« PoprzedniaDalej »
there is to the
"ed is the man that hath his quiver full (that is to say, four and sixpence) a days
The THIRD great point, or matter, on which I wish to fix your attention, is the country, or countries, to which put to them at five or six years of age, it may probably be intended to send you, to be reared by them until they bare and the dangers which will attend you, twelve or fourteen, are bound to teach if you suffer yourselves to be sent away. them to read and to write during those In the first place, you quit your parents, years, and to fit them out with clothes, brethren, and friends, for ever'; you will and to give them each fifty pounds observe that it is intended to be for ever, a-piece at the end of the times if the if, as I understand the proposition, you Government will take you to that blessare not to return without being exposed ed country, where every man of twentyto starvation. Even if be a single of has a vote in the and the necessary choosing of Members for the Houses of man, a sea voyage, hard treatment on board of ship, are not Assembly; ; if the Government will send things to be
have wife and ght little of. If you you to that country, then I say GOJɛt
children, or children
without wife, or wife without children, other intentions; they appear to have the hardship is still greater. I, who Australia (as they call it) or Nova the Atlantic six times, Scotia, New Brunswick, or Canada, Un know poor people suffer in their minds. Now, mark amepathis sea voyages. The moment you step Australia is part of a great wild country your foot on board of ship, the captain in the South Seas, to get to which, reof that ship is your master; he can im-quires nine months or twelve months of prison you, or corporally punish you, if sea passage, to survive such a voyage he chooses. At any rate, you have to is quite enough for a young abdostout live upon the allowance that he allotsman, and as to women and children, you, and it is not to be supposed, that how are they to survived it? Crowded men who are called paupers before they together in the hold of a ship, that ship go away, will be treated with any ex-knocked about by storms and tempests, traordinary degree of humanity and the ears dinned with the rattling of the gentleness. In spite of all this, how-thunder, and the soul terrified by the ever, if you could have security for the dreadful flashes of lightning. Besides, Government causing you to be carried have you not read of the dismal fate of to the UNITED STATES OF AME-the poor creatures who have gone to RICA (pray mark the name of the that country is not that enough to country; pray remember it well); if make you cling even to yourwbeggarly the Government would cause you to be hovels and your potatoes, rather than taken there to live under that free go-expose wives and children that you love vernment, where there are neither taxes to sufferings like those Australia, or nor titles; where men earn a dollar Swan River, as it is sometimes called,
the English Go
or Botany Bayman's Land, countries ofstrate, and he
which are all different
of the same vernor is the chief
horrido countrys to none of those will is not chosen by the is governor
ay mango who is plainly, told what they are, sand, who has common sense left in his mindbau
With respect to Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Canada, which all join fogether and a part of which latter joins the United States of America: in my Emigrant's Guide, speaking of these countries in comparison with the United States, I have described them thus Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Canada, are the horns, the head, the neck, the shins, and the hoofs of the ox, and the United States are the ribs, the sirloin, the kidneys, and the rest of the bodys I myself when in the army,
in the United States are. This governor
dived in Nova Scotia and New Bruns- guard were with Hanuel,
wick eight years. They are one great coats lined with flannel, their head heap off rocks, covered with fir-trees, covered with caps of the same sort, with here and there a little strip of land leaving only an opening for the eyes rapables of cultivation, by the sides and the nose. They used to come out efs the rivers on What these countries and range themselves at about fifty gresyon may✨ judge from the fol- yards from the room out
lawing facts; that almost all the meat went to them; and though they had andbeallithe: flour, consumed in them, only just run out of their barrackliss carried from the United States; rooms, I have seen half a dozen men at that green peas are carried into those a time with their noses frost-bitten, countries from the United States, and which you perceive the moment you seven of cabbages that, as to fruits, see them, by their having become chefries, apples, pears, all go from the white. The remedy is instantly to rub United States, though at a distance of with snow the part affected; but, very hundreds of miles, just as gooseberries frequently, if this be delayed only for are sent from Middlesex and Surrey to half an hour, mortification takes place; Scotland. In short, the most barren, and there are thousands of men in those the most villanous piece of waste land; countries with their hands or feet cut the thin shell upon the top of a gravel off in order to save their lives. But, pit in England, compared with the fat my friends, rest not on my word meadows and the gardens in the Med-alone for those facts. In my Emiway, or the beautiful valleys in Wilt-grant's Guide there are letters from shire, is precisely what Nova Scotia John Watson, the son of Stephen Watand New Brunswick are to the United son, of the village of Seddlescomb, near States of America. A small part of Canada is rather better, when it approaches near to the United States; but here all the good land has been given away long ago to officers of the army and parsons and other persons in office, who swarm in that country. And in these countries, observe, there are church parsons; so that if you go there, you will not lose this blessing, at any rate.
Battle, in Sussex. This John Watson was sent out to America at the expense of the parish; but he thought he was going to the United States of America, when he found himself landed in that miserable country New Brunswick. He had land given him within a few miles of the spot where I lived for the better part of four years. But he found his situation so wretched that he took his family, a wife and several children,
and dragged them along through an and that she is bound to the United extent of country three thousand miles States of America Remember these bas in length, in order to get out of that words, write these words down, if you country. He went all through Lower can write, listen to no one that gives and Upper Canada, from which last he you advice contrary to this. Tell what got into the United States of America, I now tell you to all your friends and and then, under that cheap Government, all your neighbours round about. If and amidst that kind people, he began any attempt be made to force you away, to labour, to thrive, to prosper, and his that attempt is a crime against the last letter tells his father (whom I saw laws. You have as much right to live last October at Battle), that he, John in England as the lords and the parsons Watson, who was a parish pauper in and the squires have, and as the king Sussex, is now a farmer of his own himself has. If you be refused parofarm, in the midst of abundance of all chial relief unless you will go away, go sorts, and wanting nothing to make to a magistrate. If he will not hear him happy but the presence of his and you, send a petition to the Parliament, his wife's fathers and mothers. These to be presented by Mr. HUME or Mr. letters of the Sussex emigrants bespeak SADLER. Stir not from your homes, I the character of the labourers of Eng- advise you, one inch, unless you be cerland, and ought to make shame be tain that you are going into an Ameripainted upon the cheeks of those who can ship, and that that ship is bound to entertain projects for sending them the United States of America. away out of their country. If I under- But, after all, WHY SHOULD YOU stand rightly the words of the man who GO ANY WHITHER? This is your has brought forward the project for native land; I have shown you how sending you away from your native complete your rights are in this land country, the rich fellows who have en- if there be too many people in it, let grossed the lands in Australia (as they those go who live upon the fruit of call it) have offered to bear part of the your labour, and who do no work themexpense of sending you away to them. selves. You have a right to live well I pray you mark well my words here. here; not only to live, but to love, to Have offered to bear part of the expense marry, and have all human enjoyments. of sending you there, if YOUR SER- Besides, you are in the way of improveVICES CAN BE SECURED TO ment: you have lived better this winTHEM FOR A LIMITED TIME! ter than you did the last: you now get That is to say, if the Government will some bread and some meat. Wait for compel you to serve them for a certain a further and greater change in your time or if it can persuade you to agree circumstances: quit not your native to do it! Pray mark this well; for, land, after having endured so much if you be thus compelled, you are and for so long a time; after having SLAVES for that length of time; and lived upon potatoes for so many years, if you thus agree, you are bondsmen quit it not at the moment when you and bondswomen and bondschildren, are beginning to taste of bread and of for that length of time! meat. ved udistlejar wore
of the poor and the needy, his ene- Ministers, by which act of the
"Blessed is he that pleadeth the cause approbation of this great act of the the unjust power "mies shall not prevail against him; is taken from the aristocracy and re"I will make all his bed on the day of stored to the people. "his sickness."
PEOPLE OF PRESTON.
On the Parliamentary Reform now · under Discussion, and on the Conduct of the Preston Cock with regard to
Kensington, 10th March, 1831.
The mind of no man, however comprehensive, however long accustomed to meditate on such matters, however endued with the faculty of foresight, can, all at once, embrace the various great effects, which must, of necessity, spring from this change. Before, however, I speak of any of these effects, let me do justice to the authors of the change, or, rather, to the author; for, it is as clear to me as daylight is, that we owe this, I trust, timely measure to LORD GREY, and Lord Grey alone: and this is a matter of which you, good men of Preston, and all others the people of MY EXCELLENT FRIENDS, England, ought to have a clear underBy this appellation I still address standing. This measure is one the you, though, as it will be my duty to adoption of which will form a really prove, you have, your late choice of NEW ERA in the affairs of England, aye, a member, done as much mischief to and of the world too; it will produce your country as it was in your power to greater effects than any that has been do by the means of so feeble an instru- adopted since the "PROTESTANT REment, an instrument to whose feeble- FORMATION": it will be called "THE ness, indeed, it will be owing, that you REFORM," as the change made in the have not done as much harm to the time of Henry VIII. is called “THE people of England, as you, at the ex- REFORMATION," and as that made in pense of so many sacrifices, have en- 1688 is called "THE REvolution”: our deavoured to do them good. Before, children and their children will have to however, I go into this part of my talk of "before the Reform subject, permit me to offer you some "since the Reform, as we now talk of remarks upon the nature and the natural" before the revolution" and "since the effects of the Reform now proposed to revolution." We ought, therefore, now, be made. while all the facts are before us, to trace this measure to its real author, and to fix that point, so that there never shall be any dispute, nor any doubt, about the matter.
་ ་་ ་་་
With respect to the nature of the reform, I shall not enter here into minute detail, because the bill may undergo alterations as to particular towns, boroughs, or counties. When the thing is done, I will give all the details, and show precisely what changes have been made. At present I shall, as to the nature of the reform, merely observe, that, if carried into full effect, it will give us a government of king, lords, and cominons, instead of a government of king, lords, and boroughinongers. For this change 1 have been writing and praying for twenty-four, years; and I should be that which knaves and fools have called me, the most inconsistent of mortals, if I did not now express my
In causing the reform to be adopted, numerous indeed are the parties who will have a fair claim to a share. The people, the king, and a part of the press. I agree too, with Mr. HODGES, the worthy Member for Kent, that SWING suspended his operations in the hope of seeing the Reform adopted; and I believe that his fearful, his terrifie operations, were one great cause, if not the greatest inmediate cause, of this mighty measure. The recent fate of the Bourbons was another cause; and the present state and prospects of the govern
ment of France another cause. But, I maintained, that iffthe aristocracy would ef am not now writing the history of the consent to a reform of the Parliament, Reform, but am at present anxious to and thereby restore to the people theirne implant in the minds of my readers the fair share of the government, the examės z fact, that Lord GREY, and he alone, ple of France was not an object for them ought to be regarded as the author of to dread. In the year 1793, he: premil the measure.i 943 vino sented that famous petition which I Lord JoHN RUSSELL, when he opened have republished at full length in my the measure to the HOUSE OF COMMONS, Register, five or six times; and the said, that the Bill had been drawn up pith of which, pamely, that adhun by the First Lord of the Treasury him-dred and fifty-four boroughmongers self. This might have been, and yet returned a majority of the House of that First Lord no more the author of Commons, I have quoted at least, L it than the person to whom I am now should suppose, two hundred times. : dictating is the author of this Letter to Indeed, the statements of this petition you. I dare say that Lord Grey, who have been our great war-horse against has not the beastly folly to write in a the boroughmongers. This petition hand that nobody can read, did himself was also the work of Lord. GREY.It actually draw up, actually write the bears all through it the marks of his -Bill; but not now, unless the worms pen. But the Bill for the bringing ini had eaten his old copy; for he of which he moved in the year 1797, <4 had this Bill, this very Bill, drawn up was entirely his own works has vanis by himself, and moved for leave to bring Why, it may be asked, has he kept ito it into the House of Commons, in the out of sight all this time 20 When itzī year 1797; that is to say, thirty-four was rejected by a majority of bimore t years ago, that is to say, when Lord than three to one, in 1797, the naerr John Russell was three years and nine tion was mad with a lover of wan, months old. It is the same identical and with the prosperity vof paper Bill: the 113 county members, the money, and thus it continued until copy-holders, the lease-holders, the the death of Pitt, which took place. ! house-holders, the breaking up of the in 1806. Then Lord Grey came into vile holes of corruption called bo-power; and now he committed the only: roughs all is the same. Lord Grey fault or folly that I can discover in hiso was thirty-four years old when he life, being willing to look upon the late brought forward this measure, and he is Special Commissions as a measure to now in the sixty-eighth year of a sober which his assent was 14 obtained by and mostly a country life. So that he has persons and means whom I do not care had this bill by him, ready drawn up, to name, and which I do not care to i during one-half of his whole lifetime, decribe. With this exception, the going and during the whole of the manhood into power, without proposing his re¬!! of his long life except thirteen years. form, is the only fault or folly that I can For the truth of this statement, I refer discover in his life. He has always every reader to the Parliamentary De-been-right as to the interference with bates, 26th May, 1797, or to the Annual the affairs of foreign nations; always: Register of that t-year and as to the age right as to the nature and effects of of Lord Grey, that is stated in the Peer-paper-money; always right as to the age. He first came into Parliament, I be effects of the stupid, and beastly bill of lieve, when he was about five-and-twenty. Peel and of all the measures growing He had been there but a very little out of it; the only fault or folly to be while when the French Revolution found in the history of his life is the broke out. When, in the year 1793, the having gone into office without bring nation was about to be plunged into ing forward his measure of reform. the war against the republicans of The Whigs, to which party he had France, he constantly distinguished him- always belonged, had contended for the self as the opponent of that war, and necessity of reform when out of office;