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that the cloak took away all objects from his sight; Artax. Pericles then gave him to understand, that a liké Longim. cause, viz. the interposition of the vast body of the moon between his cyes and the sun, prevented his secing its splendor.

2 The first year of the war of Peloponnesus being now elapsed, the Athenians, during the winter, solemnized publick funerals, according to ancient custom, (a practice truly humane, and expressive of a just gratitude) in honour of those who had lost their lives in that campaign, a ceremony they observed during the whole course of that war. For this purpose they set up, three days before, a tent, in which the bones of the deceased citizens were exposed, and every person strewed Howers, incense, perfumes, and things of the same kind upon those remains. They afterwards were put on a kind of chariots, in collins made of cypress wood, every tribe having its particular cofin and chariot; but in one of the latter a large empty * collin was carried, in honour of those whose bodies had not been found. The procession marched with a grave, majestick, and religious pomp; a great number of inhabitants, both citizens and foreigners, assisted at this mournful solemnity. The relations of the deccased oflicers and soldiers stood weeping at the sepulchre. These bones were carried to a publick monument, in the finest suburb of the city, called the Ceramicus; where were buried, in all ages, those who lost their lives in the field, except the warriors of Marathon, who, to immortalize their rare valour, were interred in the field of battle, Earth was afterwards laid over them, and then one of the citizens of the greatest distinction pronounced their funeral oration. Pericles was now appointed to exercise this honourable ofice. When the ceremony was endel, he went from the sepulchre to the tribunal, in order to be the better licard, and spoke

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Artax. the bration, the whole of which Thucydides has Longim. transmitted to us. Whether it was really composed

by Pericles, or by the historian, we may affirm that it is truly worthy the reputation of both those great men, as well for the noble simplicity of the style, as for the just beauty of the thoughts, and the greatness of the sentiments which shine in every part of it. a After having paid, in so solemn a manner, this double tribute of tears and applauses, to the memory of those brave soldiers who had sacrificed their lives to defend the liberties of their country; the publick, who did not confine their gratitude to empty ceremonies and tears, maintained their wi. dows, and all their infant orphans. This was a powerful * incentive to animate the courage of the citizens; for great men are formed, where merit is best rewarded.

About the close of the same campaign, the Athenians concluded an alliance with Sitalces, king of the Odrysians in Thrace; and, in consequence of this treaty, his son was admitted a citizen of Athens. They also made an accommodation with Perdiccas, king of Macedonia, by restoring him the city of Thermæ; after which they joined their forces, in order to carry on the war in Chalcis.

SECT. II. The plague makes dreadful havock in Attica.

Pericles is divested of the command. The Lacedæmionians address the Persians for aid. Potidæa is taken by the Athenians. Pericles is restored to his employa ment. His death, and that of Anaxagoras.

Second and third years of the war. 35-4: "In the beginning of the second campaign, the Ant.J.C.enemy made an incursion into the country as before,

A. M.


a Thucyd. 1. ii. p. 130. b Thucyd. 1. ii. p. 130—147. Diod. p. 101, 102. Plut. in Pericl. p. 17

* *Αθλα γαρ οίς κείται αρετης μεγισα, τοις δε και άνδρες άριςοι πολιτεύεσι,


and laid it waste. But the plague made a much Artax.
greater devastation in Athens; the like having never Longim.
been known. It is related, that it began in Ethiopia,
whence it descended into Egypt, from thence spread
over Libya, and a great part of Persia ; and at last,
broke at once, like a flood, upon Athens. Thucydi.
des, who himself was seized with that deadly disease,
has described very minutely the several circumstances
and symptoms of it, in order, says he, that a faithful
and exact relation of this calamity may serve as an
instruction to posterity, in case the like should ever
happen. Hippocrates, who was employed to visit
the sick, has also described it in a medical, and 'Lu.
cretius in a poetical way. This pestilence baffled the
utmost efforts of art; the most robust constitutions
were unable to withstand its attacks; and the greatest
care and skill of the physicians were a feeble help to
those who were infected. The instant a person was
seized, he was struck with despair, which quite dis-
abled him from attempting a cure. The assistance
that was given them was ineffectual, and proved
mortal to all such of their relations as had the courage
to approach them. The prodigious quantity of bag-
gage, which had been removed out of the country
into the city, proved very noxious. Most of the
inhabitants, for want of lodging, lived in little cot.
tages, in which they could scarce breathe, during
the raging heat of the summer, so that they were
seen either piled one upon the other, (the dead, as
well as those who were dying) or else crawling
through the streets ; or lying along by the side of
fountains, to which they had dragged themselves, to
quench the raging thirst which consumed them.
The very temples were filled with dead bodies, and
every part of the city exhibited a dreadful image of
death ; without the least remedy for the present, or
the least hopes with regard to futurity.

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d Lib. ii. c. 47.

Epidem. 1. iii. $. 3.
VOL. iii.

Artax. e The plague, before it spread into Attica, had Longim. made wild havock in Persia. Artaxerxes, who had

been informed of the mighty reputation of Hippo. crates of Cos, the greatest physician of that or any other age, caused his governors to write to him, to invite him into his dominions, in order that he might prescribe to those who were infected. The king made him the most advantageous offers ; setting no bounds to his rewards on the side of interest, and, with regard to honours, promising to make him equal with the most considerable persons in his court. The reader has already been told, the prodigious regard which was shewn to the Grecian phys cians in Persia ; and, indeed, was it possible that so useful a man as Hippocrates could be too well rewarded ? However, all the glitter of the Persian riches and dignities were not capable to corrupt him; nor stifle the hatred and aversion which was become natural to the Greeks for the Persians, ever since the latter had invaded them. This great physician therefore sent no other answer but this, that he was free from either wants or desires : That he owed all his cares to his fellow-citizens and countrymen ; and was un. der no obligation to Barbarians, the declared enemies of Greece. Kings are not used to denials. Artaxerxes, therefore, in the highest transports of rage, sent to the city of Cos, the native place of Hippocrates, and where he was at that time ; commanding them to deliver up to him that insolent wretch, in order that he might be brought to condign punishment; and threatening, in case they refused, to lay waste their city and island in such a manner, that not the least footsteps of it should remain. However, the inhabitants of Cos were not under the least terror. They made answer, that the menaces of Darius and Xerxes had not been able to prevail with them to give them earth and water, or to obey their orders; that Artaxerxes's threats would be equal

e Hippocrat. in Epist.

ly impotent; that, let what would be the conse. Artax... quences, they would never give up their fellow Longim. citizen ; and that they depended on the protection of the gods.

Hippocrates had said in one of his letters, that he owed himself entirely to his country. And indeed, the instant he was sent for to Athens, he went thi. ther, and did not once stir out of the city till the plague was quite ceased. He devoted himself entirely to the service of the sick; and to multiply himself, as it were, he sent several of his disciples into all parts of the country; after having instructed them in what manner to treat their patients. The Athenians were struck with the deepest sense of gratitude for this generous care of Hippocrates. They therefore ordained, by a publick decree, that Hippocrates should be initiated in the most exalted mys. teries, in the same manner as Hercules the son of Jupiter; that a crown of gold should be presented him, of the value of a thousand staters *, amounting to five hundred pistoles French money; and that the decree by which it was granted him, should be read aloud by a herald in the publick games, on the solemn festival of Panathenäa : That the freedom of the city should be given him, and himself be maintained, at the publick charge, in the Prytaneum, all his lifetime, in case he thought proper: In fine, that the children of all the people of Cos, whose city had given birth to so great a man, might be maintained and brought up in Athens, in the same manner as if they had been born there.

In the mean time the enemy having marched into Attica, came down towards the coast, and advancing still forward, laid waste the whole country. Pericles still adhering to the maxim he had established, not to expose the safcty of the state to the hazard of a battle, would not suffer his troops to sally out of the

The Attick stater was a gold coin weighing two drachma. It is in the original yuswa xv.

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