new-year!” and permit us to subjoin a few suggestions. Look upon this picture. As you gaze turn from If you would be happy, first of all fix in your minds the world and its “vanity of vanities,” to the sweets of what happiness does, and of what it does not con- of religion. Would you be happy? Religion is hapsist. For this be carefully attentive to the testimony piness. . We commend it to your pursuit. Commit of God. He formed the human constitution, and is fa- your soul to its keeping, and it shall never betray miliar with all its susceptibilities. He teaches us that you. You have heard the verdict which Solomon prohappiness does not spring from the abundance which nounced upon the world. When did the aged disciple we possess. Observation confirms the testimony. of Christ speak thus reproachfully of religion? What

Revelation and human life concur in teaching us that meek follower of the Lamb ever complained on the wealth cannot confer happiness. The manners of the brink of the grave, that the Savior had disappointed rich betray no sweet contentment. They are vexed him—that religion is vanity, and that wisdom would with more cares than the poor around them. Anxiety have dictated an impious career, or a life of forbidden oppresses them day and night, and they find it more delights ? Not one. As well might angels in their perplexing to preserve than to acquire. From wealth purity and bliss complain that they are not coadjutors we can derive no revenue of happiness.

of Satan in despair. The same may be said of honor. Survey the emi We close, then, by repeating that religion is happinences occupied by the successfully ambitious, and you ness. Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her will perceive that the higher you ascend, the more se-paths are peace. In her left hand are the joys of earth, vere are the storms—the more furious and hurtful are in her right are the felicities of heaven. Be her followthe blasts of raging passion.

er, and she shall endow thee with all the precious things Fashionable amusements are not productive of hap-l of these two worlds. piness. They afford brief pleasure, but not permanent delight. They are like the transient glare of a burning city, not like the settled sunshine of heaven. They are

Original. forsaken by thousands with expressions of disgust.

STANZAS. Finally, all the world cannot make us happy. Could

Suggested on revisiting the grounds of my native place. one soul grasp the whole, it would turn from it all and crave a greater good. Was a man of the world ever

Avd have I reached at last the spot yet satisfied ? Look around you and see what examples

Where first my young affections sprung? you can muster. Go to history for an instance. Its Tho'roving years have been my lot, records join with your private observation to justify that

No change could from my memory blot saying of the Bible, “There is no peace to the wick

The mystic charms that round thee hung; ed.” For an example of the insufficiency of the world

And while my feet would distant roam, look at Solomon. How rich were his endowments!

My heart would turn to thee, my home. None on earth was his equal in the gifts of nature, and

Are these the honey-suckle bowers, in the circumstances of his life. The blessings of

Which I in youth so often sought, heaven fell upon him like the showers of autumn on

After the soft descending showers the fields of Palestine. He drew around him the pre

Had bathed with perfume all the flowers, cious things of earth from its remote and neighboring

To breathe the incense they had caught? climes. The elements were made to serve him, and all

These trellised vines, when filled with dew, creation ministered to his pleasure. In his efforts to

Seemed set with gems of every hue. please his own taste and fancy he half restored paradise from its ruins, and he devoured its bidden and its The humming.bird that wonted here, forbidden fruit. It was a bold experiment. But he Was scarcely then more gay than I; faithfully exhausted all his powers and hopes in the Health, hope, and friends were mine to cheer; vain determination to build a heaven on earth. In the I sipp'd each sweet that offered near, midst of all his efforts old age approaches, the powers of And then to other sweets would fly. life fail, and amidst the shadows of that cheerless even The birds are here, the flowers are gaying which succeeded the guilty day of life, he penitent My household friends, ah, where are they ! ly recounts his sins and follies, describes his insane excursions through all the fields of guilty pleasure, and pro

Their day of trial now is done,

Hither their feet no more will roam; claims them to be vanity and vexation of spirit. Having

The heartless world they learned to shun, experienced more of the pleasures of sin than any oth

Then calm and peaceful, one by one er mortal--having heaped up gold as dust, builded him

They found a brighter home. palaces, made him gardens, transformed his whole em

Tho' earth now holds their scattered dust, pire into a voluptuous court, and ordained all time a

Their spirits mingle with the just; gala day for his amusement, he turns at last from his

Teach me, 0, Lord, my cross to bear, amazing folly, and exclaims, “Let us hear the con.

That I at last may meet them there. clusion of the whole matter: fear God and keep his


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seat of Christ. And when we follow him to the ever OUR COUNTRY, *

memorable period of his installation, and behold him

standing in front of the Capitol of this great and powBY J. S. TOMLINSON, President of Augusta College.

erful nation, and with a heart overflowing with love to

his country, hear him proclaim to listening myriads “ Sanctify ye a fast, call a solemn assembly, gather the elders those principles, the record of which will place his and all the inhabitants of the land into the house of the Lord your God, and cry unw the Lord, alas for the day!" Joel i, 14, 15. name by the side of our country's illustrious patriots,

it is still more difficult to realize, that, at the distance We are assembled, my friends, to commemorate one of one short month from this magnificent and spiritof the most afflictive dispensations with which an all- stirring scene, he, who was then the observed of all wise and inscrutable Providence has ever been pleased i observers, was followed in mournful procession by the to visit our country, from the organization of the gov-accredited representatives of numerous foreign nations, ernment down to the present time. We have come to and by a countless multitude of his surviving fellow this consecrated place to mingle our sympathies and citizens, to the house appointed for all the living. devotions with those of our fellow citizens throughout The death of such a man, at such a time, and occuthe land, in the recollection of the solemn and unwel- pying, as he did, the most prominent and important posicome truth, that the President of this mighty republic, tion known to our federal Constitution, may well be reGeneral William Henry Harrison, has been taken garded as a great national calamity; and as such, his disfrom among us by the relentless hand of death, and is tinguished successor has, with the utmost propriety, renow reposing with his fathers in the cold and voiceless commended that the remembrance of it should be solemmansions of the grave. From the waters of the St. nized by the observance of this day, in every part of the Lawrence to the Gulf of Mexico, and from the shores Union, as a day of fasting, humiliation, and prayer. And of the Atlantic to the base of the Rocky mountains, this recommendation will, no doubt, meet with a ready what a sublime moral spectacle is this day presented to response in every American bosom, irrespective, as before the contemplation of the whole civilized world! And suggested, of all party distinctions. Yes, my friends, on may we not confidently add that it is one upon which this day the people will come up in crowds to the house God himself condescends to look down with approba- of God, not as whigs or as democrats--not as Catholics tion and complacency? The spectacle to which we or Protestants, but meeting together as Christians and refer is not an empty pageant, or a mere mockery of American citizens only, they will, as "with one mouth grief, reluctantly displayed by a nation of slaves, upon and one mind,” offer to that God who holds the destinies the loss of one who has basely trampled their liberties in of nations in his hands, the acceptable homage of hum. the dust, and ruled them with a rod of iron; but it is the ble and submissive hearts, sincerely deprecating the disspontaneous outpouring, by multiplied millions of free pleasure of their Maker, and fervently imploring formen, of their deep and heart-felt sorrow for the loss of giveness for the past, and a continuance of those inesone whom they had recently delighted to elevate to the timable blessings with which, for more than half a cenhighest office in their gift. With a noble forgetfulness tury, this nation has been so signally favored. of all party distinctions, persons of every creed, both Such a course as this, under circumstances like the civil and religious, unite together with the utmost cor- present, is dictated and sanctioned by the best feelings diality and promptitude in testifying their profound re- of the human heart, by the decisions of our enlightenspect for the memory of the departed hero, statesman, ed reason, and, above all, by numerous precepts and and patriot. Every subordinate consideration is merged examples, recorded in the Scriptures of divine truth. in the sad and overwhelming remembrance, that, in the The practice of solemnizing great national bereaveperson of our late Chief Magistrate, the whole coun- ments by the exercise of fasting, humiliation, and try has been suddenly bereft of one of its greatest ben- prayer, is by no means peculiar to Christian countries, efactors.

but has prevailed, to a greater or less extent, from time What an impressive lesson does this mournful occur immemorial, among all civilized nations who acknowlrence afford to every reflecting mind, upon the muta- edge the existence and superintending providence of bility of all that is earthly—the transitory and unsub- God. The Egyptians, Phænicians, and Assyrians, stantial nature of the highest honors that any human and, subsequently, the Greeks and Romans, not only power is capable of bestowing! It is almost impossible engaged in solemnities of this kind, on extraordinary to realize that he who, only a few weeks since, ascended occasions, but had their stated times for the obserour noble and beautiful river, amidst the almost inces- vance of them, which nothing could induce them to sant congratulations and rejoicings of the thronging neglect. And their most distinguished men, let it be thousands who hastened to do him honor, is now sleep- remembered, were the most prominent and punctual in ing the sleep that shall know no waking until the voice the performance of these religious ceremonies. They of the archangel and the trump of God shall summon not only practiced these things, in common with thethe quick and the dead to appear before the judgment people generally, but, in their individual capacities, de

* This discourse was delivered in Augusta, Ky., May 14, voted a considerable portion of their time to exercises 1841, being the day set a part for fasting, humiliation, and pray of this sort. Numa Pompilius, Julius Cæsar, Auguser, in consequence of the death of William Henry Harrison. tus, Vespasian, and others, as we are informed, had their

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