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ed to only when a member has to submit a able number of her more active disproposition to the Cortes, when any of the turbers have dipped their pens in edi. Secretaries has to make a communication, or torial ink, as a preparative for the dicwhen official documents are to be read. The tatorship, and other absurdities of deConstitution provides, that ministers shall
mocracy. San Miguel, soldier as he not have seats in the Cortes ; but this body
was, found it expedient to advance to is authorised to demand the presence of any member of the cabinet, or of all the mein.
supremacy by the ordinary way of the bers, as often as they think expedient.
Brissots and Marats. He was one of When a question is put to the vote, those
the editors of the journal called the * who are for the affirmative stand up in Espectador immediately before his eletheir places; those against it remain sitting. vation to office ; and unless the Duc During a division, strangers are not exclus d'Angouleme has prohibited him the ded. When the question is one of great exercise of his ingenuity, he is proimportance, the names of the members vo. bably, at this moment, translating Beting are taken down."
renger or Voltaire for the future hopes • We now come to that which is less of Spain and freedom. permanent than benches and curtains, Lopez Banos, a name unmusical to and which, unlike them, will probably Sir Robert Wilson's ears, was the minever share the revival of easy debates, nister of war, a soldier, and rather and the presence of majesty ;-the re suspected, from his tardy junction with putations and offices of the Liberal
the insurrection of the Isla. ministry. The writer speaks like an im Gasco, the Minister of the Interior, partialist; and his opportunities seem
an intelligent, manly personage. He to have allowed him a sufficient know
was an advocate, and obscure. Revoledge of the men and things that turn
lution is tempting to men of this class ed the helm of Spain. In the rapid al
of Spain. In the rapid al and fortune. He is a Liberal, and yet ternations of democracy, the chief point considered as not quite liberal enough. of address is to “ catch the Cynthia of This is probably since he has felt the the minute." The lords of the ascend
comforts of place. In power every man ant this hour are below the horizon the
is an aristocrat. Gasco is looked on as next--some never to rise again. We not “ up to the age." have here the portraiture of the cabi Navarro, the Minister of Justice, net for November.
is “ the declared enemy of the usurp" The ministry of Martinez de la Rosa ations” of the court of Rome. He is having lost its moral influence in the coun. well versed in the canon law, and try, in consequence of a general, though “ more of a logician than a statesperhaps unjust suspicion, that they favour. man ;" characters so seldom joined, ed the meeting of the Royal Guard on the that we feel no great surprise at the 7th of July, 1822, a new ministry was writer's deeming them nearly incomformed, composed of men marked out for
patible. their determined zeal in support of the con. stitution. At the head of the new ministry
The panegyric of the Finance Miis Evaristo San Miguel. He was chief of
nister, Egea, is pronounced briefly, the staff in the army of the Isla, and per
but conclusively. « He considers the formed his duties in a blameless manner.
modern science of political economy as After this, he became one of the principal a mere farce." Tell not this in the land members of the party of freemasons, to of the Edinburgh Review. The Spawhich he owes his elevation."
niard must be a man of sense. · This minister is described in rather The ministry of Martinez de la unpromising colours, as irritable and Rosa and his party were aristocratiimpatient of censure; a proof that he cal. They were called the Anilleros, would not answer for an English trea- the ring-wearers, like the ancient sury bench ; as partial in his distribu- Equites, and numbered many of the tion of patronage, and as un productive higher noblesse. Among their lazy of manly and original measures. One dreams of renovation, was a Chamber of the most curious traits of modern of Peers. But they were, on the 7th revolution is, its connexion with pub- of July, turned out by men less asleep, lic journals. All the French dema- and on their pillows rose the Commugogues were, in some mode or other, neros, the friends of the sovereignty of allied to the press, some of the chief the people; a willing, yet somnolent were actually editors. Spain, in her copy of the Parisian party of the Secremoteness, has learned this suspicious tions. Ballasteros, Romera Alpuente, step to public honours, and a considera and other nameless patriots, were its leaders. The Freemasons, headed by spiritual assistance, and of medicinal re. Arguelles, Galiano, Isturiz, &c. were lief. It was occupied by fifteen monks, the original conspirators, and, by the who, it was asserted, and the assertion was help of the military, they were mas
not contradicted, spent their whole time in ters of the throne and the people for
religious exercises and works of practical their day.
virtue, never hesitating, at any hour of the - This is all a curious counterpart of
night, to traverse the coldest mountains,
to adıninister the consolation of their sa. the French Revolution. The same sel
cred functions. They never evinced a dis. fishness, the same light and ready
position to mingle in the civil war which usurpation of hollow patriotism, the afflicted the country ; the ruggedness of same division of the spoil; the pic the territory in which the convent was ture is still more curious, from its qua placed, was a security that it could never lified and Spanish hue. The canvass, be fixed on as an asylum for arms and that in France was painted with flame provisions of the factious. The locality of and blood, is pale and watery in Spain.
the establishment, the thousand recollecRevolution in France was a volcano in
tions by which it was cndeared to the simfull eruption ; in Spain the volcano is
ple around it, and its acknowledged utility cold; the whole preparation and con
in such a situation, were, however, plead
ed in vain for its continuance. It was subformation of ruin is before the eye,
jected to the rigid law of suppression. It but it is overlaid with ashes. There
was the first public calamity which the peoare few more convincing instances of
ple of the Battuecas experienced. It was the folly of reasoning from similar cau- not doubted that they would, one and all, ses to similar effects in politics. The resent it, as a wanton act of hostility on men of the Convention plunged into the part of the government." the temptation at once, and rebelled In this excursive manner the writer in the spirit and malignity of Satan. passes through the principal points Their later followers gave way, in the that make the charge against the derashness of the human appetite for mocratic sovereigns of Spain. Violence power, but they could not altogether against the weak, timidity and tardidivest themselves of human nature. ness against the strong, a determina
Their overthrow of the throne was the tion to overthrow things venerable and most bloodless of all rebellions. Men dear to the national feeling, a rash have been slain in battle, but the scaf- passion for useless novelty in legislafold has been scarcely trodden ;-in the. tion; their law caprice ; their finance midst of a fierce and haughty conflict bankruptcy, and their war non-reof new passions, the civil sword has sistance, confusion, and perpetual rebeen but half-drawn; and the consti- treat-the Spanish Jacobins shewed tution, mad and fruitless as it is, has themselves incompetent to everything been almost without the stain of Spa- that the world had been taught to exnish gore.
pect from the firmness and dignity of The suppression of the convents is the native mind. The rebellious cup touched on by the writer with good that had made France mad, had only sense and feeling. After observing on made them drunk. Their revolt was the rashness of the measure, and its a parody upon the French Revoluconsequent unproductiveness, he al. tion. ludes to one of those instances, which The public reading of the celebrated must not have been unfrequent in a notes of the allies gives room for some lonely and pastoral country like Spain. striking sketches of Spanish delibera
“ The convent of the Battuecas was si tion. tuated in a wild, mountainous country, " The government, having taken some where the population is scattered in little days to consider the foreign dispatches, hamlets. The people seem, from the sin which had been communicated to it, and of plicity and innocence of their manners, to the answers proper to be returned to them, belong to the primitive ages of the world. resolved on laying the whole of the docu. Few of them have ever gone beyond the ments before the Cortes, in a solemn pubprecincts of their peculiar territory ; their lic sitting. This was not one of those days pass away in pastoral occupations, points which necessarily required the cogand their evenings are usually closed by nizance of the Cortes ; but the ministers works of piety, intermingled occasionally believed they should be wanting to those with such enjoyments as they can derive sentiments which united them with the Confrom a rude knowledge of the tambour and gress, if they did not place the matter bethe guitar. The convent was their prin- fore them. Besides, the government of cipal source of religious information, of France had taken care to publish the ins structions which it had transmitted to the been louder, but for the intense desire to Count La Garde, and the government of hear what followed. The assembly, taking Spain thought they could do no less than it altogether, seemed struck with surprise follow its example. It was not generally at the light in which this note represented known that these important documents the Spanish revolution. When they heard would be read to the Cortes; and in con- it said that the principal instruments of the sequence the public galleries were not Spanish revolution had excited Naples and crowded, though rather well attended. Sir Piedmont to follow the example of the PeWilliam A'Court was in the ambassador's ninsula, Riego, Galiano, Arguelles, and tribune, to which also several English gen. others, smiled at the assertion, wondering tlemen were, by his politeness, admitted. at the hardihood of Metternich, who could The attendance of the Deputies was full. put forth such a falsehood. Yet it was soon
· The Cortes had been previously en- evident, that this note was drawn up with gaged upon a question relating to ecclesi. tael, and knowledge of human nature, for astical property ; but from the manner in before the general indignation was raised which it was treated, it was easy to perceive to its height, it was wonderfully softened that the minds of the Deputies were full of by that appeal to national pride, which was anxiety and fervour upon another subject. só artfully wrought up in the allusion to Now and then this sentiment broke out, the peculiar position of Austria. The and there was a partial cheer, when Senor House of Austria, looking to its own hisVelasco, a clergyman, said, I have learn, tory, cannot but find in it the most powered to suffer privations ; but there is no sa- ful motives of friendship, solicitude, and crifice which I can deem too great for the sympathy for a nation, which is able to benefit of Spain ; and even though I were record, with just pride, ages of glorious reabout to become the victim of indigence, collection, during which the san never set still my last resources should be exhausted upon her dominions; and which, possessfor the Constitution and the liberty of the ing respectable institutions, hereditary vir. nation.' This discussion was suspended tues, religious sentiments, and love for her when the Secretaries of State entered the kings, has distinguished herself in every hall of the Cortes, about two o'clock in the age by a patriotism always faithful, always afternoon, and M. San Miguel appeared in generous, and very frequently heroic.' This the rostrum. Upon the instant every person just and eloquent passage had an electric present was breathless with attention, and effect. You saw that the men were for a the silence that pervaded the hall, the tri moment subdued; for flattery, so finely cobunes, and galleries, was as profound as if it vered and directed, could not fail to touch were a desert.
every chord of national feeling. But this “ After a short preface, he proceeded to result was only for the moment; for al. read the note transmitted by the French though the reinainder of the note was government to Count la Garde, which ha framed in language alternately soothing ving been already familiar to the deputies and severe, the terms in which the King and strangers, excited little attention. San was spoken of as a captive, and the authors Miguel's enunciation is bad. He gave no of the constitution represented as acknowemphasis to those sentences, even in the ledging its impracticability, excited unquaanswer to the French note, which was un lified hostility. When the note was conderstood to be from his own pen. Yet no cluded, however, there was no very geneaid of elocution was necessary to render ral expression of indignation, as its effect every word that fell from him impressive was in some measure qualified by the in the highest degree. When he came to friendly and admonitory tone in which it that passage of his answer, which says that ended. Spain was indifferent as to the results of “After pausing a few minutes, San Mi. the Congress of Verona, because secure guel proceeded to read the note from Prusof its principles, and firm in the determi. sia. Everything depends upon the manner nation of defending, at every hazard, its in which it is done. There was a great deal present political system, and national in- of Alattery in the commencement of the dependence,' there was a general burst of Prussian note ; but it sounded hollow. enthusiasm, many of the deputies and spec. The consequence was, that it was laughed tators clapping their hands. These ap. at. The dignity of the assembly could plauses were renewed at the close of almost scarcely be preserved when that passage every subsequent paragraph ; and, when was read, which stated that the Cortes this paper was concluded, they were con presented nothing more than a conflict of tinued for several minutes.
opinions and objects, and a struggle of in“ The Austrian note was heard in si terests and passiops, in the midst of which lence, until the Minister came to the words, the most foolish resolutions and proposi
and a military rebellion never can form tions have been constantly crossed, combatthe basis of an auspicious and permanented, and neutralized.' This picture of the government;' but there was then a short Cortes, and its debates, if not false, was at murmur of indignation, which would have least well calculated to excite laughter
The remainder of the note, which is full of sent, they will not permit that any alterainvectives against the constitution, was re- tions or rnodifications shall be made in the ceived with indignation, not unfrequently constitution by which they exist, except by interrupted by strong expressions of con- the will of the nation, and in the manner tempt.
which the laws prescribe. The Cortes will “But all the rage of the Cortes, or ra- give to the government of his Majesty every ther I might say of the general assembly, means for repelling the aggression of those (for the spectators in the gallery seemed to powers who may dare to attack the liberty, form an integral part of the meeting,) all the independence, and the glory of the hethe rage of this anxious assembly appear. roic Spanish nation, and the dignity and ed to be reserved for the Russian commu- splendour of the King's constitutional nication. The sentence commencing the throne.' second paragraph, · When in the month of “ This well-timed reply was received March, 1820, some perjured soldiers turn with a peal of vivas that lasted for several ed their arms against their sovereign and minutes. The deputies all rose in a confutheir country,' &c. was frequently inter- sed manner, and shouted. Viva la Constirupted by murmurs from the galleries and tution! Viva la soberania national !' in the deputies; and, amidst these, the former which they were enthusiastically joined by exclaimed more than once, Abuxo el Ti. the people in the galleries.” rano !' (Down with the Tyrant !) uttered The effect of these discussions upon with a fierceness of tone peculiarly Spa- the populace is characteristically told. nish.
" During the time the minister was “The following day, a detailed account reading this paper, the agitation among of the debates, and copies of the notes and the deputies was extreme, some turning answers, were published in the principal from one side to the other, as in a state of journals. From an early hour of the mornpainful suffering—some raising their hands ing, the offices of the Universal and Espec. in astonishment_some looking intently on tador, and the streets leading to them, were the minister, their faces fired with ven. crowded with applicants for papers. Dugeance, &c.
ring the whole day the demand was so “ It was observable that frequently the great, that it was impossible to satisfy it : deputies fixed their eyes attentively upon but a plan was adopted which in some meathe ambassador's tribune, in which Sir sure compensated for this defect. When a William A'Court and several English gen lucky patriot succeeded in getting a paper, tlemen were seated. When, in the notes, he posted to the Puerta del Sol, or the ar. a sentence of peculiar despotisın was read, cades of the post-office, and here, as soon many an eye was raised to that box, to read as he produced his prize, a crowd collected the impression which it made there. Sir round him, and he read aloud the whole of William A'Court's countenance gave them the journal, from the beginning to the end. neither hope nor despair, but several of his The remarks which the listeners occasioncountrymen took no pains to restrain the ab- ally made were short and pithy, Hear,' horrence, which these documents must ever said one, hear the Prussian King, who excite in the breasts of men who know what once promised a constitution to his own freedom is. These expressions of sympathy subjects.'_“And who never gave it,' addwere anxiously looked for by the deputies, ed another. Only observe how tender he and afforded them evidently great satisfac is of the Catholic Church, himself a heretion. They remarked upon them, one to tic.'_This caused a laugh. Now for the the other, and occasionally smiled.
Russian bear,' remarked another. Down “ San Miguel concluded with reading with the parricidal race! Down with the the copy of a circular note, which was to be tyrant !' they said, as the reader proceed. sent to the Spanish ministers at each of the ed.” three northern courts ; and in which it was stated, that the dispatches transmitted by The debate on the message is then those courts were so full of distorted facts, detailed with passing indications of the injurious suppositions, unjust and calum character and manner of the chief nious criminations, and vague demands, speakers. Saavedra, young, poetical, that they required no formal answer ; but fluent, and enthusiastic-Canga, old, that the government would take a more con- eloquent, learned, and wise-Galiuno, venient opportunity for publishing to the
metaphorical, spirited, and full of picnation its sentiments, principles, and resolutions.
turesque gesture-Arguelles, par excel“ As soon as the reading of these docu.
lence the Orator, argumentative, viments was over, the President of Cortes
vid, bold, and rapid in his transitions said, “The Cortes have heard the commu.
from reasoning to irresistible appeals nication which the government of his Ma- to the heart. While he spoke, every jesty has just made. Faithful to their oath, one of the deputies appeared to be enand worthy of the people whom they repre- tranced by his eloquence; and when be concluded, there was a general look notices are drawn up with grace and up to the ambassador's tribune, to see intelligence. The writer followed the what effect it produced there. He King to Seville, and a curious account spoke for an hour and ten minutes; of the royal progress and reception is and when he first rose, often during given. The course of the magnificent his speech, and when he sat down, be Guadalquivir, and Cadiz, are touched was cheered by the populace, and even upon, which, with the writer's return by the deputies, in the most lively and through the French army, then marchaffectionate manner.
ing on Madrid, make up a narrative of After all, these men deserve a better peculiar interest at the present time; fate than to be the slaves of the Bour- and for its general manliness and simbons and the Inquisition. Their first plicity, its truth-telling spirit, and its experiment has been crude, and it de- clearness of political view, it is unquesserved to fail. But honest lovers of tionably a safer guide to the feelings of monarchy may join in the wish that the Spanish people, as well as a more the Spaniard shall “ be a man yet." honourable testimony to individual au
The volume closes with some gene- thorship, than any work that has hiral views of the arts, amusements, ha- therto appeared on the Peninsular Rea bits, and costume of the people. These volution.
LAS CASES' JOURNAL.* Las Cases is a well-meaning, easy, Napoleon's private life and conversasilly, old gentleman, whom we really tions, that it was afterwards overlooklike, in spite of all the lies with which ed and revised by the Emperor's self, his voluines are crammed. Indeed he lest anything unfavourable but true seems himself de bonne foi, literally be should have escaped the pen of the ofa lieves all the nonsense dictated to him, ficious, but not over-prudent, jackall. and has just the credulous and obse In the minor details, we dare say the quious swallow necessary for a follower volumes are correct. We have no doubt of Napoleon. There could be no work that the Emperor tore his stocking, which we would have been more glad put on clean ones, coughed so many to possess, than the one which this pre- times a-day, and burnt his coxendix tends to be a Journal of Napoleon's with his bath-spout. Nay, we will go free and unmade-up conversations. But, farther, and believe, with the Count de first of all, when the Ex-Emperor Las Cases, that he was a good-natured, knew that M. Las Cases was taking amiable man in his interior, and, like down every word that dropt from his Sir Anthony, “the easiest man led in mouth, that the Docteur O'Meara was the world, when he had his own way.” doing the same, and every one else that His pulling the ears of all his housecamne near him, we may conceive how hold, as was his custom, we believe a naturally, how much without a motive joke; nay, more, or, as Las Cases calls he spoke, and how much the detail of it, a lendresse, though, for ourselves, these theatrical conversations unmasks we should have dispensed with it. him. In fact, the great man seems to That he pulled the Pope by his grey have been kept at St Helena in a con- locks (if old Chiaramonte had a single tinual state of pleading—no matter lock about his tonsure, around the Corwhat he was doing, what time of the ridores of Fontainbleau, is another story day, dined or undined, in bed or in bath, not to be swallowed. And, by the by, there were ever his eternal companions, it is to be remarked, that all these cathe Grand Marechal, or Count this, or lumnies were not propagated by the Count that, with pencil and ass-skin, English ministry, as Buonaparte himready to note down his crudities. And self always said; but, from Las Cases' had they kept him at it, (for at times own admission, they were fabricated we have whole continued pages of his by those around his person ; so that pleading,) how faithfully reported by even his counsellor of state, poor Las Las Cases, who never, perhaps, belong- Cases himself, had acquired a false and ed to the “ glorious company,” we horrible idea of the Emperor. Whatleave that learned body to determine. ever Napoleon's own counsellor of state Nay, so impartial an account is this of may have credited, we certainly do not
• Count Las Cases' Journal of the Private Life and Conversation of the Emperor Napoleon at Saint Helena. 4 Parts. 8vo. Colburn and Co. London. 1823.