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HAD no intention, in writing my Reminiscences, and Thoughts on the Church Revival, of having them published before my death. When this appears I shall be in

my eighty-first year, and I have passed through many experiences during the second stage of the Church Revival. Memoirs and Recollections have been issued from the press relative to the first, or Tractarian stage, but none, so far as I can learn, that concerns the second epoch, that termed, first, Puseyite and then Ritualistic, except detached Biographies, and records concerning particular churches.1

I say that I did not desire to publish, but leave my MS. to appear later, because I was reluctant to hurt the feelings of sons and grandsons of some of whom I have had to say hard words. But I have been strongly urged to produce the work at once, because of late there has been a recrudescence of secessions to Rome of young clergy, impatient at the slow progress of the movement-above all at the favour shown to, and the advancement made to responsible positions in the Church, of men whose grasp on the fundamentals of the Christian faith is more than doubtful.

In this book I desire especially to show the younger clergy that the trials and discouragements through which loyallyminded Churchmen had to pass formerly were far more serious than any which they are called upon to endure at the present day.

If I have had to deal somewhat severely with the Bishops of the Victorian period, it must be borne in mind that they laid themselves out for condemnation. When one looks back on the

1 I must, however, except Mr. Overton's excellent book, The Anglican Revival (London, 1897). It is, however, very brief, and more than half is devoted to the Tractarian movement. Also Vol. II, of Cornish's English Church in the Nineteenth Century (1910).

hearts they broke, the hopes they extinguished, the bitterness of soul they engendered, the wreckage they wrought in the Church of England, wheresoever work was being done for God not exactly after the pattern with which they were familiar and in the fashion that they approved, and how they were able to throw a bomb and thrust in a torch to destroy loyal work, then the fire kindles and one speaks with the tongue. That they did not understand the movement towards fuller doctrine and more reverent ceremonial may well and readily be conceded, but that which cannot be excused is where they endeavoured to hinder or wholly prevent the Church from recovering her voice in Convocation, and in Synodal action, in a word from recovering her vitality, and also for obstructing the commissioning of Bishops to act as heads of Missions beyond the bounds of our Colonies, and for endeavouring to rivet on them the chains of the Royal Supremacy and the Judgments of the Court of the Privy Council.

A friend once showed an old Turk an engraving of Noah's sacrifice, highly idealised. The Ark, looking like a mastless old three-decker battleship, was in the background, and the elephants, giraffes, lions, tigers and lambs were represented walking lovingly in conjunction out of the sally-port, like a lady's seminary taking a constitutional. " Ah!" said the old Turk, "if only we had a photograph of it as it really was!" In the future, maybe, we shall have the Victorian archbishops and bishops idealised, delineated like apostles in stained glass with haloes about their heads. I see from an article in the Dictionary of National Biography that the halo is beginning to form even about Archbishop Thomson. Already Bishops Sumner, Bickersteth, Thorold, etc., have undergone beatification at the hands of admiring but uncritical biographers.

I have ventured to sketch some of these men. I do not for a moment mean to imply that they did not act conscientiously. I believe that Annas and Caiaphas were sincerely conscientious men. Only they knew not what they did. That is their excuse.

I find that among the younger clergy there is a growing impatience at the galling link between Church and State, and the impotence in which the Church is placed to select her own officers and manage her own affairs; and there is a readiness to accept Disestablishment at almost any price.

I do not wonder at it. From the time of the English Revolution, insult and outrage have been assiduously offered to the

Church, and every effort has been made to depress and cripple her, and force her to work as her taskmaster orders, in chains, and with the irons eating into her very soul.

One of our present bishops is reported to have said: "When I travel I always get into a carriage in the middle of the train, and I take a middle compartment, and plant myself in the middle seat, and trust the rest to Providence." This represents precisely the policy of a great many-not all-of our prelates. They do not want to lead, they do not want either to come in at the tail, but to occupy a position that exposes them to no danger or discomfort. What they look for is to be safe safe in the middle compartment, with a buffer on each side, so that whatever might befall the train in which they travel-the Church of the Land-they personally will not suffer.

In the first two chapters I have endeavoured to trace the history of the parties in the Church to their sources, and to show how that Puritanism was a foreign element introduced into England. I have endeavoured also to show how that the Church has been like a cask half-full of generous wine, into which the State, like a dishonest host, has poured so as to fill the cask the water of Latitudinarianism charged with evil, as much as it would hold; and how that the Church movement has been the fermentation of the noble liquor, endeavouring to clear itself of its impurities.

As a history of the Church in the Victorian age, my Reminiscences will not serve. They are rather a collection of disjointed notes on various matters connected with the movement, than anything of the nature of a consecutive history. I have dealt mainly with such events as came under my own immediate notice or with which close friends had been associated.

Here and there I have incorporated into the text passages from articles I had contributed to the Guardian.

I have ventured also to reproduce certain caricatures that appeared at intervals, also satirical verses that circulated, some in print, and some in MS.; moreover I have given the texts applied by the late Dr. Littledale to the Victorian Bishops. All these items, trivial and even flippant, deserve preservation as illustrative of the feelings and passions excited on one side as on the other by the Church Revival; and such in a few years would be difficult, almost impossible to recover; and this must serve as my apology for their introduction. I may, like Autolycus, be a snapper up of unconsidered trifles, but it is precisely these

trifles that tell most of the temper of the times when they were cast aside.

Vive, vale si quid novisti rectius istis,
Candidus imperti; si non, his utere mecum.

I have to thank three old friends, of the same age as myself, for their advice in the compilation of this book, and for having read it over in MS. They are not, however, to be held responsible for my statements, censures, or opinions. I must also thank several laymen and clergy who have furnished me with details relative to the imprisonment of clergy under the P.W.R. Act. Also Mr. Mowbray, for kindly permitting the reproduction of one of the plates of Deformation and Reformation, drawn by his father in the forties.







A survey of the history from the death of Henry VIII-Edward VI-
The First Prayer Book-Protector Somerset and the Council-Influx of
foreigners-Revision of the Prayer Book-The unpopularity of the Reform
-Tyndale's Bible-The Homilies-Insurrection-Preaching forbidden-
Censorship of the Press-Foreign reformers in England-Reformers on
the Continent-Their advice solicited and tendered-The Second Prayer
Book-Accession of Mary-Ejection of married incumbents--Death of
Mary and accession of Elizabeth-Return of the exiles-Inundation
of foreigners-The Prayer Book of Elizabeth-Peter Martyr's advice-
Foreigners' advice still sought-Puritan demands-The XXXIX Articles
-Oath of Supremacy-Visitation of England--Small number of clergy
ejected-Most of Marian priests remained in their cures--Little outward
difference in the conduct of worship-Confusion-Encouragement of
Puritan clergy-Unworthy Bishops-Difference between condition of the
Church under Elizabeth from what it was under Edward-Emmanuel
College-Two currents between the same banks-The turn of the tide
-Bancroft, Jewel and Hooker-Differences of use-Contrasts-Iceland
-Abuses-The lectureships-Encouragement given to Puritans-Attempts
to restrain them-The classes-Prophesyings-Millenary petition-Pre-
sentations of clergy by churchwardens-Petition of February, 1640—
Appointment of committees Ejection of clergy-in Monmouthshire-in
Devon-Religious anarchy-Devastation of churches-The Directory-
Destruction of organs-Conformists-The Covenant-Presbyterianism
established-Independency-The Tryers-Severity towards the deprived
PP. I-27

clergy-Reykjahlid Church



The Restoration of 1660-Pepys-Savoy Conference, 1661-Black
Bartholomew-Number of those ejected and of conformists-Difficulties
of the bishops-Conformists did well for themselves-Conceived prayers
-Dean Granville-Test Act-Neglect of order not due solely to the con-

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