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he further informs us, that this shall come to pass at the same time that an expedition into Palestine is undertaken by Antichrist, who is there destined to perish; and that this expedition shall take place at a period denominated the time of the end, which, as may be easily collected from other parts of the book of Daniel, denotes the period of 75 years which commences at the expiration of the 1260 years, and extends to the beginning of the Millennium*. are we in a manner doubly informed, that the Jews will begin to be restored, when the 1260 years shall have drawn to their close.


As for the order and manner of the conversion of Israel, his general restoration, and the final expedition and overthrow of the Antichristian faction, we have reason to believe, so far as can be collected from prophecy, that they will be as follows.

Either before or about the expiration of the 1260 years, the eyes of one great division of the scattered Jews will be opened; and they will joyfully embrace the faith of that Redeemer, whom they have so long rejected and despised. In effecting first their conversion (possibly before the end of the 1260 years), and afterwards their restoration f (certainly when the 1260 years shall have fully expired), some mighty maritime nation of faithful worshippers will be principally instrumental. To this great division of Judah, destined to be brought to the knowledge of the

event) those last times of the fourth kingdom of a time, times, and half a time." Works B. iv. epist. 12. p. 753. See also epist. 8. p. 744.

"Mr. Lowth," says Mr. Wintle, " has recounted a number of passages in the prophets, which indicate the restoration of the Jews in the latter days, or when the fourth monarchy shall expire. At this decisive period, or after the 1260 years of the reign of Antichrist (Popery) and the addition of another short term for the restoration of the Jews, will be the end of these wonders or marvellous things inquired after in the last verse." (Wintle on Dan. xii. 7.) "Though the reign of Antichrist seems here fixed for 1290 years, which is a term of 30 years more than was mentioned at Ver. 7, this excess in the opinion of some is the time allotted for the collecting of the Jews from their captivity among all nations, or the several countries of their dispersion; and at the close of Ver. 7 there does seem to be a further period alluded to for this purpose, after the time, times, and a half, or the 1260 years." Wintle on Dan. xii. 11.

See my Dissert. on the 1260 years, Chap. III.

† Dan. xii, 1, 6, 7. relates to the restoration, not the conversion, of Judah. The former commences at the close of the 1260 years.

truth while yet in the land of their dispersion, the maritime worshippers will be sent, the appointed messengers of God, in swiftly-sailing vessels: and, reverently obedient to the divine command, they will bear them safely in a mighty fleet, as a present to the Lord of hosts, to the place of his holy name, even mount Zion. The Jews therefore, who are thus converted and brought back by sea, must clearly be such Jews, as shall be scattered either through the dominions and colonies of the maritime power, or through those of other smaller maritime nations in alliance with and professing the same faith as the great naval power itself.

At the period when these matters are transacting, the Ottoman empire will have been overthrown, and the great confederacy of Antichrist will have been completed. It will consist of the Roman beast under his last or Carlovingian head, the false prophet or the ecclesiastical power of the Papacy, and the subordinate vassal kings of the Latin empire. To these Daniel adds a state, which he describes under the character of a king that magnified himself above every God, and which from the account of its actions is plainly the grand contriver and director of the whole confederacy*. Hence we are naturally led to conclude, that this state will at that period be identified with the last head of the beast. The state in question I have elsewhere shewn to be Antichristian France: and recent events have but too amply confirmed the conjecture, that its chief would sooner or later acquire the empire of Charlemagne ‡. As yet indeed he has not assumed the title of Emperor of the Romans; but he has become virtually and effectively the Emperor of the West, the lord of the destinies of France, Germany, Spain, and Italy. With our own eyes we may now behold the rapid forma

Having thus specified the members of which the Antichristian confederacy is composed, I shall refrain hereafter, in order to avoid needless repetition, from particularizing them. Whenever therefore I speak of the Antichristian confederacy, or the Antichristian faction, the reader is desired to understand me as speaking conjointly of all these different members.

† See my Dissert. on the 1260 years, Vol. 11. p. 359–365. (2d. Edit. p. 400 -408.)

See my Dissert. on the 1260 years, Vol. 1. p. 317–351. (2d. Edit. p. 346



tion of that conspiracy of federal kings, of which he openly avows himself the head; and which, after the effusion of the sixth vial and the overthrow of the Ottoman empire*, will begin to be gathered together by secret diabolical agency to their destruction at Megiddo. We need only look to what is passing on the great stage of the Latin empire; and we shall require no comment on the predicted confederacy of the beast under his last head, the false prophet, and the kings of the Roman earth. St. John teaches us to expect such a confederacy after the sounding of the third woe-trumpet, after the horrors of the sym-· bolical harvest, while the blazing sun of military despotism is scorching with an intolerable heat the degraded Latin empire, in the last days of blasphemous infidelity; and we now see the commencement of its formation.

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While the faithful maritime power is engaged in converting one great division of the Jews, with a view perhaps to their ultimate restoration; the Antichristian confederacy will take under its protection another great division of the Jews, and will prepare to direct its arms against Palestine, in order to restore them in an unconverted state (and that for mere political purposes) to the country of their forefathers. Daniel has given us a wonderfully minute account of the progress of this Antichristian confederacy to Palestine; which, as might naturally be expected from the circumstance of the maritime power commanding at sea, is plainly by land. Antichrist, in his attempt to invade the holy land from his empire in the West, must necessarily pass through Turkey. In whose hands Greece and Asia Minor will then be, no one can

*That the exhaustion of the waters of the Euphrates means the subversion of the Ottoman empire, is sufficiently manifest from the analogy of the apocalyptic language. If the issuing forth of the four angels from the Euphrates with an innumerable body of cavalry, under the sixth trumpet, denote, as it plainly does, the rise of the Turkish monarchy; then, unless we suppose St. John to be utterly inconsistent with himself, the exhaustion of that same Euphrates must denote its subversion. But see my Dissert. on the 1260 years, Vol. 11. p. 344 et infra. (2d. edit. p. 381.)

It is possible, that the maritime power may at first attempt to convert the Jews without any specific design of restoring them. Its restoration of them may be undertaken in consequence of Antichrist's project of restoring the unconverted Jews. But respecting such points as these we can at present merely conjecture.

at present with certainty determine: but this we know, that the Ottoman empire itself will have been previously overthrown at the beginning of the effusion of the sixth vial. In this, attempt, Antichrist' will meet with some opposition from a king of the south, and with a most determined and formidable resistance from a king of the north, who will come against him like a whirlwind with chariots and horsemen and many ships; with the last, most probably to prevent his crossing into Asia. Yet, in spite of all their attempts, he shall enter into the countries, overflowing them like a resistless torrent; and, the prophet specially adds, shall pass over; meaning, perhaps, over the streights which divide Asia from Europe, and which the northern potentate shall vainly attempt to block up with his ships. This great northern power I have already conjectured to be Russia*: and, the more I have since thought upon the subject, the more I am inclined to adhere to my first opinion. What state is meant by the king of the south, we have not as yet, I think, sufficient grounds to determine.

Antichrist, having now passed over the streights, rapidly advances into the glorious land or Palestine, overthrowing and pillaging many countries by the way. Such then being his route, he must necessarily enter into the holy land from the north: accordingly this dreadful invasion is more than once described as proceeding from the north. Like a vast flight of locusts, his armies cover the face of the whole country, devouring and wasting, with their accustomed rapacity, all the productions of nature.

Unsated by victory, he still meditates new conquests. After placing his allies, the unconverted Jews, in Jerusalem and its vicinity, he now directs his steps towards Egypt. Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon however, escape out of his hand. For this they have to thank, not his moderation and clemency, but merely their local situation. A map will best explain the reason of their security. The districts, which those nations formerly occupied, lie so far to the east, as

* See my Dissert. on the 1260 years. Vol. 1. p. 356. (2d. Edit. p. 400.)

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to be entirely out of the way of any army which is passing from Judea into Egypt. But over other countries, more closely adjoining to Egypt, he will stretch forth his hand and, while Egypt is unable to escape his marauding rapacity, those, whom Daniel calls the Lubim and the Cushim, shall be compelled to attend his steps, and probably either augment his armies * or perform the most menial offices in his camp.

In the midst of his African conquests, he is troubled by tidings out of the east and out of the north. What these tidings are, Daniel does not positively determine : but the subsequent context shews, that they must relate to the approach of some new enemies, and to some disagreeable intelligence respecting Jerusalem. From these data, and by the assistance of other parallel prophecies, we may form no improbable conjecture at least respecting those tidings out of the east and out of the north, which are described as so grievously troubling Antichrist. We left the great maritime power, preparing to bring by sea its allies, the converted Jews, as a present to the Lord of hosts, to mount Zion. Now, in whatever part of the world this power may be situated, whether far beyond the eastern or the western Cushean streams, it is plain that its navy can only approach Palestine by the way of the Mediterranean sea. Such then will indisputably be its course. The maritime expedition at length reaches Palestine: but the converted Jews, and their naval protectors, find themselves opposed by the unconverted Jews, and the troops which Antichrist had left behind him to garrison Jerusalem and other strong-holds. Apparently after no trifling bloodshed, and (if I judge rightly from some prophecies) when the converted Jews had suffered very considerably, the eyes of their unconverted brethren will unexpectedly be opened; they will look upon him whom they had pierced; and, throwing off the base yoke of Antichrist, they will cordially join such of their nation as had embraced Christianity, and had allied themselves

* We have already beheld the tyrant take into his pay, as body guards, those foreign mercenaries, the Mamalucs.

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