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"Article 17th, framed according to St Augustin's doctrine, which scarcely differs from that of Calvin ; and though it be expressed with a certain latitude, that renders it susceptible of a mitigated interpretation, yet it is very probable that those who penned it were patrons of the doctrine of absolute decrees.” Maclaine's Mosh. 8vo. vol. iv. p. 106.

“The composers of the Articles evidently intended such a latitude as would admit the assent of moderate persons of what was afterwards called the Arminian as well as of the Calvinistic persuasion, yet so as to exclude the extravagant notions of each party.” Tottie's Charge.

Id. See, also, p. 324, 325.

“The Synod of Dort had its partisans in the established Church of England, as well as among the Puritans; and its decisions, in point of doctrine, were looked upon by many, and not without reason, as agreeable to the tenour of the book of Articles established by law." Maclaine's Mosh. vol. iv. 516.

Archbishop Wake, in a letter to the pastors of Geneva, upon the doctrine of universal grace, writes thus : -"Nom nimium curiosi sitis in iis determinandis, quæ Deus non admodum clare

revelaverit, revelaverit, quæ absque salutis dispendio tuto nesciri potuerint; quæ sapientissimi prædecessores nostri in omnibus suis confessionibus caute tractanda censuerunt ea moderatione, ut universi in iis subscribendis consentirent. Quæ in Articulis suis statuerit ecclesia nostra talia sunt, ut ab omnibus ex æquo admittantur. His contenta, nec ipsa aliquid amplius requirit curiosius statuere. Hinc summa inter nos pax cum sobria sentiendi libertate conjuncta,” Vide Mosh, vol. v. p. 172.

“In another letter to Professor Turretin, he writes thus, concerning the Divine decrees : Hoc apud nos tum ex mandatis regiis, tum ex diu servatâ (utinam semper servandâ) consuetudine fixum est atque stabilitum, neque a quoquam exquirere quod de his rebus sentiat, modo Articulis religionis publica authoritate constitutis subscribat, neque in concionibus aut etiam disputationibus theologicis, aliquid amplius de iis determinare, quam quod illi Articuli expresse statuant, et ab omnibus ad ministerii munus admittendis profitendum requirant.” Id. p. 176.

“ The first reformers in England, as in other European countries, embraced the most rigid tenets of predestination and absolute decrees, and had composed upon that system all the Articles of their religious creed.” Hume's History. vol. vii. This assertion is contradicted by the Articles themselves. See, also, p. 324, 325.

Our Articles are asserted, by a more learned divine, to have been formed on the model of the Augsburgh Confession, vide Bulli Harm. Apost. Dissert. c. xviii. See this confession in the works of Grotius, tom. iv. which, by the way, may serve to acquit them of the charge of Calvinism. These testimonies might be enlarged from Bishop Ellys on the Liberty of Protestantism, 127, 152, &c.” Apthorpe's Review of Dr Mayhew's Remarks.

“A Calvini (viri licet excellentis ingenii, atque in multis de reformatione optime meriti) tum disciplinâ, tum doctrinâ (qua parte ipse a Melancthone aliisque instaurati purioris Christianismi magistris antiquioribas abierit) prorsus alienos fuisse primos reformationis nostræ authores satis constat. Nimirum positis his duabus hypothesibus, 1, Christum etiam eos, qui pereunt, vere redimisse ; 2, posse vere in Christum credentes, et per Christum justificatos, a fide et justificatione, suâ culpâ, penitus deficere atque æternum perire, (quæ manifesta sunt atque indubitata ecclesiæ nostræ dogmata ;) corruit tota Calvinismi, qui dicitur, moles et machina. Hoc unum contendimus; ex incertis varieque disputatis prædestinationis occultæ conceptibus, & speculationibus, non neganda esse hæc tam clara, fixa, et stabilita Scripturæ, ecclesiæ nostræ et Catholicæ dogmata ; sed potius ex his apertis et manifestis secreta illa ita explicanda, ut cum ipsis vere possint consistere." Bulli Apolog. pro Harmonia, p. 57.

“The doctrine of a first and second justification (of the former of which St Paul must be always understood to speak, when he affirms it is to be had by grace, and not by works, and was peculiar to those who were converted from a state of paganism to Christianity, and was conferred upon them when they were received into the communion of the church, by baptism) is exactly

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conformable to the 11th and 12th Articles of our Church. For, we see that, although, in the 11th Article, it is asserted that we are justified by faith alone, and not for own works or deservings; yet, in the 12th, good works, which follow after justification, are said to be pleasing and acceptable to God, and ought to be esteemed as certain a sign of a lively and effectual faith as the fruit is of a lively and flourishing tree. The distinction that is observed between works done before and those done after justification, in the two articles, is so very striking, as plainly to shew, that the former of them is relative only to those works which precede our reception into the covenant of God, through Christ, and is, indeed, the sense of St Paul; and the latter to those which are, op ought to be, subsequent to our being made Christians, and which this article (in conformity to St James) asserts to spring out necessarily of a true and lively faith, i. e. such a faith as has its effects and operations in the heart, and grows up into a uniform and steady principle of love and obedience. In the same sense are the words of St Augustin to be understood, as they are quoted by Bishop Bull, in his Harm. Apost. Diss. ult. c. iii.: “ Bona opera sequuntur justificatum, non præcedunt justificandum.” Although that author, to favour his own hypothesis, endeavours to wrest them from their plain and obvious meaning." Halifax's Sermon on Rom. iii. 28, p. 57, 58, 60, 61.

“ I call works a necessary condition of our justification ; because, most certain it is, that the only meritorious cause thereof is the satisfaction of our Lord and Saviour, Jesus Christ. But, in the Gospel-covenant, to which we are now admitted by baptism, faith and works are the conditions ; to the performance of which, through the power of his grace, God has annexed the promises of redemption; and, without the performance of which, a right to those promises can neither be acquired nor preserved. That faith is rich a necessary condition all Christians are agreed.” Bishop Horne's Sermons.

“The 13th Article says, “that works done before the grace of Christ and the inspiration of the Spirit are not pleasant to God, for as much as they proceed not of faith in Christ.” But the preceding article, that “good works, which are the fruits of faith and follow after justification, ure pleasing and acceptable to God, in Christ, as they spring out, necessarily, of a true and lively faith. Here is an essential difference between works and works; between the works of an unconterted heathen and those of a baptized Christian ; between works performed before the grace of Christ and works performed in consequence of that grace. The word justification, as it was used at the reformation, was considered as synonimous with baptism. In Cranmer's Necessary Doctrine, in the article of justification, baptism is mentioned “as the way by which God hath determined that man, being of age, and coming to Christendom, should be justified. According to this idea. by our justification is primarily to be understood our admission into Christianity, because it was sometimes used in that sense by the sacred writers. This admission into the Christian covenant is sometimes distinguished by the title of man's first justification; and because, by this justification, man is placed in a way to be eternally happy, he is therefore frequently said to be then saved. “ By grace are ye saved,” says the apostle, Ephes. ii. S, which Mr Locke has shewn applies to admission into the Gospel-covenant.Daubeny's Append. vol. i. 181, &c.

“ Man is justified, either when delivered from the slavery of sin, and put in a way of obtaining happiness under the Christian religion, which is sometimes called being saved, or when, at last, his. salvation is fixed for eternity. As these two instances of the justification of mankind have been sometimes confounded, and the confusion has occasioned disputes, divines and our Church have called the admission into Christianity our first justification, and our salvation after death our final justification." Hey, Artic. 11, sect. 14.

“ Thomas Aquinas held absolute predestination, and Luther, who had in his youth studied the system of Thomas, retained the doctrine, (which was also the doctrine of Wickliffe,) or rather carried it still farther. About this time we had here a set of people called Gospellers; they thought, that, if they magnified Christ much, and depended on his merits and intercession, they could not perish, which way soever they led their lives. The doctrine of predestination having been generally taught by the reformers, many of this sect began to make strange inferences from it; reckoning, that, since every thing was decreed, and the decrees of God could not be frustrated, therefore men were to leave themselves to be carried by these decrees. This drew some into great impiety of life and others into desperation. The Germans soon saw the ill effects of this doctrine: Luthier changed his mind about it, and Melancthon openly wrote against it.” Burnet's History and Jortin's Dissert. 95, 96.

“ Pierre Martyr vint en Angleterre, 1547, où il avoit été invité par l'Archevêque de Canter. bury, du consentement du roi; et il fut chargé d'enseigner la Théologie å Oxford. Il fut accompagné, dans ce voyage, par Bernardin Ochin.” Sleidan, vol. ii. p. 445.

And Courayer says in his note that, “ Pierre Martyr avoit plus de penchant pour l'opinion de Zrvingle, sur l'eucharistie, que pour celle de Luther.And, in a following note, p. 495, he says, " que les ministres d'Edouard VI. ne songeroient à rien le moins qu'à introduire le Lutheranisme en Angleterre."

Predestinatio in omnibus unius modi est, aut variat. Si unius modi, aut simpliciter conditionata est, in quâ propositum pendet a præscientia, vel simpliciter absoluta, in quâ præscientia nititur proposito. Varia autem fuerit, si partim hujus, partim illius sit generis; hujus in infantibus et aliquibus adultis, ubi naturam prævenit gratia; illius in adultis aliis, ubi natura prævenit gratiam. Postrema hæc semipelagianorum sententia erat; media fuit Augustini. Prima subdividi debet. Nam Dei propositum vel nititur præscientia eorum, quæ proveniunt a viribus gratiæ, ut Catholici communiter. docuerunt, vel eorum, quæ fluunt a virtute naturæ, idque vel secundum omnes actus, ut voluit Pelagius, vel solum quod ad fidem, et initium operum justitiæ ex fide, ut Julianus existimabat. · Ex his satis liquet semipelagianorum fuisse sententiam, homines a Deo ad gratiam eligi, secundum præscientiam fidei et sanationis desiderium, quæ et primo Augustini sententia fuit. — Græci patres semper, et patrum Latinorun

- vixerunt, dicere solent eos esse prædestinatos ad vitam quos Deus p

- Verum non intellexere præscientiam



eorum, quæ homo acturus erat ex viribus naturæ, sed quæ facturus esset ex viribus gratiæ, tum prævenientis, tum subsequentis ; eoque antiquitatis ille consensus nihil, vel Pelagianos vel semipe. lagianos juvat. — Nam patres merita intelligunt ex Gratiæ viribus profecta. Fidei, quoque, ex cujus prævisione electionem factam dicunt, tam initium quam consummationem gratiæ viribus debere arbitrantur. - Et quamvis communis ante Augustinum sententia fuit causam prædestinationis ad gratiæ incrementum et gloriam dari ex parte hominis, non tamen putarunt dari ejus causam secundum omnes gratiæ effectus, cum saltem prima gratia, ex qua ipsum fidei initium et imperfecta boni cupiditas oritur, non detur propter aliquid in homine prævisum, sed ex Dei liberalitate confertur. Et sic sensit Augustinus ipse priusquam adversus Pelagium scriberet; sic enim ille lib. quæst. 83, super illud, dilexi Jacob, Esau odio habui; cujus cult, miseretur et quem vult, indurat," inquit, “ verum hæc voluntas Dei injusta esse non potest, venit enim de occultissimis meritis." Et lib. ad Simplicianum primo, quest. 2. " Nemo eligitur, nisi jam distans ab illo qui rejicitur. Unde quod dictum est, “ quia elegit nos ante mundi constitutionem,” non video, quomodo sit dictum, nisi præscientia, scilicet meritorum, i. e. fidei et operum pietatis. Neque retractavit hæc Augustinus. — Sed ut fortius premeret Pelagium communi patrum, et a se jam episcopo defensa sententia appendicem hanc annexuit, quod gratia uni præ altero offeratur, inque uno magis quam alio efficax sit, id.ab absoluto Dei decreto provenire. — Nihilominus hanc sententiam minime potuit Augustinus Catholicis omnibus persuadere. Siquidem eorum aliqui absolutum salvandi decretum reprehendebant, ut incertum, alii ut falsum, utrique ut norum, nec prædicandum. - Sed si duos actus in Deo distinguimus, quorum priori, qui est intellectus, prævideat, quid libere acturus sit homo pro hac illâve, aliâ item, aliâve rerum constitutione; posteriori autem, qui est voluntatis, præ ordine alio quem eligere poterat, eum eligat, quem nunc elegit, parebit, duas istas sententias de prædestinatione divina, quarum una conditionatum statuit prædestinationem, altera absolutam, posse conciliari. Nam quatenus decretum de hoc illove salvando-aut damnando, factum non est • sine prævia scientia, et consideratione eorum, quæ homo pro arbitrii libertate, seu bene ex viribus gratiæ, seu male ex naturæ corruptione acturus esset, fatendum est illud niti præscientia Dei conditionatà, nec alios esse electos, quam in quibus gratiæ suæ auxilia efficacia esse prævidit. Sed si intueamur, ut Deus liberrimus alium occasionum, auxiliorumque ordinem eligere potuerit, secundum quem, qui nunc libere credit, et perseverat, libere aut non creditarus, aut non perseveraturus erat, negari non potest, eo respectu prædestinationem factam esse ex absoluto decreto conferendi illa media, per quæ deus hominem certo salvandum prævidit. — Et satis liquet illum de prædestinatione absoluta solum incidentem, non principalem fuisse controversiam, et Augustinum non fuisse ursurum dogma de absoluto decreto, si Pelagius et ejus reliquiæ recedere voluissent ab ipso doctrina quâ statuunt, gratiam secundum merita dari; quod etiam illi docent, qui dicunt fidei initium et perseverantiam esse ex nobis. - Nec patres ante Augustinum, vel alii, qui conditionatum prædestinationis decretum docent, idcirco diffitentur esse insuper decretum quoddam sublimius areštxuraçov xai ane tegevintov, quod versatur circa administrationem mediorum ordinatorum ad salutem, ut ad alios sermo evangelii mittatur, ad alios non mittatur. - Sed qui absolutum decretum docebant, patiebantur eos, qui id improbarent, suo sensu abundare, hoc solo contenti, ut si dogma de absoluto decreto odiose ab iis traduci, atque impias inde conclusiones elici viderent, animose et voce et.

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