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Brokes of Conscience under a sense of Deviation from
s. It is therefore plain, that if the Humane Body have no greater or bercer Happinefs than what is accommodated only to a Sensible Nature, they have no greater Happiness than the Beasts have, which is not reasonably to be supposed for a Nature so far exceeding them.
6. Farcher yet; if Humane Nature were not under å capacity of a greater Happiness chan what is terminated in Sense, mankind were much more Unhappy tlian che bafelt Animal ; And the more Excellent the Humane Nature is above the Beasts, nay, the more excellent any one individual of the Humane kind were above another che more miserable he were, and the more uncapable of being in any measure happy : for the more Wife and Sagacious any man were, the more he must needs be lensible of Deatb, which fense would lowre all the Happiness of a sensible Good; the more fen ble he must needs be, not only of the shortness and uncertainty of fensible Enjoyments, but also of their Poorness, Emptiness, Infufficiency, Disfatisfactoriness. It is evident, that a Fool fets a greater rate upon a Sensible Good, than a Man truly Wise, and consequently the Fool could be the only man capable of Happiness: for it is most certain, that according to the measure of the esteem that any man hatli of any good he enjoys, such is the measure of his Happio ness in that enjoyment, since the happiness is somewhat that is intrinsecal to the Sense or Mind that enjoys it: A thing really Good can never make that Man Happy's who is under a Sense of Evil or Inconvenience by that enjoyment, so long as he is under that fenfe. Since therefore it is preposterous and unreasonable to suppose that Man, the best of Terrestrial Creatures, and Wise inen, the best of men, should be Excluded from at least an equal degree of Happiness with the Beasts that perish; and since it must needs be, that a bare Sensible Good can never communicate to a man an Equal degree of Happihess with a Beast, not to a Wise man an Equal degree of Happiness with a Fool; it remains, there must needs in
common reason be some other subject wherein the Happiness of a Man, of a Wise man, must confift, that it is noc barely Sensible Good.
7. All the good things of this Life, they are but Sensible Goods, and therefore they cannot be the true matter of thac Happiness which we may reasonably think belongs to the Reasonable Nature as such ; the former will appear by an induction of particulars, which I shall pursue in order, with the particular instances of their Insuffici. encies to make up a true Happiness to the Reasonable Nature, as well as that general, that they are but Sensible Goods, and meerly accommodated to a Sensible Life and Nature.
1. Life it self is not such a sufficient constituent of Happiness: and the instance is evident, because it is poflible that Life it self may be Miserable: there may be Life where there is Sickness, Pain, Disgrace, Poverty, and all those External Occurrences that may render life Grievous and Burthensome. Life may indeed be the Subject of Happiness, when it hath all those contributions that concur to make it such; but Life alone, and as such, cannot be happiness, because there may be a Miferable Life.
2. Those Bona Corporis or Composiii, the Goods of the Body, are not fufficient to make up a suitable Happiness to the Reasonable Nature ; as Health, Strength; for the Beasts themselves enjoy this, and for the most part, the Brutes enjoy a greater measure of these than Mankind; and besides still, there is that which is like the Worm at the root of the Gourd, that spoils the Happiness that must arise from it ; viz. Mortality and Death which will certainly pull down this Tabernacle; and Man hath an unintermitted Pre-apprehension of it, which sowres the very injoyment it felf
. And in this as hath been said, the Beasts that perish have a Pre-heminence over Mankind; for though both are Mortal, yet the Beast is not under that Pre-apprehension of it that Man incessantly hath, whereby this Fruition of that Happiness of Health is the more sincere, and this confideration muft run through all
those those other Contributions of Sensible Goods, that hereafter follow. And as for Beauty, the Happiness thereof as it is but fading and empty, so the Felicity that it gives, is not to the party that hạth it, but to others, un. to whom perchance it may be a delightful and amiable Spectacle, but not to him that hath it.
3. There are a secondary sort of Bodily Goods, namely, Pleasures of the senses, as delightful Meats, Drinks, Sights, Musick, pleasant Odors, and other Gratifications of the Sensitive Appetite; or Luft, as the Luft of the Flesh, the Luft of Revenge, the Luft of Desire, &c. These cannot make up a competent Happiness to the Humane Nature, 1. They are but Sensible Goods, common to the Beasts as well as Men, 2. Though they may be competent to make up the Happiness of the Sensible Nature, yet they are not such to Reasonatle Nature; because they are still accompanied with a present concurring Sense of Mortality, which imbitters their very Enjoyments, and renders theril insipid, if not bitter. 3. The wiser the Man is, the less he values them, and consequently are at best a Happiness to Fools, and such as are degenerate from the Nobleness of the Humane Nature into the degree of Beasts, by setting an Over-value upon them. Again, 4. They are transient, and the Happiness of thein is only before these Enjoy ments; when they are enjoyed to Satiety, they lose their Use and Value. 5. These placent & fenfus, especially of the Sensual Appetite, are not for their own sakes, but in order to something else, viz. To invite and excite the Appetite in order to the Preservation of the individual, or the species; and therefore cannot be in themselves in Relation to a Reasonable Nature any Happiness, since they terminate in something else.
4. Those Bona Fortuna , as Wealth, Honour, Power, cannot at all pretend to make up a Happiness for the Reasonable Nature; for though in truth we do not find so eminently, in the Animal Nature, any fuch thing as . Wealth or Honour, but only somewhat Analogical to it, as in Ants and Bees; yet these are of a far inferiour Nature to the Bona Corporis, whether Health or Pleasure ;
for they are in their true Use only in order to them, The primary Corporal Good is Health, and Conversation of the individual in his being ; next to that, and indeed in order to it, are the Refreshments and Supports by Eating and Drinking. Wealth again is Subfervient, and in order to that, viz. to have a convenient Store and Provision for the supply of the Exigences of Nature, and preserving the individual : what is more than Necessary for that, is Superfluous, Vain, and Unnecessary. Power again is only desirable to secure those Provisions from Rapine and Invasion: so that in truth these are so far from making up a Happiness, that they are only Provisional, and in order to those Goods of the Body, which are before shewn, incompetent to that End; and without that respect they are pain and impertinent things. But be, sides this, there are certain Specifical Defeats that accompany these Goods, that render them utterly uncapable of making up a Happiness to Mankind: 1. Įt is im, possible they can be as large as the Humane Naçure; becaufe unless there were some Poor, none could be Rich; unless some were Under, there could be none in Power; jf all were equal in Wealth and Power, there could be no such thing as Wealth or Power: and consequently the fupposition of Happiness in those who are Rich or Powerful, would exclude the greatest part of Mankind from any share in that which must make up their common Happiness. 2. In the fruition of all Wealth, Honour and Power, besides the common fate of Mortality, which imbitters their very Enjoyment, there is annexed a certain peculiar Infelicity that renders them uncapable of making up a Happiness : For, 1. They are the common mark of Covetousness, Envy,Ambition, and Necelfity, which most ordinarily render Rich and Powerful and Great Men less safe than others, and ordinarily they stand tottering dangerously, and subject to fall. 2. There is always Care and Anxiety attending the possessors of Great Honour, Wealth, or Power, which imbitters the very enjoyment, and puts it out of the capacity of being Happiness; for it is impossible that great Cares and great
Fears can consist with true Happiness. And thus far of
8. Besides these Sensible Goods, there seem to be two forts of Goods that mankind is peculiarly capable of, which are not common to the Beasts; viz. Firit, the Good of Esteem, Glory and Reputation, wherewith perchance the Beasts are not affected, though some seem to have something analogal to it; but this cannot at all make up a Happiness to the Humane Nature: 1. Because it is noc accommodate to all Uses and Exigents; Laudatur e al, get. 2. Because it resides not in the party, but in those who give it ; a Man may have a great esteem with others, and a low esteem of himself. 3. It is of all others the most brittle and unstable poífellion : those that perchance deservedly give it, may undefervedily refume it : a word or action miltaken by others, a false Report, Envy, Emulation, want of success in any one Action: the misinterpretation of the Superior or the Vulgar, may quite overturn the greatest, and perchance most deserved Reputation, and render a Man more despised and contemptible than he was before eminent or esteemed : he that bottoms his Happiness upon such an unstable blast, inherits the wind.
9. But yet there are ) certain Bona Anime which are competible to Man, but not to Beasts, which are of two kinds, according to the two great Faculties in Man, his Understanding and Will: viz. Knowledge, and Moral Virtues; and although these are excellent Goods, yet (exclusively of true and found Religion) they cannot make up that Happiness, which we may reasonably judge to be proper and specifical to the Humane Nature: First, There fore for Knowledge, there are these Incompetences in it, in reference to our Happiness: 1. Our Knowledge is very little and narrow in respect of the Object of it; What we know, is the least part of what we know not: Though we daily converse with things natural, even with the frame of our own bodies; we scarce know the nature or cause or motion of any one Nerve or Muscle, 2. Even in those things we think we know, our KnowU4