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VOL. 71.-No. 7.]


[Price 1s. 2d.

ANN, COUNTESS DOWAGER OF MORNINGTON, mother of Marquis Wellesley, of the Prince of Waterloo, of Lord Maryborough, of Lord Cowley, (now Am-, bassador at Vienna), and of another Wellesley, who has two or three great livings in the church; this Countess Dowager, the mother of all these, has a pension of 600l. a year, paid out of the taxes raised on the people.-. From the BLACK Book, just published by Mr. E. WILSON, Royal Exchange,

p. 467.


The Poor Laws provide, that the children of every poor, old, blind, lame, or impotent-person, not able to work, shall (if they have the means) relieve and maintain such poor parent, according to the rate at which they shall be assessed by the Justices of the county where the parties live, in order to prevent parishes being burdened with unnecessary charges.

"A petition," says the Morning Chronicle of the 31st Jan., " is in preparation, "in the neighbourhood of BALLY DUFF, county of Waterford, Ireland, which will "be intrusted to Mr. Hume, praying that the invidious distinctions which at "present exist between Parish and State Paupers may be abolished; and that it may in future be a general rule, that all persons who depend on the public "bounty for subsistence shall be distinguished by a peculiar dress."

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"But, what shall we do with the Duke! My God!" exclaimed Peel to LORD KEY, "What shall we do with the Duke!"

Kensington, Feb. 8, 1831.

which have finally led to the present state of things.


BELGIUM, of which BRUSSELS is the capital city, was, before the French Revolution of 1789, under the dominion of AUSTRIA; and it was the policy of England (chiefly for the sake of Hanover and Holland) to keep it in possession of Austria. The French Republicans took the whole country, after having beaten the armies of Prussia, Holland, and Austria, together with the unfortunate English army, under the command of the renowned Duke of York and "the Ir is now evident that this country, FLOWER of the English nobility." the richest in products of all the con- The French "sans-culottes (fellows tinent of Europe; this country of Lin-without breeches) as they were called, colnshires; this country of industry and in derision, drove them, "flower" and. probity; this country of fortresses with-all, before them; and Dukey York, havout end: it is now evident that this ing had the good luck to reach THE fine country, with its three or four mil- HELDER, got safe across to old Englions of people, are about, speedily, to land himself, leaving the second in be reunited to France! My readers will command to make a capitulation, by hardly need to be reminded, that, from which it was agreed that the remnant the moment I heard of the fall of Charles of the English army should be perX, I stated that this reunion would be mitted to come away, upon condition one of the first and most important that eight thousand French sailors, then consequences of that fall. But, now, it prisoners of war in England, should be. may be useful to give my readers a instantly surrendered to France! And, short history of the circumstances as if here were not enough to humble


royalty and aristocracy, the French which this event filled the borougharmy was, on this memorable occasion, mongers and all those who lived on the commanded by a man who, only people. They from that time looked twelve years before, had been an ap-on the industrious part of the nation as prentice to a printer, at LIMOGES, a so many beasts of burden, made to city in a southern province of France, called the LIMOSIN, whence he went under the appellation of "the printer's boy of Limosin."

work for them and to administer to their luxuries and their sport. All became military in this country, the laws of which once detested the idea of a standing soldier. No reduction of military expense: the answer to every complaint on this score was," the gratitude due to the heroes of Waterloo"! The consequences of these things are now before us, and need not be dwelt on here.

BELGIUM, thus won by France, was (and with the hearty good-will of the people) incorporated with the French Republic; and thus it continued until the year 1814, when Napoleon was banished to ELBA. Then this fine country, with its industrious and pious Thus were the chains, apparently for and moral and brave people, were, by a ages, rivetted on the unhappy people of treaty to which England, Austria, Belgium, whom the king-makers had Prussia, Russia, and (by compulsion) saddled with Judge Bailey's blessing, the Bourbons, were parties, severed from | a national debt; that is to say, with part France, and united to Holland (detested of the debt of Holland and with the by the Belgians), and the two countries amount of part of the expenses which were formed into "a kingdom," of which the Dutch Stadtholder was made king, having the royal dominion over these countries GUARANTEED to him by the five Powers above-mentioned.

Austria and Prussia had incurred in enslaving them! Their king, who hated them because they hated him, treated them accordingly. His Dutch subjects were Protestants, the Belgians were Catholics, and there soon arose disputes very much resembling those between the Protestant Government and the Catholic people of Ireland. The press, always the object of hatred and oppression with tyrants, unless they can corrupt it to their purposes, was honest, and therefore was persecuted. Imprisonment, banishment, or ruinous fines, were the certain lot of all men who used the press for the public benefit, and in defence of the people's rights. Taxes the most oppressive and most odious were imposed, and enforced with a degree of rigour approaching to that of our Excise and Custom laws. The jails of Belgium rang with the cries of the victims of the fiscal system.

In 1815, on the return of Napoleon from Elba, Belgium became the scene of the battle that finally decided his fate. WATERLOO, which is in Belgium, and at a few miles distance from the city of Brussels, witnessed that base treason by which the defeat of Napoleon was occasioned. There were one million and eleven thousand men, all to be paid by the people of England, to fight against the French people on this occasion; yet, had there been no treachery, all would have failed. However, these things were overlooked: it was the interest of our government, and its endless swarms of tax-eaters, to ascribe the victory solely to our own valour and that of the Hanoverians, and to cry up the commander as something In this state was Belgium, in July far surpassing Alexander or Cæsar. He last, when the brave people of Paris, was created a Duke by our Prince setting at nought the cannons and the Regent, and Prince of Waterloo" by bayonets of the mercenary and bloody the King of Holland. But the great Swiss, drove their tyrants from their evils to us were, first the immense sums palaces and their throne. All men of of our money heaped upon him, amount- sense, accustomed to think of such ing, in the whole, to more than a million matters, saw that Belgium would of pounds on this one man! A greater speedily revolt against the king that evil, however, was, the insolence with had, as above stated, been forced

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upon them. Revolt they did; and, In short, this thing is done. Fielding with the cordial good wishes of every says, that, when both parties are of a just man on the face of the earth to mind, whether it be to fight or to marry, cheer them, they, without organization, it is extremely difficult to keep them without commanders, without any pre-asunder; but that, if either of the paration for the combat, finally suc- parties have no stomach for the entérceeded in driving their oppressors from prize, a team of horses will not get their country. Having done this, they them together; a striking instance of had to settle upon a new government. which latter I once witnessed in a man A Congress, chosen by the people, who was always boasting of his pugilhave, for many weeks, been deliberating istic might and prowess, but who, on this subject. What the people having taken a cuffing and kicking as wanted was, a re-union with France silently as a wool-pack, and having at once; but, LOUIS-PHILIPPE and his been driven (in order to save his coward Chambers (for they are not those of the hide for the moment) to postpone the French people) being essentially fund-sequel of the salutation by the accepting holding, and thinking that such re- of a challenge for the next day, disunion would rouse the other four gua- covered, in shuffling out of the chalranteeing Powers to war, and knowing lenge, more ingenuity than timid hare that war would shake to its foundation ever discovered to avoid her pursuers, the funding system of France, have and, in resisting the arguments in fabeen constantly against this re-union. vour of the necessity of fighting, more Then, the other four Powers have been courage than St, DUNSTAN discovered working, too, towards the same point. in all his immortal battles with the At first, they expressed their resolution devil. Far otherwise is it in the preto adhere to their guarantee of 1814, and sent case. Here is a marriage in to compel the Belgians again to submit question; and the parties are both to their Dutch king; but, though they probably had the fund-holding government of France along with them, they had not the French people with them. They next insisted, that the Belgians should have for king some one of the family of the Dutch king. But the Belgians having observed, I suppose, that wolves do not breed lambs, thought, apparently, that like father like son; and, therefore, they rejected that proposition. Next, the guaranteers insisted that they should have a King of some breed or other, but This reunion will be, and must be, that he should not be of French breed! accomplished; and what an event is Alas! the Belgian Congress have fi- here! An event that at one blow overnally fixed their choice upon the DUKE sets all that was accomplished by the DE NEMOURS, Second son of Louis- twenty-two years of war that our THING PHILIPPE ! And this is, in fact, neither carried on, and by the six hundred more nor less than a resolution to be millions of debt that it contracted, re united with France. The news of and by the six annual millions of poorto-day is, that LOUIS-PHILIPPE will not rates, and the six annual millions of assent to this! Poh! His scruples Dead Weight, which that war has enwill be soon overcome! The first tailed upon us, and which accursed engrand review that he has on the Champ tail is now producing riots and fires and de Mars will remove all his scruples, all sorts of calamity and disgrace. and make him as bold as a country girl at her second appearance before a quocum, one half of whom are her lovers.

of a mind, and ready to leap into each other's arms. It signifies not a straw, therefore, what Louis-Philippe and his insolvent bankers may think or say of the matter: the rich and beautiful bride offers her hand to her brave and strong and ardent lover; and it is not the intrigues of the old grannies and the fribbles at Vienna and Whitehall; no, nor their weighty arguments into the bargain, that will keep the parties asunder for any length of time.

France must give the fashion to Europe. There she is, having swept away tithes, now sweeping away the nasty dregs of

aristocracy, which English money and we may safely set all foreign nations at Austrian, Prussian, and Russian bayo-defiance; for that will soon give us cheap nets had re-imposed upon her. There Government, cheap religion, and will she is at work, establishing equal laws make us all, even the poorest of us, and cheap Government. The example feel, that we have something to lose; is too alluring not to be followed. Ac- that our lot may be worse; feelings that cordingly we see all Europe in commo- the millions of us have not had for many tion. Every-where the people are look-years past. ing to France as their friend. Belgium For these reasons I hail with joy this was the door, doubly and triply barri- great event. I look upon its accomcaded, to shut the French out of the plishment as inevitable, though intrigue rest of Europe, and prevent her from and bribery may cause it to be postlending a hand to oppressed people. This poned for a short time. The French event opens this door. It is, therefore, nation burns with impatience to wipe an event at which the people of all out the stain of Waterloo; for, though nations must rejoice, and at which the they well know the treason by which oppressors of all nations must tremble. they were defeated, yet the despots, and But how will this event affect us in their own amongst the rest, with the particular? Why, as every man of aid of an enslaved and mercenary sense saw that the Parisians, by their press, have caused it to be regarded as glorious deeds of July, actually produced a stain. They know well how false the putting out of the PRINCE OF WA- our Government's pretensions are, relaTERLOO, and the ministerial proposition tive to the "glory" of that affair; but to make that reform which had been this knowledge does not tend to discoffed at for so many years; so every minish their resentment; and every man of sense must now see, that this Frenchman, except he be a downright event relating to Belgium will have a sold traitor, absolutely fries with eager tendency to urge the Government on in ness to regain the "field of Waterloo,' the good work. For, it is another and which, he feels, will bring back everya most striking proof that the stability thing to where it stood before the first of Governments now demand great con- fall of Napoleon! And what a triumph cessions to the people, that the people for THE PEOPLE of every country! are no longer to be ruled on the princi- The great burden of the arguments ple of fear. I am aware that, taking against reform in England has, for the into view the change that has been last 16 years, been this:-" Look at made by the discovery of steam-naviga-" France; only look at France: the tion, the power of France to invade Eng-" French made a radical reform; and land and Ireland will be greatly aug- "what have they got by it? All their mented by the re-union of Belgium with" victories ended in defeat; and there France. But I know, at the same time," they are, with the Bourbons back that all the power of France, if it were again, with all their fine conquests four or even ten times what it is, would" taken away, with the white flag up present nothing formidable to England "again, with the defeat at Waterloo and Ireland, if the people were cordial in " sticking to them, with a national debt, their love of the Government; this they" and taxed as heavily as ever: so that, would be, if they had meat to eat (as" be silent about reform; for, it will do their great-grandfathers had) instead of " you no good in the end; you must, at the accursed potatoes; and, if they have" last, come back again to potatoes, or have not meat to eat, it signifies, in my "BENETT'S Gallon loaf and 3d. aview of the matter, not a single straw" week for FOOD and CLOTHING." who possesses, or what becomes of, the country. I am happy, however, in the thought, that they have again begun to eat meat. I trust that the Ministers will give us a real reform; and then

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This was the great burden of all the arguments against reform, for sixteen years, ending on the 29th day of July last! It is gone! The brave Parisians put an end to it on that memorable day,

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and every good man on earth clapped himself at North Cray, in Kent) said, his hands with joy on the occasion; "He shall never quit that island; for every man felt that the victory had when that really greatest captain of the been won for the people of every coun-age fell because he had become an Emtry. This union of Belgium, however, peror, and had married an Austrian; was necessary to make the thing com-when NAPOLEON was sent off to that plete. Very much mistaken are those miserable island, where he at last died who imagine that this aggrandisement of an "hereditary cancer;" then did I of France is an injury, or can be an in- say to this very CASTLEREAGH: "You jury, to the English nation. An injury," think you have triumphed, do you? indeed, it may be to the rulers of Hol-" Your triumph will be of short duraland, of Hanover, of Prussia, of the "tion: the gallant French nation will petty despots of Germany, of Russia" speedily recover: the Bourbons themand of Austria. To these rulers it may "selves must break your treaty, or be be an injury; but a benefit to the people" dethroned; France and Belgium will of every country. An injury to domi-" be together again: the debt conneering aristocracy every-where; but a" tracted in consequence of the war benefit to the industrious classes of" will hang like a mill-stone about your every community on earth. It is for" necks: the gallant French nation will our interest in all respects that Belgium" march where they please: England should belong to France. I have a "will be able to stir neither hand nor thousand good reasons for this; but," foot to retard their march, unless she one is enough, and that is, that it will" free herself from her debt; and this enable the French to establish cheap" she cannot do without breaking up Government, and will compel us to follow" the church establishment, and, in their example in that respect. All our " great part, the whole body of arisdangers, all our miseries, arise from dear" tocracy."-Political Register, 24th Government. There is no good reason of September, 1814.-This, then, is the why England should not be governed day of my triumph. It has not come even cheaper than the United States of so soon as I expected, but it is come; America, and maintain at the same and, amongst all the millions upon time all her just rights and authority in millions of human beings, whose hearts the world. There is no reason why leap with joy at contemplating this this should not be; and to this cheap event, not one single soul feels the joy government the example of France, to a greater extent than I do, having and the immense increase of power that that cheap government will give to France, will, in the end, compel us

to resort.

the happiness to reflect, that my efforts may, in some small degree, have contributed towards the accomplishment of

that event.

War! Oh, no! We shall not go to "But" (as PEEL said to the Lord war to prevent the union of Belgium Mayor on the 8th of November), with France. The French now know what shall we do with the Duke? (I have taken good care of that) all" What shall we do with the 'PRINCE that I know about the means which" OF WATERLOO""? What shall we this Government has of going to war; do with the memory of" Old Blucher," and they talk on the subject in a man- the drivel from whose beard the English ner which shows that they know it" ladies" vied with each other to kiss? well. They do know it well, and they What shall we do with the memory of leave us out of the question accordingly. that dear old man," who received And now is my day of triumph; now from the Prince Regent the Order of is my day of glory. When NAPOLEON the Bath, soon after he began to rifle had been put down; when NAPOLEON the museums at Paris? What shall we had been shipped off to St. Helena; do with the splendid quarto volume, when CASTLEREAGH (who, soon after- the text by my old printer's runner wards, cut his own throat and killed BLAGDON, and the plates by ORME, of

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