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need not fear that I am going to tell Glasgow Dinner, for, if it were writyou why. But I strenuously hope and ten in the same mad strain as his Frage request, as I said at the commence- ment on Lawless, it would have been ment of this epistle, that you will, for sufficient to damn him irrecoverably the present, keep it far away from your in the opinion of all sensible persons. pages, and make Maga silent on the His ranting on Ireland ran less chance topic, until the time comes when it of being detected; but still you would will become her to speak out unhesi- have done better by sending it back to tatingly upou it. When this period are him unpublished. Do not forget to rives, Christopher, you will take a man- send me news of him by return of ly and decided part, very unlike Tick- post, for I shall be most anxious until ler on the present occasion, who flirts I hear from you. I shall be with you with it, as a monkey would with a hot before the end of the month. potato; now “scouting it;" then “not Yours ever, against it ;" and, at last, “ trusting
DENIS BULGRUDDERY, the time will come" when the vegeta- Stockestown, Co. Roscommon, ble will cool, and may be touched with
Nov. 6. safety.
In conclusion, I need hardly say, P.S. I think it fair to state, that I that I am heartily vexed to see the old have just discovered that Lawless was fellow's backsliding into humbug at most boisterous in protesting against this time of life. You should positive- the personal attack made upon the edi. ly restrain him from scribbling, at least tor of the Evening Mail. Tickler eviin public, until you have a doctor's dently was not aware of this, when he certificate of his complete recovery. I said the whole Whig press exulted at am glad you were so prudent as to it. keep back the rest of his Essay on the
HISTORY OF THE GARDEN or PLANTS. *
PART II. In a recent number we presented an upon, as closely approximating to the Historical Sketch of the Parisian Mu- truth. seum of Natural History, from its In the year 1766, naturalists seem foundation under Louis XIII., until to have been well acquainted with ontowards the termination of last cen, ly about 230 species of viviparous anitury. The taste for the study of this mals, among which were included such branch of science has so rapidly in as are aquatic ; 9.46 birds ; 292 amcreased of late years, that we shall phibious animals, and reptiles ; 404 deem no apology necessary for a some fishes ; 3060 insects, and 1205 vermes what lengthy article, containing a far. or worms. ther analysis of the volumes of M. Rather more than 20 years after the Deleuze, and such observations as we above period, Gmelin published the may deem it necessary to make upon 13th edition of the Systema Naturæ, them. We shall, in the first place, how an ill-digested compilation, it is true; ever, with a view to exhibit at a single but, as Cuvier has observed, “ necesglance the immensely increased extent saire comme la seule table un peu comof our knowledge of nature within plete de ce qui a été fait jusques vers these few years, present the numerical 1790." It contains descriptions of amount of species in each of the great 557 quadrupeds, and other mammiferdivisions of the animal kingdom, taken ous animals ; 2686 birds ; 366 species at three different periods within the of the amphibious class; 889 fishes; memory of the existing generation. 10,896 insects, and 4036 worms. In We do not, of course, pretend to per- this last division it may be observed, fect accuracy in such a calculation; that both Linnæus and Gmelin inbut the general results may be relied cluded the molluscous and testaceous
• History and Description of the Museum of Natural History and Royal Botanic Garden of Paris. Translated from the French of M. Deleuze, assistant Botanist. By A.A. Royer. 2 vols. 8vo. with 17 plates. Price 21s. Sold by G. B. Sowerby, 33. King Street, Covent Garden, London.
animals, of which later writers have mandrill, a leopard, a panther, a hya formed a separate class.
ena, and a number of birds. For these It is not so easy to estimate the he paid 17,500 francs. Sir Joseph known amount of the animal king- Banks took the opportunity of predom at the present day, because vast senting to the Museum several curiadditions have been made in all its de- ous plants. At this period all the partments since the publication of the parts of the establishment were conlast General System of Zoology; of ducted with equal judgment and zeal, these additions the more recent are as because each was confided to a separate yet undescribed, or at least unpublish- chief, and its progressive movement ed; others form the subject of me- was no longer retarded. moirs and monographs in the transac Nevertheless, in October, 1800, the tions of numerous learned societies professors had reason to apprehend its throughout Europe ; or, (renovare do- ruin, from a measure which the milorem,) have contributed to increase nister of the interior, brother of the the confused labours of a few unset- first consul, wished to extend to this, tled and partial systematists, whose in common with other public instituworks are already useless, and will tions, viz. That of appointing, under soon be forgotten. The following state- the title of accountable administrator, ment, however, will probably afford a a director-general, or intendant, chartolerably accurate idea of the amount ged with the general administration, of the animal kingdom, as at present and the correspondence with the goknown. Quadrupeds or mammiferous vernment; thus reducing the officers of land animals, above 500; birds accord- the Museum to the simple function ing to Temminck, about 5000. Rep- of delivering lectures, and preserving tiles, 600 ; fishes, 3000 ; molluscous the collections. animals and shells, forming part of the The professors made the strongest vermes of the preceding enumerations, representations to the minister on this 8000. Insects, about 25,000. Vermes subject; they proved that each part of properly so called, zoophytical ani- the establishment required a separate mals, &c., forming the remainder of director ; that the administration was the class called vermes by the older essentially linked with the instruction ; writers, 4000.
that intendants were always inclined to The preceding statements shew an favour particular branches; and that increase in the amount of zoological they could not be acquainted with all objects, from 6137 species, to at least the parts of so vast a whole; that all 46,100 species, within little more than those intrusted with the direction of 50 years. There can be no stronger the Garden, excepting Guy de la Brosor more conclusive proof than this, of se, Dufay, and Fagon, who were, in the rapid progress, and successful cul- fact, its founders, had neglected it, tivation, of natural history in recent and that several had checked its protimes. Now this great increase of gress ; that Buffon, the only person knowledge has been owing, no doubt, who had since taken pride in the inin a great degree, to the liberal esta- stitution, and employed his credit for blishment and judicious administra- its advancement, had felt the necessition of public Museums; a subject ty of a different system ; that Daubenwhich brings us again in contact with ton upon principle had refused the our friend M. Royer, and the Garden title of perpetual director, offered him of Plants.
by his colleagues through respect for No foreign animals had for some his age, and gratitude for his services; years been added to the menagerie, that since the new organization the and if we except the lions which had general order had not been an instant produced young, and the elephants troubled, notwithstanding the vicissifrom Holland, it contained few that tudes of politics, and the public miswere of much value. Several were fortunes ; that the Museum being imsaid to exist in London, which the mediately dependant on the minister, owner, Mr Penbrock, wished to dis- it was sufficient that an account should pose of, and in July, 1800, M. Chanbe rendered by the annual director, tal, then Minister of the Interior, sent and that no extraordinary expenditure M. Delaunay to England on this er- should be made without permission ; rand. He purchased a male and fe- that the place of intendant, given at male tiger, a male and female lynx, a first to some person distinguished in the natural sciences, might at length seum fixed upon a stable basis, he perbe bestowed on a man destitute of any suaded his colleagues to unite in pubjust idea of their utility; that the lishing their observations, with a defunds destined for the Museum might sign principally to make known the be converted to other uses ; that the riches of the collections. The propoprofessors would be placed in a state sal being adopted by the professors, of subordination, which would damp they determined on publishing ten their zeal, and paralyse their efforts; sheets every month, with five or six and that some amongst them, who engravings, executed by the ablest arheld eminent posts under government, tists, under the inspection of M. Vancould no longer preserve their chairs, spaendock. The first volume, consiste when subjected to the control of a ing of six numbers, was published in perpetual chief. Happily nothing was 1802, and the work immediately acdetermined until M. Chaptal became quired a reputation which it has. conminister of the interior, and he suc- stantly sustained. To the twentieth ceeded in persuading the first consul volume it bore the title of Annals of to yield to the representations of the the Museum, and has since been conprofessors.
tinued under that of Memoirs : it now The steady progress, and harmonic forms twenty-six quarto volumes. ous concurrence of all parts of the Communications from foreign and Museum, demonstrate the utility of the other Naturalists, not connected with present form of administration; and the Museum, are occasionally admite it is to be hoped that the project of ted. concentrating an authority which has About this period the superb collecno connection with politics, will not tion of minerals, formed in Paris by a again be brought forward under the German named Weiss, was offered for existing government. At its founda- sale, and purchased by the Governtion the Garden was of so small an ment. In a report upon it by the extent, that a single person sufficed for council of mines, it was valued at its administration and improvement; 150,000 francs. The same year (1802,) and at that time, though botany, ana. M. Geoffroy presented to the Cabinet tomy, and chemistry only were taught, a collection of objects in Natural His. with a view to medicine, it was often tory, formed during a four years' resinecessary to solicit the favour of the dence in Egypt, in which were found court. Its funds are now fixed by the several of the sacred animals preserved budget, and it is for the administra. for thousands of years in the tombs tors to consider how they may be the of Thebes and Memphis. It was on most usefully employed. Each pro- this occasion that the true Ibis of the poses improvements in his own de ancient Egyptians was ascertained. partment, and all unite to justify the Previous to the researches of MM. confidence of the government, and to Cuvier and Savigny, the Senegal speensure the prosperity of an establish- cies, or Tatalus Ibis, was looked upon ment, the glory of which is their com- as the sacred bird. It is not even found mon property ; a succeeding professor in Egypt. The sacred Ibis may be may present a science under a differ- seen in the fine ornithological collecent form, but the administrative as- tion of the Edinburgh Museum. sembly is constantly animated by the About the same time the French same spirit ; its progress is more or Cabinet was greatly enriched by some less rapid according to circumstances; very precious geological collections. but its motion is never retrograde, be- The Emperor Napoleon presented that ing always directed towards the same of fossil fishes obtained from the Count end. The ministry of M. Chaptal was Gazola, that offered him by the city of great advantage to the Museum. of Verona, and that of Corsican rocks,
We must here speak of an enterprise received from M. Barral, an officer of which more than any other contributed the island; these fill one of the largest to spread the fame of the establish rooms of the Cabinet. ment, and to diffuse the knowledge of The anatomical preparations were which it is the source, viz. the public continued with such activity, that in cation of the annals, for the conception 1805 one hundred and one quadru. and execution of which a tribute should peds, five hundred birds, and as many be paid to the memory of Foureroy, reptiles and fishes, were placed in the When this learned man saw the Mu. Cabinet. The male elephant from VOL. XIV.
Holland having died the preceding or in spirits; nor has the preparation year, M. Cuvier undertook its dissec. of skeletons been neglected, whenever tion, assisted by his pupils in zoology it was practicable ; of which that of and anatomy, and by the painter Mar- the crocodile of the Moluccas is suffirechal. Since that perioil two other cient proof.” The botanical collection elephants have died in the Menagerie, was not less important. It is worthy so that the anatomy of that animal is of remark that the plants of New Hola now as well known as that of the land, from Port Jackson to the Straits horse.
of Entre Casteaux, do not require to In the year 1804, the Museum was be placed in hot-houses like those of enriched by the most considerable ac the tropics, but pass the winter in the cession in Zoology and Botany that it open air in the southern parts of had ever received. In the beginning France, and many of them even in of 1800, the Institute had proposed to Paris. Thus the metrosideros, the the first Consul to send two vessels to melaleuca, and the leptospermum, Australasia, for the purposes of dis which at first excited so much admi. covery in geography and the natural ration by the beauty of their flowers, sciences. The project was embraced, have been introduced into the French and twenty-three persons were named gardens. The magnificent eucalyptus, by the Institute and the Museum to which is one hundred and fifty feet in accompany the Expedition. The two height, and seven or eight in diameter, ships, the Geographer and the Natu- is also beginning to be propagated in ralist, the first commanded by Captain the southern departments. Ithe season Baudin, and the second by Captain at which they bloom requires that they Hamelin, sailed from Havre on the should be preserved in the orangery, 19th of October, 1800. They touched but their habits in this respect may be at the Isle of France, where the greater changed by raising them from the part of the persons embarked with seed. scientific views remained-reconnoi. In December 1805, M. Frederic tred the western shore of New Hol- Cuvier, brother to the Professor, was land, and repaired to Timor, where appointed Keeper of the Menagerie, they lay six weeks. They then revin and a set of regulations framed, in consited the same coast, made the circuit sequence of which the animals are obof Van Dieman's Land, and steering served in all the circumstances of their northwards to Port Jackson, lay by in habits, gestation, &c. If an animal that harbour for five months: thence dies which is not in the galleries of they resumed their course to Timor, zoology and anatomy, its skin is stuffby Bass's Straits, and returning to ed, the skeleton is prepared, and the France, entered the port of Lorient soft parts are preserved in spirits ; thus on the 25th of March, 1804.
besides the advantages of studying Of the five Zoologists who went out living nature from the menagerie, the in this expedition, two remained in cabinet and collection of drawings are the Isle of France, and two, Mauge daily enriched. and Levillain, died on the passage. While occupied in making certain Peron, the only survivor, attached him arrangements in the cabinet, M. Cuself intimately to Lesueur, the painter vier discovered that the greater proof Natural History, an excellent ob portion of fossil bones have no specific server; and these two indefatigable identity with those of existing animen amassed an infinite variety of mals; and wishing to pursue his resubjects. “Every day," says Cuvier searches, he neglected no opportunity in his report to the Institute, “af- of assembling a collection of remains. fords new proofs of the value of this Some very remarkable ones were found collection, consisting of more than one in the quarries of Montmartre others hundred thousand specimens of ani- were sent him from Germany and mals of all classes. It has already fur other countries. In a series of memoirs nished several important genera ; and in the Annals of the Museum, he made the number of new species, according known several species of quadrupeds to the report of the Professors of the which existed before the last revolution Museum, exceeds two thousand five that changed the surface of the globe, hundred. Everything that it was pos- far more ancient than those found sible to preserve, has been brought amongst the mummies of Egypt, and home, either dried, carefully stufted, differing from those that now inhabit
the earth in proportion to the remote was interrupted, and the number of ness of the periods at which they lived. students was diminished by the calls His investigations, in this department, of the army. In 1914, when the Alform an era in the history of modern lied troops entered Paris, a body of science, and, upon the whole, may be Prussians was about to take up its regarded as among the most signal quarters in the garden ; the moment productions of the age. M. Cuvier has was critical, and the Professors had no since presented his fossil treasures to means of approaching the important the Museum, accepting in exchange authorities; the commander consented only the duplicates of books on natu- to wait two hours, and this interim ral history in the Library. This cols was 60 employed as to relieve them lection, with that of fishes from Mount from all farther apprehension. An ilBolca, fills one of the saloons of the lustrious son of science, whose name cabinet.
does honour to the country which gave The botanical department was also him birth, and to that which he has greatly increased during this period. chosen for the publication of his works, Many botanists enriched it with the obtained from the Prussian General a plants which they had discovered or de- safeguard to the Museum, and an exscribed, and Mr Humboldt in particu- emption from all military requisitions; lar, presented the Herbarium of his tra- and although no person was refused vels in the Equinoxial regions of Ame- admittance, it sustained not the slightrica, consisting of 5600 species, 3000 of est injury. The Emperors of Austria which were new to the Museum. Be- and Russia, and the King of Prussia, sides the additions of 1801, three new visited it to admire its riches, and to galleries were planned in 1807, by pro- request duplicates of objects in exlonging those of the first and second change, and information regarding the floors. These important works being best means of promoting similar insti. terminated in 1810, the interior ar- tutions in their own dominions. rangements were made with such ce- In 1815, when Paris was condemnlerity, that the new saloous, as they at ed a second time to receive the visit present stand, were occupied in 1811. of those military strangers, returning The necessity of these additions to the with more hostile intentions, there was buildings must be obvious, from the reason to fear, that the Cabinet would enumeration of those made to the ca- be emptied of a great part of its conbinet. Besides the collections already tents; and that the Museum of Namentioned, the Corsican rocks of M. tural History, like that of the fine Rampasse were purchased by the Em- arts, would be obliged to restore most peror to complete the series of M. de of the objects obtained by contribuBarral. In 1808, M.Geoffroy brought tion from conquered countries. In from Lisbon a very beautiful collection fact, the magnificent Cabinet of the in every branch of natural history. In Stadtholder was reclainedl; and M. 1809, the minister procured the sam- Brugmann was sent to Paris, to receive ples of North American wood, collect and transport it. This mission caused ed by M. Michaux, author of a valua, the liveliest solicitude to the admini. ble history of the forest trees of that strators of the Museum. By the recountry; and also a herbarium, con- storation of those objects the series taining the original specimens for the would have been interrupted, and the Flora of his father, who died in Ma- collection left incomplete. M. Brugdagascar. In 1810, twenty-four animann was too enlightened a man not mals arrived from the menagerie of the to perceive that they would no longer King of Holland ; animals were sent possess the same value when detachfrom Italy and Germany, by M. Mar- ed; and that in the galleries of facel de Serres ; and presents of several ris they would be more useful eyen animals, and a beautiful herbarium to foreign naturalists. But he was obfrom Cayenne, by M. Martin, superin- liged to execute the orders of his Sotendant of the nurseries in that colony. vereign, and could only observe the
In the disastrous year of 1813, the utmost delicacy in his proceedings ; budget of the Museum was reduced, listen to any plan of conciliation, and and important enterprises were defer, plead the cause of science in defending red till better times. Even the expenses that of the Museum. In this dilemma of the menagerie were curtailed, all the professors addressed themselves to correspondence with foreign countries M. de Gagern, Minister Plenipoten