Obrazy na stronie

turn of the whole sentence, and of the constructive parts; such as nou :i answering to noun, verb to verb, member to member, negative to negative, interrogative to interrogative.

« Praise ye Jehovah, ye of the earth;
Yc sca-monllers, and all deeps:
Fire and hail, snow and vapour, &c.

Ps. cxlviii. 7,

• 1$ such then the fast which I choose? That a man should afflict his foul tor a

day? Is it, that he should bow down bis head

like a bulrush; And spread sackcloth and ashes for his

couch, 4:c. Jja. lviii. 5, 6.

In these instances it is to be observed, that though there are perhaps no two lines corresponding one with another as equivalent or opposite in terms; yet there is a parallelism equally apparent, and almost as striking, which arises from the similar form and equality of the lines, from the correspondence of the members and the construction; the consequence of which is a harmony and rhythm little inferior in effect to that of the two kinds preceding.

"Of the three different forts of parallels, as above explained, every one hath its peculiar character and proper effect: and therefore they are differently employed on different occasions . . . Synonymous parallels have the appearance of art and concinnity, and a studied elegance. They prevail chiefly in shorter poems; in many of the Psalms; in Balaam's prophecies; frequently in those of Isaiah, which are most of them distinct poems of no great length. The antithetic parallelism gives an acutenefs and force to adages and moral sentences; and therefore abounds in Solomon's proverbs, and elsewhere

is not often to be met with. The poem of Job, being on a large plan, and in a high tragic, style, though very exact in the division of the lines, and in the parallelism, and affording many fine examples of the synonymous kind, yet consists chiefly of the constructive. A happy mixture of the several sorts gives an agreeable variety; and they serve mutually to recommend and set off one another."

He next considers the distinction of Hebrew verses'into longer and shorter, founded also on the authority of the alphabetic poems; ■ one third of the whole number being manifestly of the larger fort of verse, the rest of the shorter. He does not attempt exactly to define, by the number of syllables, the limit which separates one fort of verse from the other; all that he affirms is this; that one of the three poems perfectly alphabetical, and therefore infallibly divided into its verses; and three of the nine other alphabetical poems, divided into their verses, after the manner of the perfectly alphabetical, with the greatest degree of probability; that these four poems, being the four first Lamentations of Jeremiah, fall into verses about one third longer, taking them one with another, than those of the other eight alphabetical poems.— Example of these long verses from a poem perfectly alphabetical:

« I am the man, that hath seen affliction,

by uhe rod of his anger: He hath led me, and made me walk ia

darkness, and not in light." tec!

Lam. iii. 1—4.

Examples of the fame sort of verse, where the limits of the verses are to be collected only from the poetical construction of the sentences:


* The law of Jehovah !i perfect, restor

ing the soul: The testimony of Jehovah is fore, making wise the simple,' &c. Ps. x'lx. 7.

* A found of a multitude in the moun

tains, as of many people; A found of the tumult of kingdoms, of nations gathered together,' Isa. xiii. 4.

The learned prelate having established, on the grounds we have already mentioned, his opinion concerning the composition of the prophetical writings, proceeds to point oat the very important advantages which are to be derived from this source, both to the translator and interpreter of the scriptures.

Flatness, he observes, and insipidity, will generally be the consequences of a deviation from the native manner of an original, which has a real merit and a peculiar force of its own. To express therefore the form and fashion of the composition becomes as necessary in a translation, as to give the author's fense with fidelity and exactness: but with what success can this be attempted, when the translator himself has an inadequate or

even false idea of the real character of the author, as a writer; of the general nature and of the peculiar form of the composition?

He next proves, in a number of examples, that this attention to the peculiar turn and cast of the original, may be of still greater use to the interpreter, by leading him into the meaning of obscure words and phrases, and by suggesting the true reading where the text it corrupted.

With regard to the fidelity of die translation now offered* to the public, the excellent author has entered very largely into the principles of criticism, and the method of interpretation, on which he hat proceeded. It would be impossible to do justice to this part of his dissertation without transcribing the whole; we shall therefore content ourselves with saying, that the princir ' objects of hts invaluable obscr ons are, the Masoretic .ion, the state of the He.«■ text, and the ancient versions of the Old Testament.

*„* The article from our very reffeUable ctrrtjp'tmdeut at Liverpool, *ttas, by some accident, mi/laid; tut /ball be inserted in the next volume.

Vol. XXII.


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RetrofpeSive virtu of American affairs in the year 1778. Expedition to Bedford, Fair Haven; and to Martha't Vineyard. Admiral Montague dispossesses the French of the islands of St. Pierre, and Miquelon. Lord Corniaallis, and Gen. Knyphaufen, advance into the enemy's country, en both fides of the North Riuer. Surprize of Baylor's light hers:. Success of the expedition to Egg Harbour. Surprize of Pulajki's legion. Cruel depredations by Butler, Brandt, and the javages, on the back frontiers. Destruction of the nevn settlement at Wyoming, attended with circumstances of singular cruelty and barbarity. Col. Clarke's expedition from Firginia, for the reduction of the Canadian towns and settlements in the Illinois country. Consequences of Clarke's success. Expedition from Scboharii to the Upper Sufquehanna. Destruction of the Unadilla and Anaquagi settlements. p. [i

CHAP. ir.

Review of conciliatory measures pursued by the commissioners for restoring peace in America. Attempt to open and smooth the •way to a negociaticn h private communications and correspondence, fails in the ejf'ttJ, and is highly resented by the Congress. Resolutions by that tody against holding anj eommunication or intercourse vjitb one of the commissioners. Gentleman in question declines acting any longer in the commission, and pubiijka a declaration in answer to the Congress, Declaration from the remaining commissioners in anjiver to that body. Final manifesto andproclamation


by the commissioners. Cautionary measures recommended by the Congress to the people; followed by a counter manifesto, threatening retaliation. Singular letter from the Marquis de la Fayette, to the Earl of Carlisle. American expedition for the reduction of the British settlements in the country of the Notches, on the borders of the Mis/istppi. Expedition from New* Tori, under the conduct of Commodore Parker and Colonel Campbell, for the reduction of the province of Georgia. Landing made good, and the rebels defeated. Town of Savannah taken, and the province in general reduced. Major-General Frevoft arrives from the southward; takes tht town and fort ofSunbury, and assumes the principal command. [18


Island of Dominica taken by the Marquis de Bouille, governor of Marti nice. State of the French fleet at Boston. Riot bet-ween the French and inhabitants. Desperate riot between the French and American sailors, in the city, and port cf Charlestown. M. D'Estaingfails from Boston for the WeftIndies: having first issued a declaration addressed to the French Canadians. Admiral Byron's fleet driven off'from the coast of Neva-England by a violent hurricane, which afforded an oppottunity for the departure of tht French squadron. Britip fleet detained at Rhode-Island, to repair the damages sustained in the tempest. Reinforcement-sent from New-Fork to the West-Indies, under the conduct of Commodore Hotham, and Major-General Grant: narrowly miss falling in with the French fleet : join Admiral Barrington at Barbadoei, and prof eed together to the reduction of the ijland of St. Lucia: troops land, take the French posts in the neighbourhood of the Grand Cul de Sac: proceed to Mome Fortune and the Kiergie. M. D'Estaing appears insight, with a vast superiority both of land and marine force: attacks the British squadron in the Grand Cul de S.ac; and is bravely repulsed by Admiral Barrtngton, twice in the same day. French land their troops in Choc Bay: attack General Meadows three times in the Vicr~ gie; are repulsed every time, and at length defeated with great loss. Great glory obtained by the Britijh forces, both by sea and land, in these several encounters. M. D'Estaing, after ten days longer stay, abandons the island of St. Lucia, without any farther attempt for its recovery. The Chevalier dt Micoud, with the principal inhabitants,capitulate before the French fleet is out of fight. [36


State of public affairs during the recess of parliament. Address and petition from the city of London. Militia embodied. Camps formed. Admiral Keppel appointed to the command of the grand fleet for the h^me service. Peculiar situation of that commander. Fleet sails from St. Hellens. Licorne, French frigate, ftopt and detained. Blameable londiM of the Captain, in firing unexpectedly into the America man of war. Desperate

O 2 engagement

engagement Between the Arttbusa, and the Bell Poule, frigates. French

febooner, bravely taken by the Alert cutter. Another French frigate falli

in with the fleet; and is, -with the Licerne and schooner, brought to

England. Fleet returns to Portsmouth for a reinforcement. Rewards

and bounty of the French King, to the officers and crew of the Bell Poule.

Admiral Keppel fails again from Portjmouth. Falls in •with the French

fleet under the Count eTOrvilliers; and after a chact of five days, bring/

them at length to aSion. Account of the engagement on the 2Jlb of July.

View cf those circumstances 'which were supposed to have prevented that

aft ion from being decisive. French fleet escape in the night, and retime

to Brest. Prudent and temperate conduct observed by the Admiral. Re-

turns to Plymouth to refit. Proceeds again to sea, but cannot meet the

French fleet. [50


Speech from the throne. Amendment moved to the address in the House of

Comment. Great Debates. Amendment rejeBed upon a division. Op.

position to the address in general, in the House of Lords, but no amendment

proposed. Address carried upon a division. Motion to address the Crown,

in the House of Commons, for a disavowal os certain passages in the late

manifesto issued by the CommiJJioners at New York. The metion, after

long debates, rejecled upon a divifion. Similar motion by the Marquis of

Rockingham, likewise causes much debate, and is rejeSed upon a aivifion.

Protest. Circumstances, which tended to the rendering the late adion

off Brest, a fubjeS of parliamentary dij'cujfion. Admiral Keppel, being

tailed upon, gives some account of that business in the House cf Commons.

Answered by Sir Hugh Palliser. Reply. Court martial ordered for the

trial es Admiral Keppel. ConduS of the admiralty censured and sup-

ported: Question, relative to the discretionary powers cf that board,

much agitated. Bill brought in and pasted, for the holding of the trial

of Admiral Keppei on Jbore, (in consideration of bis ill state of health)

instead of its being held a board Jhip, as before prescribed by the law,

Re"s'- [75


Debates arising on questions cf sipply, previous to the recess. Augments'
tion of X 4,000 men to the land service. Trial at Portsmouth. Ad-
miral Keppel honourably acquitted. Receives the thanks of both Houses.
f'ice-Admiral of the blue restgns his employments, and vacates his feat
in the House cf Commons. Memorial stoned by twelve Admirals, pre-
sented. Great discontents in the navy. Resolution of censure moved
by Mr. Fox, on the (onduS of the admiralty. Motion, after long de-
bates, rejecled upon a division. Second motion, of a stmilar nature,
by Mr. Fox, rejeSed upon a division. Two great naval commanders,
declare against a.'iing under the present system. Resignation of naval


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