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VOL. 71.-No. 8.]

LONDON, SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 19TH, 1831.

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In 1803 I told the vapouring ADDINGTON, that, if the debt were not arrested in its progress, the nobility and the church must finally fail.

Once more, therefore, at the end of precisely twenty-five years of unavailing calling on the nobility; once more I call on them to conciliate the people, and to appeal to them for protection against the all-devouring monster, the funds.

TO THE

LANDOWNERS OF ENGLAND.

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the loan-jobbers, on the one hand, and, on the other hand, towards the middle class of society, an increasing insolence and haughtiness, and towards the lower class deeds innumerable, of which the mildest denomination that belongs to them is that of extreme hardness and severity. I have seen a tax on income collected, which took as much from the yearly earnings of the professional man, the tradesman and the farmer, as from the perpetual estate of the landowner; which took from me, for instance, who earned a thousand a-year, and who had then six children to bring up, one hundred pounds a-year, though that income depended upon my life, and not only that, but my health; and not only upon that, but upon the continuation of my ability, and particularly upon the soundness of my mind; while the same law took no more than one hundred pounds out of a thousand pounds a-year of rent, which the landowner derived from a freehold estate, and which estate always yielded the same rent to him or to his children whether he were dead or alive, sick or well, riding about his fields or

May they be admonished by what they have already felt, and seek in the revived friendship of the people that security for themselves which I am satisfied they will find in no other source. If a contrary line of conduct were to be pursued; if a refusal of reform were stillto be persisted in; if to their deadly and in a mad-house. I have seen military natural foes, the loan-jobbing race, the laud-and naval academies established, the owners were to persist in adding the mass of necessary effect of which must be to shut the people, a true picture of all the con- against the middling class of society all sequences I forbear to draw,-COBBETT's the openings to military and naval REGISTER, 8th January, 1822. I have seen, power and emolument. in the imposition of the assessed taxes, of the taxes on stamps, of the taxes on wine, on spirits, and in short of the taxes imposed on every-thing else, I have seen the same partially prevail. Towards the working classes what have I seen? I have seen endless projects which have not been carried into effect; but I have seen quite enough that have I ADDRESS you by an appellation ex-been carried into full and terrible effect. pressive of no feeling of respect, because I have no respect for you as a body. For six-and-twenty years, indeed seven and-twenty, I have been an attentive observer of your conduct; and in that conduct I have constantly perceived a base truckling to men in power and to

On their Defeat by the Loan-mongering Crew relative to the proposed. Tax upon the Funds.

LANDOWNERS,

Kensington, 15th February, 1831.

I have seen the passing and enforcing of the new felony law; of the new trespass law; of STURGES BOURNE'S two bills; of the transportation for poaching law, and I have seen this power lodged in the hands of the landowners themsels.

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I have seen the

tread-mill invented; I have seen SID-standing advocate for blood. If the MOUTH'S and CASTLEREAGH's green old thing were worth twenty thousand bags; I have seen the dungeons opened pounds last week, it is not worth ten at the discretion of the Secretaries of thousand pounds this week. If the GoState; I have heard the roar of laugh-vernment find, as I am satisfied it will, ter at the sufferings of OGDEN in his that it gains in amount of revenue by dungeon, a man seventy years of age, reducing the amount of the stamp to and of spotless character, who had two-pence; and if it see, as I am sure brought up twenty children without it will, that it would gain still more by ever having resorted to the parish for reducing it to a penny, and by reducing relief. I have seen and heard these the advertisement duty another half; if things, and many, many others, within it see that, as I am sure it will see it, the last twenty-seven years, and I have and if it act agreeably to its manifest inseen the LANDOWNERS the very foremost terests, the bloody old thing may shut in calling for or defending them all. up its shop. I always said, take away Therefore the defeat which you have the tax, and this horrible thing falls at now experienced gives me delight once, and the Government is freed from which it would be impossible for me the dread which it justly entertains of adequately to describe. Look, now, at provoking the hostility of bands of the several sentences which I have mercenary wretches who employ this chosen for my motto. You will see, powerful instrument, the press, for the from the second of those sentences, that worst of all possible purposes. The I foresaw what you would bring it to Government will soon find how much so long as twenty-seven years ago; it will gain in the tax upon paper, even which was before the doing of those from this measure. As to advertisethings which have displeased me so ments, they will increase prodigiously much, and some of which I have men- in number. I have no question, for tioned above. It was, too, at a time my part, of the great gain in point of when the debt was not more than the revenue; and in point of advantage three-fourths of what it is now, and to the country, from the speed that it when a revenue of about thirty-five will give to the communications bemillions a year was deemed amply suffi-tween persons in trade, and of the cient. What is your case now, then? encouragement which it will give to Why, it is just what I said it would be honest and able writers, the effect will when, in 1822, I published the Register be prodigious; and, therefore, though from which the extracts are made. I the measure will not affect me in the shall now, when I have bestowed a few smallest degree in the world, I think short remarks on the taxes to be taken the Ministers are entitled to great off, proceed to remark on the grand praise for this measure. It was also question, the intended tax on the funds. wise and just to change the tax from The tax to be taken off from the news-cotton goods to raw cotton; because, papers, though I myself, and for my in the former shape, it was savagely own interest, care not a straw about unjust towards the working people, the matter; though I know that it will and gave rise to frauds enormous. be neither gain nor loss to me, I see The conscientious manufacturer paid this reduction of the tax with pleasure; the duty honestly; those of a contrary because, in the first place, there ought character did not pay a tenth part of to be no such tax, and, in the next what they ought to have paid. But, it place, because it will give a famous is the total abolition of the tax upon blow to that newspaper monopoly candles which gives me the greatest which has been such a disgrace to the pleasure. If they had added an abolicountry, and has done it so much mis- tion of that on the malt and the hops chief. The Bloody Old Times winces and the soap, I would, to be sure, have under it; and well it may; for it lops gone to Downing-street, and have stood off a good half of the value of that bare-headed in the rain to thank them

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Poor Swing (the labourers of the East at a time, in the summer, humming the South and the West) will have some before the doors of the cottages of one little to thank them for on the score single village. The sacks were all of coals, owing to the stupidity of the spus, and even wove, in the villages. landowners of latter days, in destroy- The infernal system of taxing and funding those endless sources of fuel that ing have driven men to resort to the were found in the wastes (as they were water and the fire to supply the place foolishly called) and in the careful of manual labour; have huddled milcultivation of timber and underwood.lions of miserable wretches together to But, the tax being removed wholly work in unnatural heat, and to eke out from the candles is a great and unequi- their lives in smoke and stink and prosvocal good. How often did I, in my titution, and the landowners, set on by Registers sent from Long Island, de- a bell-wether minister, have echoed scribe the great advantages of farmers and re-echoed again the cries of the being able to turn their own fat into manufacturing greatness of England," candles! How often did I cite it as a as the noisy and empty-headed Pitt striking proof of the advantages of that used to call it. The PEELS, the Government over this! The Ministers ARKWRIGHTS, and all the tribe of themselves do not, I am sure, see one grinders and screwers, have swelled up half of the good that they will do here. into nobles; the small gentry have all It is said, that it is only a penny a pound disappeared; the parsons, holding an taken off the price of candles. Is it unalienable property, have supplied not? It is three-pence a pound at the their places as magistrates; the agricul least. The farmer gets next to nothing tural labourers, having lost the employfor his tallow; and this is one of the ment for the females, have been reduced reasons why he never kills his sheep. to paupers; the natural magistracy, The price of tallow in the great market deriving power from respect and affecis nothing to me. I have sometimes tion, much more than from fear, being killed sheep at Kensington, for my own thus taken away, new and severe laws use, a circumstance which led the innumerable have been enacted, till at bloody Old Times and all its wolf- last, as Lord Stanhope observed last whelps about the country to assert winter, there is an open "breach bepositively, that I had "turned the lower tween the poor and the rich." Thus, of my house into a butcher's shop." all that we behold now is nothing more I know not what tallow was in the than the natural result of taxing and market; but I know that I got two- funding. pence half-penny' a pound for mine, Now, amongst the employments for when my candles cost me from seven- the females of the labourers in agriculpence to eight-pence. I know the ex-ture, one was the making of candles of pense of making candles well: I know various descriptions; and this employwhat beautiful candles my servant made ment will now return. For it will very in Long Island; and it shall be my soon be asked of a young woman who business, in a very short time, to teach offers herself for service in the country, the farmers and labourers in England how, whether she knows how to make to do the like. One of the great evils candles. Do not tell me about the that press upon the country, and that price of tallow in the market. I know has reduced it to its present state, has been that the want of a right to make my the withdrawing from agriculture those own candles is a loss to me of from ten employments which formerly occupied to fifteen pounds a year at the very the wives and daughters of the la- lowest. If I were a farmer it would be bourers at other times than those of a loss to me of a great deal more. Adweeding, hay-making, and harvest. ditional female hands will be wanted employments were carding, in the country in consequence of the spinning, and weaving in many instances. repeal of this abominable tax. I their

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candles cheaper, but in many cases they proposed, by the Ministers, was a first will have them for next to nothing. attack; a first open attack on the funds The farmers will give the the fat to mar-in behalf of the land. The funds have ried women, allowing them a certain furiously driven the assailants back; portion for the manufacture. Neigh- and I dare say that you, the landowners, bours will deal with one another as begin to think that it would have been they do in America, without running to better for you if you had taken me by a shop for a candle, and there paying the hand, or, rather, considering our the profits of three or four parties, be-relative power and influence, and sense sides the expense of the carriage and of and resources of mind, have suffered me the fetching. It is impossible so to to take you by the hand and lead you manage the thing without the labourers along in 1809, and before that time, inhaving light at a trifling expense, for stead of chuckling at what you stupidly the want of which the winter evenings deemed my certain destruction. are now passed in the dark instead of Let us see how this matter stands being cheerfully employed in various between you and me; for this is a matters useful to both men and women. proper time to remind my readers all It will be curious to see a Twopenny over the world of the manner in which Trash employed in circulating, amongst I have operated upon your interests; the working classes, praises on the or, rather, to show how your present King's Ministers. This will assuredly be embarrassment, and deep humiliation, done in the next number, or the number and the great and imminent danger after, where I am to give them detailed to which you are now exposed, arises instructions for the making of candles. from your hostility to me, more than I shall now quit this pleasing subject from all other causes put together. for the present, and come to the battle! In 1803, in 1806, in 1814, and all between the land and the funds, in which along until 1822; I, in fact, notwiththe former has just experienced so signal standing all your baseness towards me, a defeat. and your hard deeds towards the peoIn my leave-taking address, when I ple, entertained no desire to see you sailed for Long Island, in order to avoid sacrificed to the monster of Change the dungeons of SIDMOUTH and Cas-Alley, provided the people had a free TLEREAGH, which dungeons the land-parliamentary reform. Even when you holders, more than any-body else, had chuckled at the sentence which you enabled them to open, I told the re- thought to be a sentence of death in formers to wait with patience: I did 1810, when I began, from my prison, to not tell them to assemble in great mul- send forth " Paper against Gold;" even titudes unarmed, to be chopped down then I said nothing about the church or trampled under foot by Yeomanry and crown lands; and as to the abbey Cavalry, while I screamed out "Mur-lands, I never even whispered a word der;" but I told them to "wait with about them. All my efforts were le“patience till an open war should take velled against the funds, paid, as they place between the land and the funds." were, in unjust amount. Even from For then, said I, the people must be let Long Island I wrote nothing hostile to in. If they be let in by an honest re- your interests. The Puff-out, which form of the Parliament, they will side came from that Island, and the circumwith the landowners, whose business stances connected with which will,' when will simply be to take off the taxes; I come to relate them in the history but the probabilities are that the whole of my life, be found to furnish subject thing will go drivelling along from ex- for one of the merriest comedies that pedient to expedient, till all goes to ever was acted; even the Puff-out, pieces like a ship upon the rocks. Thus which certainly produced Peel's cash far this is not prophecy; but it is now payments, had nothing in it intended to become history. The measure just be hostile to you; for who the devil proposed, and abandoned as soon as could believe that you would continue

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to pay in gold the interest of a debt attempts against one man; notwithcontracted acted in and in the all this, I still continued contracting of which fellows without a friend; and, throughout the years 1820, farthing in their pockets had got mil-1821, and, until June 1822, I pleaded Lions upon millions of money! Who your cause against the monster of the devil was to believe that a set of Change-alley with an earnestness and a fellows having estates that produced force equalled only by your stupid incorn and cattle and hides and wool and gratitude. But now, in the month last timber, would give two trees and two mentioned, I changed my tone, the ocevery-things for one that they had bor-casion of which was this; and the conrowed! Who the devil could believe sequences you are now feeling. that a set of fellows having fine estates The same act which had shut me in land would let a parcel of infidel Jews, out from any house, room, building, or pretended Christians, take away these garden, yard, orchard, field, or place, estates bit by bit, but in the most open had also prevented me from addressing and flagrant manner, under the impu- a meeting of any county of which I dent pretence, the audacious the in- was not a freeholder, and those who famous pretence, "that the taking away passed the act had taken pretty good was required by NATIONAL FAITH!" care that I should be the freeholder of Thus, up to 1819, I was always on none. But freeholds in several counyour side: even after that; though you ties were immediately given me, and had chuckled and were so delighted when amongst others, in the county of Kent, acts had been passed which you in which there was a County Meeting thought would not only chop off my held, at Maidstone, in the month of fingers but silence my tongue. Two of June, 1822. At this meeting a petitionthe Six Acts were manifestly passed was brought forward by those who are expressly for me. Mr. Hume said so at called the Whigs, LORD DARNLEY, the time, and he repeated his assertion LORD THANET and others, praying for the other day in the city, as to one of a reduction of taxes. I said that it those acts especially. One act banished was unreasonable to call upon the Mime if I said any-thing having a ten-nisters to take off taxes, unless we were dency to bring either House of parlia- prepared to support them in taking of ment into contempt. Another act part of the interest of the debt, and I' compelled me to give bail beforehand moved that the following words be if I published any-thing with a stamp. added to the petition: "And your petiIf I published any-thing without a stamp "tioners further pray that there may oftener than once a month, it compelled" be a reform of your honourable House, me to sell it for not less than sixpence, "and that your honourable House will in order to make the number of my "be pleased to make a JUST reduction readers small; and, in order that I" in the interest of the national debt." might get nothing by the publication, After a long opposition from LORD' it compelled me to have two sheets and a quarter of paper all printed over, and compelled me to have paper each sheet of which should be twenty-one inches long and seventeen inches wide. Another act forbade me to speak in any room, yard, garden, field, or place, upon the subject of politics, to any number of persons, if money were taken for their entrance thereinto.

Notwithstanding all your triumphing, all your chuckling, all your indecent and unmanly exultations, even at these attempts; these low, these shameful

DARNLEY, and the like from KNATCHBULL, both of whom manifestly disIlking the Reform part more than the other, the Meeting (a very large one) divided, and there were only seven hands held up against the motion, two of which were the hands of Knatchbull and Lord Darnley. We, the speechifiers, were standing in wagons: and just under the tail of the wagon where I was standing, there was a tall, fat, bullfrog farmer, who, while I was speaking, looked up in my face and shook a great hunting-whip that he had in his hand,

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