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Pitt had reason to fear that, with a war^^ on his shoulders, he would be unable to retain his power. But the Foxite portion of the aristocracy, seeing the common danger, and seeing the grounds of Pitt's opposition to war, went over and joined the Pittite party; leaving Fox with a small party about him, to carry on that "constitutional opposition" which was necessary to amuse and deceive the people.

amount of the DEBT, which had now reached in 1793, came the question of war against the the fearful amount of two hundred millions and Republic of France. Pitt, for the reasons upwards. A new war was wholly incompatible before stated, was decidedly opposed to warr with Pitt's schemes of reduction; and he, of The portion of the aristocracy that supported course, would be, and he really was, opposed to him were for war; but, they were for their the war of 1793, though he carried it on (with leader too, because, if he quitted his post, For the exception of the truce before-mentioned) came in with the tribe of Whigs at his heels. until the day of his death, which took place in Besides, a vast majority of the people, whether 1806. And here we behold the direct, open, Pittites or Foxites, were against the war. So avowed, and all-ruling power of the aristocrathat cy! This body had, for many years, been divided into two "parties," as they called them, bearing the two nick names of TORIES and Wrics, the etymology of which is of no consequence. The TORIES affected very great attachment to the throne and the church; the WAIGS affected perfect loyally, indeed, but surprising devotion to the rights of the people, though it was they who had brought in the 21. Thus supported by the two bodies of Dutch king and his army, and who had made the aristocracy united, Pitt went into this the Riot Act and the Septennial Bill; so that, memorable war, which, though attended with if they were the friends of the people, what numerous important consequences, was at must their enemies have been! The truth is, tended with none equal, in point of ultimate there was no difference, as far as regarded the effect, to the measures by which paper-money people, between these two factions; their real was made u legal tender in 1797. The aristoquarrels were solely about the division of the cracy, in resorting to this expedient, were not spoil; for, whenever any contest arose between at all aware, that, though it gave them the aristocracy and the poople, the two factions strength for the time, it must, in the end, behad always united in favour of the former; reave them of all strength; that it must take and thus it was in regard to that all-important from them the means of future wars, or compel question, the war against Republican Frauce. them to blow up that system of debts and 19. PITT, who was the son of a Whig-Pen-funds which had been invented by them as a sioner, and had begun his career not only rock of safety, and without the existence of as a Whig, but as a Parliamentary re- which the whole fabric of their power must go former, was now at the head of the Tories; to pieces. and CHARLES Fox, who had not only been 22. In the meanwhile, however, on they bred a Tory and begun bis career as a went with the war, and with the struggle Tory, but who had, and who held to the between them and the people on the score of day of his death, two sinecure offices, was Parliamentary Reform; the people ascribing at the head of the Whigs. These were the two the war and all its enormous debts and taxes men of the whole collection who could talk to the want of that reform, and the aristocracy loudest, longest, and most fluently, and who ascribing their complaints to seditions and were, therefore, picked out by their respective treasonable designs, and passing laws to siparties to lead in carrying those "debates," lence them, or punish them accordingly. as they are called, which have been one of the When this year began (1793) the Septennial great means of amusing and deluding and bill had been in existence seventy-nine years, enslaving this nation. Every effort was made and that it had produced its natural fruits is by the respective parties to exalt their cham-clearly proved by the following undeniable pions in the public estimation: they were facts namely, that at the time of the "Glorious represented as the two most wonderful men Revolution,' in 1688, one of the charges that the world had ever seen; as orators, Pitt against King James was, "that he had viowas compared to Cicero, and Fox to Demos-"lated the freedom of election of Members thenes Pitt, as a lawgiver, surpassed Lycur" to serve in Parliament "; that one of the gus: Fox more nearly resembled Solon! The standing laws of Parliament is, "that it is a people, always credulous and vain enough ás "high crime and misdemeanor in any peer to to such matters, carried away by the jugglery," interfere in the clection of Members to serve ranged themselves under one or the other of in the House of Commons"; that, in 1793, these paragons and took their respective Mr. Grey, now Earl Grey, presented a petition names as marks of honourable distinction; to the House of Commons, signed by himself and thus, for thirty long years, were the and others, stating, "that a decided majority industrious aud sincere and public-spirited" of that House was returned by one hundred people of this country divided into Pittites and fifty-four men, partly peers and partly and Foxites; thus were they for those thirty" great commoners, and by the ministry of the years the sport of the aristocracy who employ-"day"; that he offered to prove the allegation ed these political impostors, while every year by witnesses at the bar of the House, and of the thirty saw an addition to their burdens that he was not permitted to bring his wit and a diminution of their liberties. nesses to the bar; that there was an appendix to this petition, containing a list of the names

20. In this state stood the factions, when,

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of all the pears and great commoners, who to hold up as an example to our children, thus returned the Members, exhibiting the which, as far as my knowledge and hearing number of Members returned by each, and have gone, is not the case here, it is best to that this list is recorded in the Annual Re pass over this comparatively insignificant gister for the yeard 1793, that in 1779, the part of his life, come at once to the period House of Commons had resolved that an at-when he came openly in contact with the tempt to straffic in seats in that House was nation's purse, and, turning a deaf ear to “-highly-criminal in a minister of the king; both sycophants and satirists, relate truly "that it was an attack on the dignity and what he did, or what was done in his name, "herour of the House, an infringement on the leaving the world to judge of his character by "rights and liberties of the people, and an his actions.. "attempt to sap the basis of our free and 25. For these reasons I shall pass over all "happy constitution"; that on the 25th of the previous part of this king's life, and come April, 1809, LORD CASTLEREAGH, then a min at once to the time when he entered into that ister of the king, having been proved to have marriage which led to consequences, which thus trafficked, the House resolved," that it have engaged the attention, as well as excited "was its bounden duty to maintain, at all some degree of feeling, in every part of the "times, a jealous guard on its purity, the at-civilized world. The brave and unfortunate "tempt, in the present instance, not having Caroline, who was the victim of this matri"been carried into effect, the House did not monial contract, and of whose persecutions, "think it necessary to proceed to any cri- sufferings, death, and burial, the historian's "minating resolutions"; that, alas! in only duty will be to give, in the proper place, a full sixteen days after this, Mr. MADOCKS, Mem- and faithful account, was the second daughter ber for Boston, accused this same Castlereagh, of Charles William, Duke of Brunswick, and together with two other ministers of the king, was, at the time of her marriage, twenty-six not only with trafficking in a seat, but of years of age. The Prince of Wales (since baving completed the bargain, and carried it George IV.), her husband, who had then into full effect; that having made this charge, attained the age of thirty-three years, was Mr. Madocks moved that the House should greatly embarrassed with debts, which, until inquire into the matter; that the House then this marriage was proposed, the nation was by debated upon this motion; that there were no means disposed to pay. The country was three hundred and ninety-five Members pre- at this time involved in a most expensive and sent; and that (hear it, every honest man on wasteful war against the people of France; a earth!) three hundred and ten voted against war undertaken to put down principles, and, all inquiry, and that, too, as the speakers in in the opinions of all considerate men, the debate openly declared, "because this traffic tending to produce, eventually, great suffer** was es notorious as the sun at nom day.”...king to the English nation; and, therefore, 23. Such was the state of things in the year the people were not in a very good humour 1809. The next year George III. became, with royalty. from insanity, incapable of performing the 26. The discussions relative to the American office of king; then, therefore, began the Re-revolution had produced a revolution in Frances gency of his eldest son and heir apparent, and and it bad been found, that, in like manner, it is of this ten years' regency, and of the tenthis latter event would produce a revolution → years' reign that followed it, that the following is the history.


From the Birth of the King to his Marriage. 24. This king, who was born on the 12th of August, in the year 1762, was the eldest son of King George II., and of Charlotte, Princess of Mecklenburgh Strelitz. Matters relating to his childhood and his boyish days are as uninteresting to the world as are the matters relating to a blackbird, or linnet, from the time of its being hatched to that of its flying from the paternal nest. Matters relating to bis amours, and other sensual in dulgences, at a more advanced period, could, even if we could come at an accurate detail of them, only serve as entertainment to the idle, encouragement to the profligate, and to fill the sensible and sober with disgust. To be sure, as a cause of great expense to the nation, be was always, from his very birth, an object of juterest; but, unless we knew, or had heard of, something in his juvenile conduct

in England. Various are the words made use of by the parties in the disputes touching these revolutions; but the short and true state of the case is this: the people of all these nations were become sensible that they suffered from the whole of the governing powers being in the hands of the privileged orders. The Americans had successfully resisted the attempts to keep them under the yoke. The French had risen and broken the yoke to pieces. And now the English were making an attempt to regain their right of choosing their represen tatives.

27. In the midst of a general ferment, arising from this cause, war against the French people was commenced by PITT, in 1793, which war was going on at the time of the marriage of the Prince of Wales with the Princess of Brunswick. The taxes, on account of the war, pressed heavily upon the nation; the government armed itself at all points. Soldiers of all descriptions; barracks; new laws relative to the press; the Habeas Corpus Act was suspended; every thing, in short, to restrain and compel but still money was necessary;

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and, under such circumstances, an enormous bourers' families, the nation had a right to , granted to pay the debts of a prince who complain, when a new clearing off of debts had always received a large annual stipened was called for, Nevertheless the new debt, out of the taxes, was what even Perr, daring | which had arisen, the reader will perceive, in as he was, had not the confidence to propose the space of little more than seven years, without being furnished with some plausible amounted to the enormous sum of 639,890/. pretence for the proposition. The marriage, sterling; that is to say, to 80,000 for every as we shall by-and-by see, furnished this pre-year since the last clearing off of his debts, tenee; and every thing that could be thought of was done to make the people part with the money freely, about

28. The marriage took place on the 8th of April; and though it was, of course, to be considered as a measure of state-policy, it certainly gave great and universal satisfaction." The Prince, notwithstanding his extravagance, was, at this time, by no means unpopular, He had been studiously shut out from all public authority, was regarded as in opposition to his father's ministers, and, as those were very cordially and justly hated, the Prince, except with regard to his expenses, stood in rather a favourable light. The Princess, who was of a most frank and kind disposition, extremely affable and gracious in her deportment, by no means suffered in a comparison with the Queen; and, upon the whole, the nation seemed delighted with the prospect that their future king and queen held out to them."

and, as will be perceived, to 20,000 a-year more than the whole of his annual allowance. Thus he had been spending at the rate of 140,000l. a-year instead of 60,000, and bad been living on what would have maintained 7,000 labourers' families! ¿


(To be continued.)

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To the Editor of the MORNING

Kensington, 4th January, 1831..

" 1:

SIR, You will, perhaps, remember that, last week, Itroubled you with a letter, which you had the goodness to insert, 29. In a few days after the celebration of relative to the confession, or pretended the marriage; that is to say, on the 27th of confession, of a poor orphan, named April, the king officially communicated to the THOMAS GOODMAN, who was, some time parliament his request, that a settlement before, condemned at Lewes, for setting should be made on the Prince, suitable to the alteration in his situation; and he observed, fire to ricks and buildings. The conat the same time, that the benefit of any fession stated, that the poor fellow had.. settlement that the House might make been instigated to the act by hearing "must fail in its most desirable effect, if means me say, in a lecture at Battle, that if were not provided to extricate his Royal the wages were not raised, there would "Highness from the incumbrances under "which he laboured to a great amount" be fires in Sussex as well as in Kent. 30. Upon this message from the king Pitt Upon this I observed before, asserted founded his proposition to the House. Those the falsehood of it, and expressed my members who composed what was called the belief that the story was a lie from the opposition, or Whigs, or, at least, the most active of them, such as, Fox, Sheridan, the beginning to the end., Duke of Bedford and others, were also personal friends of the Prince. They, therefore, were ready to concur with the minister in this particular case. But there were men, on both sides of the House, to oppose any grant of money with a view of paying the debts of the Prince. Amongst these was Mr. Grey, now Earl Grey, who actually made a motion to take 20,0007. a year from the sum proposed by the minister. This motion was lost, but 99 members voted for it; and the speech of Mr. Grey was well calculated to produce upon able to the Prince, who had had his debts paid the country an impression very little favour by Parliament once before, and who was now pretty loudly reminded of that fact by some "The following information, relative to the members sitting on both sides of the House, "two convicts, Bust) is day, odmor, wat 31. This former payment of the Prince's were to suffer death this debts took amount was, to us by our corre at that time, wery large; and, certainly, with *pondent They arrived at Horshamin Hit a ciparqannual allowance of sixty thonsand 17"lly, attended by two guards on Saturday/ pounds, money enough to maintain, 3.000 la- (Christmas-day), from Lewes, both exhibit,

We have now, in the OLD TIMES newspaper of to-day, a new edition' of this story, with additions and improvements. The only witness to the first's edition of the confession was stated to be the REVEREND Henry John Rush, curate of Crowhurst, Sussex. Now we have three names as those of witnesses to the poor lad's writing the confessiona and we have, besides, an introductory These are as follows:i commentary of the OLD TIMES

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wing deep contrition for their crimes; Busliby paper, in which he said he was
tacitly and Goodman positively acknow-
❝ledged the justness of their sentences: On
Sunday the Chaplain of the gaol file
"Rev. Mr. Witherby) delivered a very affect
“ing discourse, in the chapel of the gaol. It
“appeared to make a deep impression on
"the whole of the prisoners, most of whom
"shed tears; both the unfortunate malefac-
stors were particularly affected. Goodman
had, previously to leaving Lewes, made a
4 full confession of his guilt, and Bushby had
"done the same since he has been at Horsham,
"to the Chaplain as well as to Mr. Oliver, the
"prosecutor. On Wednesday Bushby was
"visited by his five sisters and two brothers:


orphan without a friend in the world to advise with, but not a word about "one Mr. Cobbit." Then, you, Sir, in your report, take him up thus in your paper of the 24th of December. "The pri "soner on, leaving the bar, confessed the “justice of his sentence. He said that "he set fire to the stack with a pipe and common matches. He also ac knowledged to being the incendiary who set fire to somes corn stacks a few days before, and for which a re

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"the interview was very distressing. Good-ward had been offered for the dis

"man still adhere first voluntary state

and lectures of Cob

"ment, that
"bett were the chief inducement to him to
"commit the crime for which he is to suffer."




covery of the offender. He said he could not account for the feeling which prompted these acts, except that he was goaded to their commission by an irresistible impulse."}}

Now, these facts are undoubted.om So that, if he really did make the first con fession, mentioned in my former letter to you, his recollection had come to him when he got before the REVEREND Henry Jolin Rush, Curate of Crowhurst and even then he forgot all about the GUN! It was not till he got to HORSHAM, it seems, in the neighbourhood of the gallows, that he recollected the GUN. If he should be brought in sight of the gallows, I should not at all wonder if he were to recollect, that

"I Thomas Goodman, once herd of one Mr. "Cobbit going a Bout gaveing out lactueers; "at length he came to Battel and gave one "their, and their was a gret number of Peopel came to hear him and I went; he had A long conversation states of the country, and telling them that they war verrey mutch impose upon, and he "said he would show them the way to gain "their rights and Jiberals, and he said it "would be very Proper for every man to keep gun in his house, espesely young men, and "that they might prepare themselves in rea“dyness to go with him when he called on them " and he would show them wich way to go on, “and be said that peopel might expect firs "their as well as other placesthis is the truth and nothing But the truth" one Mr. Cobbit" gave him the pipe" "of A deying man.


"Written before us, 30th December, 1830,


This story about the GUN is a famous improvement: it is a fine instance of the "march of mind," and of the effect of the schoolmaster being abroad! If this poor orphan's life should be spared (as I wish it may), and, if the schoolmaster should continue his kind attentions, he will certainly make a bright ornament of Society, equal, perhaps, to JESSE BURGESS himself. Now, Sir, hear some truth about this poor lad. My son was present, in the way of his profession; he was one of the counsel in the court, when this orphan was tried. When called upon to say what he had to say in his defence, he put in a written

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and matches; and if, after all, the rope should be put round his neck, would it be very wonderful if he were to become King's evidence, and swear, that it was I set the fires and not he!*

There is, Sir, seldom a really wicked lie without having a peg to hang on; and this is the case with regard to this famous GUN. That I should say openly before four or five hundred persons, all of them strangers to me, that every man' of them ought to have a gun in his house, in readiness against the time that I should come to lead them that I should be fool enough to say this is what nobody will believe. But, it is very true that I did talk about it being proper for every man to have a gun in' his house. And now you shall hear how I came to say it, and how proper it was that I should say it. I was speaking on the subject of Parliamentary


Reform, and in support of the propo- But, Sir, the questions, that every one sition for universal suffrage, I said that will ask, are these: Was Was it not at a it ought to be, because every man ca pubic lecture that the pretended words pable of bearing arms, was liable to be were uttered? Were there not there called on to venture his life in defence present, to hear the words, a great many of the country, and that, of necessity, persons, none of whom are now conthis, which was the bounden, duty of all demned to be hanged? Why not get men, was a duty the great burden of the evidence of some of these? Why which must fall, and ought to fall, upon prefer the evidence of a poor frightened, the young and single men; and that, weak minded lad, with the halter about therefore, in order to induce them to be his neck? Leaving BURREL and Co. to always ready to discharge this sacred answer these questions, pray, Sir, give duty cheerfully, the young men ought me room to add this remark, that, in to have a vote at elections, which would Hampshire and Wiltshire, where the make them feel that they had a great thing actually resembles a campaign, I interest in the safety of their country, have not been for eight years, except as and would thereby enable the Govern- a mere passenger; and in neither of ment to dispense with a standing army, which I have set my foot for four years. even in time of war, as the same cause The truth is, that my Lectures have had operated in that way in America. Here no effect whatsoever in producing the I took occasion to observe that a coun-risings and the consequent acts, which try was never so safe as when its de- have all arisen from hunger and ill fence depended upon the arms of its treatment, and from no other cause. citizens. Then came the peg on which the lie has been hung. The words were, as nearly as possible, as follows: I, some years ago, saw a printed pa"per, sent about by LORD ASHBURNHAM, ordering, or suggesting, that no "labourer should have employ who "kept a gun in his house. His lordship, in his anxiety for the pheasants, 66 seems to have forgotten the country, " and, of course, the land on which the "pheasants are bred. For suppose we "were to be again at war with France; "suppose the French were to land at "PEVENSEY LEVEL (only a few miles "from Battle), as they once landed, "who would there be to drive them into "the sea? Why, the men of Sussex "and Kent to be sure! And, when "called upon by Lord ASHBURNHAM for "that purpose, might they not remind "him, that he had caused their arms to "be taken away, though the law of "England positively says, that it is a "right belonging to every man to keep arms in his house for the defence of "that house, which the law calls his "castle?"


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This was the peg; and it must be confessed, that the lie, "written in the presence" of WALTER BURREL and Co. has been clumsily enough, hung on.

When we see it proved, even upon
these trials, that men went to work with
nothing but cold potatoes in their
satchells, and that young men, boys,
old men, women and even an ideot-wo-
man, were compelled, by the hired over-
seers, to draw carts like beasts of burden,
what do we want more; why need the
parsons hunt about after lecturers as
the cause of the discontents?
I am, Sir,

Your most humble,
And most obedient Servant,

P. S. I made, at LEWES, just the same remarks about the GUN, gave just the same advice as at Battle; but, none of my Lewes auditors are condemned to be hanged. One of my auditors at Lewes was Mr. JOHN ELL MAN the elder. I did not know him, but found, afterwards, that it was he, upon my inquiring" who that old gentle man was, who sat in the stage-box, and who applauded so much." In short, Sir, all my efforts were calculated to put a stop to violence, and to restore peace. I say none of this to silence the infamous slanderers, but to expose them to public execration. They know that what they say is false but they know

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