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that I wrote the History of the Protes" appeal to a tender [father, lay those tant Reformation. grievances before your Majesty.However, besides the words uttered" That we complain, may it please your at the Lecture, I distributed a hand-bill“ Majesty, not of the form of that Goamongst those who came to hear me at "vernment which has endured for so Battle. Ah! It might be this that" many ages, and under which our made the poor, simple young man so "fathers were so free, lived in such ease mischievous! The hand-bill was a "and abundance, and saw their country printed petition to the king, a copy of" so great and so much honoured which was given to every person that" throughout the world; we complain entered the booth. Let us see, then," not of the nature of the institutions what effects it was calculated to pro- "of our country, which have stood the duce. It began thus: "Most humbly" test of centuries; we complain not of "showeth, That we approach your Ma-" any-thing, an attack on which would "jesty, not as blind adorers of royalty, argue a hankering after innovation, "but as faithful and dutiful subjects," but, on the contrary, it is of innova"whose fidelity and duty are founded" tions, innovations endless in number, "in our conviction, that, in highly cruelly oppressive, and studiously in"honouring and cheerfully obeying "sulting, that we have now to make your Majesty, in upholding, with all complaint to your Majesty." "our might, your just prerogatives, and No direct incentives to rebellion, at “evincing our most profound respect any rate! The petition then went on to **for your person, we best consult our state a series of plain facts, the truth of "own welfare, knowing that you are every one of which is not only unde"endowed with those prerogatives for niable, but capable of juridical proof, "the common good of us all, and not and the facts stated, too, without any "for your own exclusive advantage.- attempt at exaggeration. After this the "That feeling ourselves thus bound to paper concluded thus: "Thus, may it 66 your Majesty, not by harsh constraint, please your Majesty, we have, in all "but by a willing obedience arising" humility and dutifulness, submitted "from a due estimate of our own inter-" to your wisdom and justice a state"est and bonour, regarding your person "ment of a part of our manifold griev "as sacred, not from servility of mind, "ances and sufferings: we have, in the "but because you are the fountain of "sincerity of our hearts, expressed to "justice and of mercy, taught by the" you our firm conviction, that all these "laws of our country that kings were" have arisen from our not being repre"made for the people and not the peo- "sented in parliament; and as the "ple for kings, regarding your kingly, means of restoring us to liberty and "powers as given to you for the pur- "happiness, as the means of uniting all pose of preserving the peace, the "hearts in preserving the peace of our “rights, and the happiness of the peo-" country and upholding the dignity and "ple, and more especially for the de-" true splendour of your Majesty's "fence and protection of the weak" crown, we humbly but earnestly pray, "against the strong, of the poor against" that of those great powers with which "the unjust encroachments of the rich, your Majesty is invested for the good of the fruits of industry against the" of your faithful people, you will be "wiles and the violence of aristocratical" graciously pleased to make such use "ambition, arrogance and rapacity; as shall produce a reform in the "animated by all these considerations, Commons' House, ensuring to all "and beholding in your Majesty's most adult males, not insane and not tar"gracious conduct and demeanour an "nished by indelible crime, a voice, "indubitable proof of your anxious de-"given by ballot, in the choosing of "sire to promote our good by a redress" representatives, and as shall shorten "of our grievances, we, with the con- " the duration of Parliaments.' "fidence with which suffering children Vastly inflammatory," to be sure



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and the prudent course is, to yield to
their wish at once, and to come to a
settlement justly and peaceably. "As I
have said, over and over again, some-
thing must give way; something, some
part or other of this present system,
must yield to the mighty pressure. It
is the circumstances, and not iny writings
alone, that are at work.
'But men
situated as the parsons now are, will not
see the true cause; and thus it is that
danger becomes destruction.*** ve mob-tw

Mind, one of these papers was put into enough for them to do to answer the hand of every person who went to Two-PENNY TRASH, No7 Let them hear me; so that this orphan had this send me an answer to that, and that paper to read after I came away. This will be occupation for them for some paper was the thing most likely to pro- time. And by way of amusement, Tet duce impression on his mind; and a them read the petition now signing ia strange mind indeed must that have the COUNTY OF SUFFOLK, which conbeen, if this urged him to commit a cludes with praying, that the tithes violent act of any description. Never" may again be applied, as Originally was any thing so foul as this charge." intended to be; namely, to the relief All my efforts tended to put a stop to" of the poor and the repair of the violence; for, what was so likely to put "churches, instead of the people being a stop to it, as for the farmers, in every heavily taxed for these purposes." Let parish, to call all the people together, to them read such things as this; and let explain to them the causes of their in- them answer these petitioners. How ability to pay sufficient wages, to sign a ever, let them do what they like, and petition along with them, and exhort say what they like, they never can them to wait patiently till there had been change men's minds upon this most im time to consider their petitions? And portant subject. On this point the whole this was the advice that I every-where nation, the parties interested in upholdgave. If this advice had been followed, ing tithes excepted, are of one mind there would have been an instant stop to all the violences, and the dreadful scenes which we now behold in the West would never have been beheld at all. Aye, aye; the calumniators know this as well as I do! But, I have written the HISTORY OF THE PROTESTant ReformatioN! I have taught the people WHAT TITHES WERE GRANTED FOR: and I have written the Poor MAN'S FRIEND, maintaining the RIGHTS OF THE POOR; and I have written the YEAR'S RESIDENCE IN AMERICA, showing how well people are off in a country where there are no pensions, sinecures, THE AMERICAN PRESIDENT'S standing armies, nor tithes; and I have written 12 SERMONS, two of which treat of cruelty to the poor, and of parsons and tithes; and I have written the EMIGRANT'S GUIDE, showing how soon a miserable English pauper becomes a man of property, when he has landed in a country where there are hardly any taxes and no tithes. These are my real sins; and thumping sins, they are. They are, however, past praying for. They are committed. They have produced, and are producing, their effect; and it is perfectly useless to abuse their author. If the parsons would set about answering the HISTORY OF THE PROTESTANT REFORMATION, they would act a more becoming part than they are now acting towards me. However, there is quite +4-0799 10 (8090995) 78qua

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MESSAGE. 2005) 1905

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received the President's Message by express. A LITTLE after twelve o'clock last night, we The person engaged to bring it to this city would have reached here at a much earlier hour but for a disappointment in his arrangements in Philadelphia. He, however, by his perseverance, has enabled us to lay it before our readers at an early hour this morning.

The National Intelligencer of Tuesday states, that a large proportion of the Members of ConGeneral Smith, of Maryland, took the chair. gress were present on Monday. In the Senate, In the House of Representatives, Mr. Speaker Stevenson was absent; but we learn from The Baltimore Patriot of Tuesday evening, that the Speaker arrived at Washington on Tuesday morning.

Both Houses met on Tuesday, when the following Message was delivered

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MESSAGult not devono falus the 577 1976 get to 240 ba 1* OF "SESATE AND whom we so sincerely love and justly admire HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES The pleasure 1 has given to the world of the high character have is congratulating you on your return to of the present King of the French, and which, your constitutional duties is much heightened if sustained to the end, will secure to him the by the satisfaction which the condition of our proud appellation of the Patriot King, it is not beloved country at this inspires. in his success, but in of the great prinThe beneficent, Author of all good has granted ciple which has borne him to the throne-the to ns, during the present year, health, peace, paramount authority of the public will-that and plenty, and numerous causes for joy in the the American people rejoice.to store Wonderful success which attends the the progress I am happy to inform you, that the anticipa of our free institutions. tions which were indulged at the date of my With a population unparalleled in its in- last communication on the subject of our focrease, and possessing a character which com-reign affairs, have been fully realised in seve bines the hardihood of enterprize, with the ral important particulars.141 28,11 of qoje ż considerateness of wisdom, we see in every All arrangement has been effected with section of our happy country a steady improve- Great Britain, in relation to the trade between ment in the means of social intercourse, and the United States and her West India and correspondent effects upon the genius and laws North American Colonies, which has setof our extended Republic, tled a question that has for years afforded inatter for contention and almost uninterupted discussion, and has been the subject of no less than six negociations, in a manner which promises results highly favourable to the parties.

The apparent exceptions to the harmony of the prospect are to be referred rather to inevitable diversities in the various interests which enter into the composition of so extensive a whole, than to any want of attachment to the Union-interests, whose collision serves only, in the end, to foster the spirit of conciliation and patriotism, so essential to the preservation of that union, which, I most devoutly hope, is destined to prove, imperishable In of these we have recently witnessed changes in the condition of other uations, which may in their consethences call for the utmost vigilance, wisdom, and unanimity in our Councils, and the exercise of all the moderation and patriotism of our people.

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The abstract right of Great Britain to mo nopolise the trade with her Colonies, or to exclude us from a participation therein, has never been denied by the United States. But we have contended, and with reason, that if at any time Great Britain may desire the tions of this country, as necessary to her Colo nies, they must be received upon principles of just reciprocity; and further, that it is making an invidious and unfriendly distinction to open her colonial ports to the vessels of other nations and close them against those of the United States.

Antecedently to 1794, a portion of our productions was admitted into the Colonial islands of Great Britain by particular concessions, limited to the term of one year, but renewed these productions, however, our vessels were not allowed to engage; This being a privilege reserved to British shipping, by which alone our produce could be taken to the islauds, and theirs brought to us in return. From Newfoundland and her continental possessions, all her productions, as well as our vessels, were excluded, with occasional relaxations, by which, in seasons of distress, the former were admitted in British bottoms.

The important modifications of their Goverument, effected with so much courage and wisdom by the people of France, afford a happy presage of their future course, and have naturally elicited from the kindred feelings of this of applause in which you have participated. In congratulating you, my fellow-citizens, upon an event so auspicious to the dearest interests of mankind, I do no more than respond to the voice of my country, without transgressing, in the slightest degree, that salutary maxim of the illustrious Washington, which enjoins an abstinence from all interference with the internal affairs of other nations. From a people exercising, in the most unlimited degree, the right of self- By the Treaty of 1794, she offered to copvernment, and enjoying, as derived from this cede to us, for a limited time, the right of proud characteristic, under the favour of carrying to her West India possessious, în Heaven, much of the happiness with which our vessels not exceeding seventy tons bur they are blessed; a people who can point den, and upon the same terms with British in triumph to their free institutions, and vessels, any productions of the United States challenge comparison with the fruits they which British vessels might import therefrom. bear, as well as with the moderation, intelli- But this privilege was coupled with condi gence, and energy, with which they are admi- tions which are supposed to have led to its nistered; from such a people, the deepest rejection by the Senate, that is, that Ameri sympathy was to be expected in a for can vessels should land their the sacred principles of liberty, conducted in in the United States only; and, moreover, a spirit every way of the cause, and that they should, during the continuance of crowned 20 heroic moderation which has the privilege, be precluded from carrying disarmed revolution of its terrors. Notwith-molasses, sugar, coffee, cocoa, or cotton,



either from those islands or from the United nations that have so many motives, not only States, to any other part of the world. Great to cherish feelings of mutual friendship, but Britain readily consented to expunge this arti- to maintain such relations as will stimulate cle from the treaty; and subsequent attempts their respective citizens and subjects to efto arrange the terms of the trade, either by forts on direct, open, and honourable com treaty, stipulation, or concerted legislation, petition only, and preserve them from the in having failed, it has been successively sus-fluence of seductive and vitiating circum pended and allowed, according to the varying stances. legislation of the parties.

The following are the prominent points which have, in late years, separated the two Governments. Besides a restriction, whereby all importations into her Colonies in American vessels are confined to our own products carried hence a restriction to which it does not appear that we have ever objected-a leading object on the part of Great Britain has been to prevent us from becoming the carriers of British West India commodities to any other country thau our own. On the part of the United States, it has been contended: 1st. That the subject should be regulated by treaty stipulations, in preference to separate legisla tion; 2d. That our productions, when imported into the colonies in question, should not he subject to higher duties than the productions of the mother country, or of her other colonial possessions; and, 3d, That our vessels should be allowed to participate in the circuitous trade between the United States and different parts of the British dominions.

When your preliminary interposition was asked at the close of the last Session, a copy of the instructions under which Mr. M'Lane has acted, together with the communications which had at that time passed between him and the British Government, was laid before you. Although there has not been any-thing in the acts of the two Governments which re quires secrecy, it was thought most proper, in the then state of the negociation, to make ' that communication a confidential one. So soon, however, as the evidence of execution on the part of great Britain is received, the ' whole matter shall be laid before you, when it will be seen that the apprehension which appears to have suggested one of the provisions of the Act passed at your last Session, that the restoration of the trade in question might be connected with other subjects, and was sought to be obtained at the sacrifice of the public interest in other particulars, was wholly unfounded; and that the change which has taken place in the views of the British GovernThe first point, after having been for a long ment has been induced by considerations as time strenuously insisted upon by Great Bri-honourable to both parties, as, I trust, the tain, was given up by the Act of Parliament result will prove beneficial. of July, 1825; all vessels suffered to trade This desirable result was, it will be seen, with the colonies being permitted to clear greatly promoted by the liberal and confiding from thence with any articles which British provisions of the Act of Congress of the last vessels might export, and to proceed to any Session, by which our ports were, upon the part of the world, Great Britain and her de-acceptation and annunciation by the Presi- ' pendencies alone excepted. On our part, each of the above points had, in succession, been explicitly abandoned, in negociations preceding that of which the result is now announced.

This arrangement secures to the United States every advantage asked by them, and which the state of the negociation allowed as to insist upon. The trade will be placed upon a footing decidedly more favourable to this country than any on which it ever stood; and our commerce and navigation will enjoy, in the colonial ports of Great Britain, every privilege allowed by other nations.

That the prosperity of the country, so far as it depends on this trade, will be greatly promoted by the new arrangement, there can be no doubt. Independently of the more obvious advantages of aù open and direct intercourse, its establishment will be attended with other consequences of a higher value. That which has been carried on since the mutual inter

dent of the required assurance on the part of, Great Britain, forthwith opened to her vessels, before the arrangements could be carried into effect on her part; pursuing, in this act of prospective legislation, a similar course to that adopted by Great Britain, in abolishing, by her Act of Parliament, in 1925, a restriction then existing, and permitting our vessels to clear from the colonies, on their return voy ages, for any foreign country whatever, before British vessels had been relieved from the restriction imposed by our law, of returning directly from the United States to the colo nies-a restriction which she required and expected that we should abolish. Upon each occasion a limited and temporary advantage has been given to the opposite party, but an advantage of no importance in comparison with the restoration of the mutual confidence and good feeling, and the ultimate establishment of the trade upon fair principles.

It gives me unfeigned pleasure to assure dict, under all the expense and inconvenience you that this negociation has been, throughunavoidably incident to it, would have been out, characterised by the most frank and insupportably onerous, had it not been, in a friendly spirit on the part of Great Britain, great degree, lightened by concerted evasions and concluded in a manner strongly indicative in the mode of making the transhipments at of a sincere desire to cultivate the best refations with the United States. To reciproente

what are called the neutral ports. These in

directions are inconsistent with the dignity of this disposition to the fullest extent of my

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viro thuesvitom VOBY 02 9Vad todt avertunt, bu ability, is a duty which I shall deem it a pricessor, as to have become incorporated with vilege to discharge mortal91 foi o ateik m the public sentiment of the United States. No -Although the result is itself the best com- means will be left unemployed on my part to meotary cow the services rendered to his promote those salutary feelings, and those imcountry by our Minister at the Court of St. provements of which the commercial interJames, it would be doing violence to my feel- course between the two countries is equally ings were I to dismiss the subject without ex- susceptible, and which have derived increased pressing the very high sense I entertain of the importance from our treaty with the Sublime talent and exertions which have been dis-Porte. played by him on the occasion.

The injury to the commerce of the United States resulting from the exclusion of our vessels from the Black Sea, and the previous footing of mere sufferance upon which even the limited trade enjoyed by us with Turkey has hitherto been placed, have, for a long time, been a source of much solicitude to this Government, and several endeavours have been made to obtain a better state of things. Sensible of the importance of the object, I felt | it my duty to leave no proper means unemployed to acquire for our flag the same privileges that are enjoyed by the principal Powers of Europe Commissioners were, consequently, appointed to open a negociation with the Sublime Porte. Not long after the Member of the Commissiou, who went directly from the United States, had sailed, the acceant of the treaty of Adrianople, by which one of the objects in view was supposed to be secured, reached this country. The Black Sea was understood to be opened to us. Under the supposition that this was the case, the additional facilities to be derived from the establishment of, commercial regulations with she Porte were deemed of sufficient importance to require a prosecution of the negociation as originally contemplated. It was, therefore, persevered in, and resulted in a treaty which will forthwith be laid before the Senate.

I sincerely regret to inform you that our Minister lately commissioned to that Court, on whose distinguished talents and great experience in public affairs I place great reliance, has been compelled, by extreme indisposition, to exercise a privilege, which, in consideration of the extent to which his constitution has been impaired in the public service, was committed to his discretion, of leaving temporarily his post for the advantage of a more genial climate.

If, as it is to be hoped, the improvement of his health will be such as to justify him in doing so, he will repair to St. Petersburgh, and resume the discharge of his official duties. I have received the most satisfactory assur ance, that in the mean time, the public interests in that quarter will be preserved from prejudice, by the intercourse which he will continue, through the Secretary of Legation, with the Russian Cabinet.

You are apprised, although the fact has not yet been officially announced to the House of Representatives, that a treaty was, in the mouth of March last, concluded between the United States and Denmark, by which 650,000 dollars are secured to our citizens as an indemnity for spoliations upon their commerce in the years 1808, 1809, 1810, 1811. This treaty was sanctioned by the Senate at the close of its last session, and it now becomes the duty of Congress to pass the necessary laws for the organization of the Board of Commissioners to distribute the indemnity amongst the claimants. It is an agreeable cir cumstance in this adjustment, that its terms are in conformity with the previously ascertained views of the claimants themselves; thus removing all pretence for a future agitation of the subject in any form.

By its provisions a free passage is secured, without limitation of time, to the vessels of the United States to and from the Black Sea, including the uavigation thereof; and our trade with Turkey is placed on the footing of the most favoured nations.-The latter is an arrangement wholly independent of the treaty of Adrianople; and the former derives much value not only from the increased security which, under any circumstances, it Of the points not yet adjusted, the most would give to the right, in question, but from prominent are our claims upon France for the fact, ascertained in the course of the nespoliations upon our commerce; similar claims gociation, that, by the construction put upon that Treaty by Turkey, the article relating to the passage of the Bosphorus is confined to nations having Treaties with the Porte. The most friendly feelings appear to be entertained by the Sultan, and an enlightened disposition is evinced by him to foster the intercourse between the two countries by the most liberal arrangements. This disposition it will be our duty and interest to cherish


Our relations with Russia are the most stable character. Respect for that empire, and confidence in its friendship towards the United States, have been so long entertained pa our part, and so carefully cherished by the resent Emperor and his illustrious prede

upon Spain, together with embarrassments in the commercial intercourse between the two countries, which ought to be removed; the conclusion of the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation with Mexico, which has been so long in suspense, as well as the final settlement of limits between ourselves and that Republic; and finally, the arbitrament of the question between the United States and Great Britain, in regard to the North eastern boundary.

The negociation with France has been con ducted by our Minister with zeal and ability, and in all respects to my entire satisfaction. Although, the prospect of a favourable termination was occasionally dimmed by counter

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