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TABLE OF CONTENTS.
No. 6.-Combination against the Min-
No. 8.-To the Landowners of Eng-
France; Letter of Mr. W. C
TABLE OF CONTENTS.
No. 6.-Combination against the Min-
Cock.-Letter of Mr. Hodges.
Hunt's Baring's and Palmerston's
VOL. 71.-No. 1.]
LONDON, SATURDAY, JANUARY 1ST, 1831.
HANGING OF ENGLISH LABOURERS. I SHALL, under this head, put upon record the hangings that are now going on. I shall not, except in the way of explanation, make any remark, or state any fact, from myself, and shall not venture on the insertion of any private, or written communication; but shall put on record merely what I find in the public papers. The trials are taking place by SPECIAL COMMISSIONS; and a Proclamation was issued before the trials began, offer ing a reward of a hundred pounds to any one who should cause any one to be convicted of some of the acts of violence; and FIVE HUNDRED POUNDS in the case of SETTING FIRE. But the best way is to insert the Proclamation itself.
fires), in case the person making such discovery shall be liable to be prosecuted for the same.
And the Lords Commissioners of our Treasury are hereby required to make payment accordingly of the said re wards.
Given at our Court at St. James's, this twenty-third day of November, one thousand eight hundred and thirty, in the first year of our reign. God save the King..
Here, in the case of the setting fire, is a freehold estate worth twenty-five pounds a year; or, an annuity for life of about fortyJive pounds a-year, though the informer be be from forty to fifty years of age, here is only twenty-one years of age; and, if he the worth of an annuity of a hundred pounds Chelmsford, in Essex. a year for life. The hanging began at
AT CHELMSFORD, FRIDAY, CHRISTMAS EVE. JAMES EWEN, a young man, having a wife and two small children.
On Friday James Ewen, convicted of arson, and Thos. Bateman, for highway robbery, accompanied with circumstances of savage barbarity, underwent the extreme penalty of the law in front of Springfield Gaol. Ewen, it will be recollected, had been found guilty of setting tire to the barn and stack of Mr. Sach, farmer, at Rayleigh. The circumstantial evidence to connect him with the fact was very slight, but the principal witness, a man named Richardson, who had been imprisoned as an accessary to the crime, swore that the prisoner had, unsolicited, told him, after the fire, that he was the perpetrator, and urged him at the same time to join him in firing another stack belonging to Mr. Blewett, the next evening. Richardson was known to be a notoriously bad character, and circumWILLIAM R-Whereas great multitudes of lawless and stances subsequently transpiring to cast suspicion upon disorderly persons have, for some time past, assembled his evidence, the most strenuous exertions were made, by themselves together in a riotous and tumultuous manner, a number of the most respectable inhabitants, to save in the Counties of Wilts, Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Hants, Ewen's life, but without success. Ewen protested his inand Berks; and for the purposes of compelling their em-nocence, in the most earnest manner, up to the last moployers to comply with certain regulations prescribed by ment, though he freely confessed that in his life he had themselves, with respect to wages, have had recourse to been guilty of many offences. His wife and two children measures of force and violence, and have actually com- took their farewell of the unfortunate man a few days mitted various acts of outrage in different parts of the previous, and his brother was admitted to him on the counties above-mentioned, whereby the property of many morning of his execution. No commiseration was excited of our good subjects has, in several instances, been wholly for Bateman, who had robbed and cruelly ill-used an destroyed, and their lives and properties are still greatly old man, upwards of 70, by stamping his head into a ditch, endangered: and crushing his ear off which was found buried six inches in the mud. About nine o'clock, after leaving the chapel, the culprits ascended the platform, Ewen with great firmness, and Bateman discovering much agitation. Upon placing the rope round Ewen's neck, it was found to be too short, upon which he observed, "It's rather a tight fit." The halter was obliged to be spliced, and while this was accomplishing, Ewen remarked to a person who stood near," It's rather cold standing up here." The ropes being adjusted, the bolts were withdrawn, and the prisoners were launched into eternity. They struggled very much.-The general impression amongst the Magistrates was, that Ewen was innocent.-London Morning Advertiser of 27th Dec.
We, therefore, being duly sensible of the mischievous Consequences which must inevitably ensue, as well to the peace of the kingdom as to the lives and properties of our subjects from such wicked and illegal practices, if they go aburished, and being firmly resolved to cause the laws to be put into execution for the punishment of such offenders, have thought it by the advice of our Privy Council, to issue this Proclamation, hereby strictly commanding all Justices of the Peace, Sheriffs, Under-Sheriffs, and all other Civil Officers whatsoever, within the said counties of Wilts, Kent, Sussex, Surrey, Hants, and Berks, that they do use their utmost endeavours to discover, apprehend, and bring to justice, the persons concerned in the riotous proceedings above-mentioned.
And as a further inducement to discover the said offenders, we do hereby promise and declare that any person or persons who shall discover and apprehend, or cause to be discovered and apprehended, the authors, abettors, or perpetrators of any of the outrages above-mentioned, so that they, or any of them, may be duly convicted thereof, shall be entitled to the sum of Fifty Pounds for each and every person who shall be convicted, and shall also receive our most gracious pardon for the said offence, in case the person making such discovery as aforesaid shall be liable to be prosecuted for the same.
AT MAIDSTONE, ON CHRISTMAS EVE.
WM. PACKMAN, Brothers.
EXECUTION OF THREE INCENDIARIES AT MAIDSTONE.John Dyke, otherwise Field, and William and Henry Packman, brothers, were executed on Penenden Heath, on Friday. The first had protested his innocence of being concerned in the fires; but the two latter, who are quite boys, eonfessed their guilt. A troop of Scotch Greys attended, for fear that any disturbance should take place. Henry Packman addressed the crowd, and accused Bishop, who gave evidence against him, of having instigated him to burn the ricks, &c. NJ disturbance took place.-London Morning Chronicle of 28th Dec.
And whereas certain wicked incendiaries have secretly by fire, in many parts of the said counties, destroyed the corn, hay, buildings, and other property of our subjects, we do hereby promise, and declare, that any person or persons who shall discover and apprehend, or cause to be discovered and apprehended, the authors of the said fires, so I shall, by and by, collect all these trials that they or any one of them may be duly convicted thereof, shall be entitled to the sum of Five Hun- together, with as full an account as I can dred Pounds for each and every person who shall be get of all the circumstances relating to so convicted, and shall also receive our most gracious pardon (except the actual perpetrator of any of the said each.
TREATMENT OF THE ENGLISH | from my petition to the two Houses of
Parliament, dated 4th December. The
CHELMSFORD PETTY SESSIONS,
LABOURERS' WAGES.-The Surveyor and Overseer of Great Waltham appeared upon a summons to answer the complaint of three labourers, named Tilly, Smith, and Gentry, in the gravel-pits to procure them the comfor not paying them sufficient for their labour mon necessaries of life. The case has been several times before the Bench. On the first occasion a summons was issued against the them, went to Mr. Tufnell, and upon their defendants, who, on its being served upon promising to comply with his directions and reasonably increase the wages, the summons was dismissed without a hearing. The SurMr. Tufnell's order, thinking that as the sumveyor, however, instead of complying with mons was dismissed he should not be called
"THAT it has been proved before com"mittees of the House of Commons, "that the allowance for the subsistence "of a labouring man,including his earnings, has been, as fixed by the magis"trates in Wiltshire, no more than one pound and a quarter of bread and one "half-penny in money per day for food "and clothes, with nothing for drink, "fuel, or bedding; that it has been "proved before the said committees, "that formerly the labourers all brewed "their own beer, and that now they never do it; that formerly they ate meat, cheese, butter, and bread, and they now live almost wholly on potatoes, which they carry cold to the fields when at work there; that it has "been proved before the said committees, that the honest, hard-working "labourer is not allowed more than "about half as much food as is allowed "the convicted felons in the jails and "hulks; that it has been proved "be-on to answer for his conduct, refused to give "fore the said committees, that the "labourers commit crimes in order to get fed and clothed as well as the "convicts are fed and clothed; that the "Magistrates of Warwickshire have "declared in resolutions at their Quarter "Sessions, that the labourers commit "crimes in order to get into jail, the "jail being a more happy place than "their own homes; that it has been proved before the said committees, Chairman: How could you manage to keep "that the young women are, now-a-alive-did you live upon sticks and stones? days, almost all pregnant before mar- The Surveyor, in his defence, said he asked riage, owing to fathers and them-the complainants how much they had from "selves being too poor to pay the ex-day, and he gave them that sum, the Surveyor last year; they told him 9d. apenses of the wedding; that it has "been proved before the said committees, that the labourers, having an "assistant overseer for a driver, are compelled to draw carts and wagons "like beasts of burden; and that it has "long been a general practice to put "them up at auction, and to sell them "for certain lengths of time, as is the "custom with regard to the negroes in "the slave colonies: that all these things have been proved to commit"tees of the House of Commons."
The above paragraph is an extract
the complainants any more for their labour, Bench, a second summons was issued; a letand they again coming to complain to the ter was also written by the Chairman to Mr. Tufnell, informing him of the reprehensible conduct of the Surveyor. The complainants in the gravel pit by the Surveyor, who renow stated that they were employed to work fused to pay them more than 4s. 6d. a-week each. They were all single men, and had to pay 1s. each for lodging and 6d. for washing, after which they had only 3s. left for seven days' subsistence.
Chairman: And so you really and seriously thought that sufficient for a poor man to live upon, did you?
office before, and did not understand it.
Chairman: That is no defence at all; you knew a man could not live upon 3s. a week. far as the overseer was concerned, no blame attached to him. He had always fulfilled the duties of his office to the perfect satisfaction of the parishioners; at the same time he did full justice to the poor.
Mr. Tufnell said he felt satisfied that so
would give them 1s. a-day for their work, The complainants said, if the Surveyor
they should be well satisfied.
The Bench said that was the lowest sum