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-252.

dative; as in Cic. pro Deiot. 13, quietem senectutis acceptam refert clo mentiae tuae. -234. Philippos; sc. nummos. Pieces of gold coin, se called from Philip of Macedon. -240. Lysippo. A celebrated artist in bronze; of Sicyon.-On the ablative, see n. Epist. i., 16, 20. -244. Boeotum in crasso. Cicero gives the origin of this epithet, in De Fato, 4 (quoted by Orelli); Athenis tenue coelum, ex quo acutiores etiam putantur Attici; crassum Thebis, itaque pingues Thebani. 246. Dantis; sc. tui. 247. Both Virgil and Varius had died before the composition of this Epistle. - 251. Repentes. Comp. Sat. ii., 6, 17.Arces. Comp. O. iv., 14, 11. -254. Auspicils. Comp. n. O. iv. 14, 16. 255. Janum. Comp. n. O. iv., 15, 9.- 257. Si-possem. Comp. the poet's language in O. i., 6. 259. Vires-recusent. Comp. the poet's example here with his precept in Ars, P. 39. 264. Nil moror, etc. The poet expresses the sentiments which he thinks Augustus himself would cherish and utter; as if he had said: if I were in your place, I should not care for, &c. -268. Capsa. Here used for sandapila, a bier, in which the bodies of poor people were carried to the grave. The word aperta is added with capsa, because a capsa, with nothing but indifferent books in it, might be left open, but would be kept carefully closed, if it contained valuable books.. See n. Sat. ii., 3. 228,

269. Vicum.

EPISTLE II.

poet's life and character, war Florus had complained, that

This highly finished Epistle, full of illustration of the addressed to Julius Florus. (See Introd. to Epist. i., 3.) Horace had not, in fulfilment of his promise, sent to him, while absent in the East, in the suite of Tiberius, any of his poetical compositions. The poet, in replying to his friend's complaint, professes to excuse himself for his silence.

He contends, in a familiar illustration from a slave-dealer, that he had warned his friend that he might not keep his word (1-25); and in another illustration from a soldier in the army of Lucullus, that the reasons which once urged him to poetical com position, now no longer existed (26-57). He proceeds to mention various grounds for his growing indisposition to write; the capricious tastes of readers (58-64); the distracting cares, and the noise ard tumult of a city life (65-86); the mutual admiration and flattery of small poets (8-108); in contrast with which he describes the lofty aims and difficult task of the true poet (109-140). Finally, he alleges in his defence his confirmed attachment to the study of philosophy, and thence slides, in his usual happy manner, into some of his favorite precepts of wisdom, with which he closes the Epistle (141-end). This Epistle has been imitated by Pope.

2. Si-velit. The apodosis to si velit-agat is in iine 16, Des nummos. - Natum Tibure; i. e. not just imported, but born and brought up in Italy, and near Rome. -4. Ad imos talos. Comp. Sat. i., 9, 10

5. Nummorum; i. e. sestertiorum. See Harkness, 713; and Dict. Antiqq. 6. Ministeriis. Dative case. 7. Litteralis. The slavedealer cautiously uses the diminutive. The poet admirably takes off throughout the business tact of the man. 12. Meo-in aere, i. e. not alieno in aere, as aes alienum, another's money, means debt; he is poor (indeed) but he is not in debt; hence has no need of forcing his wares upon any one. -13. Temere. Comp. Epist. ii., 1, 120. · 15. Pendentis. Doubtless the whip was hung up in the hall or in some public part of the house, to strike terror into the slaves.

16. Des, etc. See above at 1. 2. These are now the words of Horace. -17. Poenae, in respect to the penalty (of the law); because he has told you the faults of the slave, and therefore you can recover no damages. 22. Rediret, in reference to an epistle in reply, for which Florus had waited in vain. -23. Mecum, i. e. in my favor. -30. Regale, i. e. of king Mithridates. The story is taken from the celebrated campaigns of Lucullus in the Third Mithridatic War, B. c. 74–67. 40. Zonam, the girdle which fastened the toga; in it the purse was kept. - 43. Athenae. The personal points touched upon in these lines (44-52) are noticed in the Life of Horace. · -44. Curvo—rectum, used in a moral sense; right from wrong. He is speaking of the Academy and of the study of philosophy, not of geometry. 47. Belli, depends upon rudem; comp., on the whole line, O. ii., 7, 9-16; Sat. i., 6, 48. 53. Quae-cicutae. Hemlock was used as a cooling medicine; expurgare sanare, heal. Now that I am in fortunate circumstances, I were mad indeed not to enjoy my repose; so mad, that no doses of hemlock, how great soever, could possibly restore me to sanity. 58-140. For course of thought see Introd. Carmine; i. e. odes, lyric poetry 60. Bioneis sermonibus; satires. Bion was a philosopher of sarcastic mood, and attached to the sect of the Cynics. 67. Sponsum -auditum. Supines; on the former comp. Sat. i., 6, 23. 68. Cubat. See n. Sat. i., 9, 18. -70. Humane. In pleasant allusion to the distance from each other of the Quirinal and Aventine, which were at opposite extremities of the city; delightfully convenient. - Verum, etc.; as if said in objection; but (you will say) &c. -71. Meditantibus.

Comp. Sat. i., 9, 2. – -72. Festinat, etc. With this description compare the more extended one of Juvenal, Sat. iii., 227 seqq. 76. I nune, etc. Comp. Epist. i., 6, 17. 78. Somno-umbra. So Juvenal, Sat. vii., 105. Sed genus ignavum, quod lecto gaudet et umbra.· 80. Contracta-vestigia. The narrow tracks; "arta, nondum imitatorum turba protrita." Mitscherlich. 81. Ingenium, etc. "A man of talent, who has studied many years in all the advantage of seclusion, often turns out unfit for authorship, and even for society; how much .ess can I deem myself fit to compose lyric poetry, amid the tumults and conflicts of city life ?"-Osborne, from Orelli. - 88. Meros;="nihil

aliud nisi, nothing but compliments." Dillenburger.

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89. Gracchas; Tiberius or Caius; both were distinguished orators. Comp. Cic. de Orat. i., 9. -Mucius; Mucius Scaevola; there were two celebrated jurists of this name. See Cic. de Amic, C. i. 91. Mirabile-opus. The flattering words of the one to the other on his new poem. Your wonderful work, wrought by the Nine Muses! Caelatum the poet borrows from a sister art. Comp. the mixed metaphor in Ars. P. 441. 94. Aedem. The temple of Apollo (see Introd. to O. i., 31.), and the library, in which were put the works and the busts of poets and other men of letters. Our poets enter, and gaze about with their minds full of the thought that here too their precious productions will find a place. 97. Caedimur. The image is taken from a gladiatorial match: we belabor one another with praises, like a pair of Samnite gladiators, who fight at a feast for the amusement of the guests, and keep battling each other till the lights are brought in. 98. Ad lumina. See n. Sat. ii., 7, 33.—This whole passage is a standing satire upon all eliques and clubs of literary men, which rest upon the basis of mutual flattery and admiration. 99. Discedo. I come off.- - 99. Puncto; suffragio, vote. At a Roman election, each citizen had a waxen tablet, like our ticket, containing the names of the candidates; he gave his vote by pricking the tablet, just opposite the name of the candidate of his choice. Afterwards, the tablets were collected and given to officers, called custodes, who checked them off, by pricking points on a larger tablet or register kept for the purpose. See Dict. Antiqq. under Tabula; comp. Ars. P. 343. - 100. Callimachus. The celebrated Alexandrian poet, who lived about в. c. 280. 101. Mimnermus. The amatory poet of Colophon; B. C. 627. Comp. Epist. i., 6, 65. 104. Mente recepta; when I have recovered my mind; i. e. gotten over the frenzy of writing poetry.- -105. Impune, i. e. without any danger of my retaliating upon them. Comp. n. Epist. i., 19, 39.- –109. At, qui. Horace now passes to a picture of the true poet. See Introd. 110. Censoris. The genuine poet will carry into his art the severe fidelity of an upright censor. The Censor had the sole charge of the lists of the Roman citizens; and, for good cause, could degrade a senator or an eques from his order, or a citizen to the rank of aerarians. Hence these expressions, parum honoris, honore indigna, movere loco, etc. 114. Intra penetralia; the inmost recess, the sanctum of the temple of Vesta, to which none might enter but the Vestals themselves; here used for the retirement of the poet's own home, in which are guarded, as it were, these cherished expressions of a hitherto unpublished work, and into which the public may not intrude. 117. Priscis. Comp. Ars. P. 50. 119. Usus. Comp. Ars. P. 71. 122. Luxuriantia, etc. The poet uses similar language in Ars. P. 446, 447. 125. Movetur, saliat; dances a Satyr, i. e. so as

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to represent a Satyr. So in Ars. P. 232, though the word is not followed by an accusative.-Horace here describes the ease of a good writer, who has the art to conceal the toil and effort which his style has cost him. 126. Praetulerim, etc. Horace really means to say, that such is his own ideal of what a poet ought to be, that he is always ill at ease, when he tries to write himself. Far better the bliss of the complacent poet, who is ignorant of what constitutes good poetry. The poet's words, together with the story that now follows, well illustrato Gray's familiar words:

"Where ignorance is bliss,
'Tis folly to be wise."

128. Ringi; used properly of dogs, when they snarl and show their teeth. -134. Signo. The seal put upon the flask. - 137. Helleboro. See Sat. ii., 3, 82; Ars. P. 300. The ancients ascribed insanity to derangement of the organs that secrete the bile; hence atra büs, μeλayxoxía, madness. The great remedy was the Hellebore of Anticyra. 141-end. See Introd.-The precepts have reference chiefly to a love of wealth (to 1. 204); then to bad passions in general.

150.

158.

Fugeres ; nolles, or recusares. (Orelli); as in O. i., 9, 13. = Libra-et aere. Purchase of property was accompanied by a form of transfer, called in the Roman law mancipatio; which was effected per aes et libram. The purchaser took hold of the thing (manu capere), and declaring, "I have bought this thing with this piece of money and these brazen scales," he struck the scales with the piece of money, and gave the latter to the seller as a symbol of the price. To the real ownership in property which was thus represented, Horace in this passage pleasantly opposes the quasi ownership which one has from the use of the property, e. g. of the produce of lands, by paying a certain 160. Orbi. The price. See Dict. Antiqq. under Mancipium. name of the real owner of the land, which, as the poet argues, is yours inasmuch as you live upon it. 166. Numerato-olim; on what was paid lately or some time ago; i. e. by you for the produce you have recently bought, or for the land itself purchased (by the owner) some time ago. 167. Emptor. "Join with quondam ; = is, qui quondam emit." Orelli. -168. Aliter; i. e. that they are not bought, but are his own. 170. Usque-quae, up to the place where. Populuslimitibus. The poplar planted on the securely fixed boundaries; populus is collective, and the whole expression describes a line of poplars, that makes a boundary about which there can be doubt.-171. Refugit. The aoristic perfect; see n. O. i., 28, 20; literally, avoids; prevents.177. Non-auro. Comp. O. ii., 18, 36. · in Tuscan bronze, of the gods; valuable, in the time of Horace, from

180. Sigilla; little images,

their antiquity. 181. Gaetulo: see n. O. ii., 16, 35.- 182. Curat; see n. O. i., 1, 4. -184. Herodis. Herod the Great, who was made king of Judea by Antony, and after the battle of Actium retained his throne, through the favor of Octavianus. Pliny, Hist. N., v. 14, speaks of the rich palm-groves of Jericho, and of the great revenues which they yielded the king.. 187. Genius. See n. O. iii., 17, 14. 190. Ex modico. Comp. Sat. i., 1, 51. –192. Et tamen, etc. The poet means, that he would be sure to preserve a true medium. Here, too, comp. Sat. i., 1, 101 seqq. -197. Quinquatribus. The Quinquatria was a festival, in honor of Minerva, which began on the 19th of March, and continued five days; it was a season of vacation for the schools. 212. Spinis, metaphorical for vitiis. -214. Lusisti, etc. The image in these lines is taken from a feast. The sense is: give up these enjoyments, that are no longer suited to your age. -215. Potum; participle; sc. te.- -216. Lasciva-actas; i. e. youth, an age which may with more propriety indulge in sport and gayety.

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